Recent Advances and Clinical Applications of PET Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Imaging

AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review was to summarize current advances in positron emission tomography (PET) cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) imaging, with a specific focus on clinical applications of novel and established tracers.Recent Findings[11C]-Meta-hydroxyephedrine (HED) has provided useful information in evaluation of normal and pathological cardiovascular function. Recently, [11C]-HED PET imaging was able to predict lethal arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death (SCD), and all-cause mortality in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). In addition, initial [11C]-HED PET imaging studies have shown the potential of this agent in elucidating the relationship between impaired cardiac sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation and the severity of diastolic dysfunction in HF patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and in predicting the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in HFrEF patients. Longer half-life18F-labeled presynaptic SNS tracers (e.g., [18F]-LMI1195) have been developed to facilitate clinical imaging, although no PET radiotracers that target the ANS have gained wide clinical use in the cardiovascular system. Although the use of parasympathetic nervous system radiotracers in cardiac imaging is limited, the novel tracer, [11C]-donepezil, has shown potential utility in initial studies.SummaryMany ANS radioligands have been synthesized for PET cardiac imaging, but to date, the most clinically relevan...
Source: Current Cardiology Reports - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

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Authors: Chiba Y, Fukushima A, Nakao M, Kobayashi Y, Ishigaki T, Tenma T, Kamiya K, Shingu Y, Ooka T, Matsui Y, Anzai T Abstract A 23-year-old man had progressive muscle weakness and Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) due to a LMNA (lamin A/C) mutation. Congestive heart failure diagnosed at 19 years of age. Maximal drug treatment/cardiac resynchronization failed to improve the cardiac function. He was therefore hospitalized due to heart failure. Despite extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, he developed severe right heart dysfunction and died (multiple organ failure). A cardiac lesion's presence determines the...
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
Studies have revealed a robust and independent correlation between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular (CV) events, including death, heart failure, and myocardial infarction. Recent clinical trials extend this range of adverse CV events, including malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Moreover, other studies point out that cardiac structural and electrophysiological changes are a common occurrence in this population. These processes are likely contributors to the heightened hazard of arrhythmias in CKD population and may be useful indicators to detect patients who are at a higher SCD...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
ez Á, Baranda-Tovar FM Abstract Atrial fibrillation is the most frequent arrhythmia in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. It is associated with heart failure, renal insufficiency, systemic embolism and increase in days of in-hospital and mortality. Atrial fibrillation in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery (FAPCC) usually appears in the first 48 h after surgery. The main mechanisms involved in the appearance and maintenance of FAPCC are the increase in sympathetic tone and the inflammatory response. The associated risk factors are advanced age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chroni...
Source: Archivos de Cardiologia de Mexico - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Arch Cardiol Mex Source Type: research
AbstractConclusive evidence demonstrates that the sympathetic nervous system activation is a hallmark of congestive heart failure. This has been shown via a variety of biochemical, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging approaches for studying human sympathetic neural function. The sympathetic activation appears to be an early phenomenon in the clinical course of the disease, closely related to its severity and potentiated by the concomitant presence of other comorbidities, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and renal failure. The adrenergic overdrive in heart failure is associated with oth...
Source: Heart Failure Reviews - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
In conclusion, these results firstly demonstrate that central chemo-ablation of the TRPV1+ afferents in spinal cord prevent heart from ventricular arrhythmias in heart failure via selectively blunting cardiac sympathetic afferent projection into spinal cord, which suggest a novel promising therapeutic method for anti-arrhythmia in heart failure. PMID: 31811858 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: European Journal of Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Eur J Pharmacol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 29 October 2019Source: Journal of Cardiology CasesAuthor(s): Masanobu Taya, Eisuke Amiya, Masaru Hatano, Hisataka Maki, Yumiko Hosoya, Junichi Ishida, Chie Bujo, Masaki Tsuji, Yuto Konishi, Kazuhiko Yokota, Nobuhiko Haga, Issei KomuroAbstractRespiratory muscle weakness is often complicated in patients with heart failure. Its presence further worsens the clinical course of heart failure. However, the effect and appropriate method of inspiratory muscle training has not previously been elucidated.A 55-year-old man with dilated cardiomyopathy was admitted for intractable heart failure. His he...
Source: Journal of Cardiology Cases - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
The risk of potentially fatal arrhythmias and conduction defects in patients with type 1 myotonic dystrophy (DM1) is well known to clinical cardiologists1-3, while the risk of heart failure (HF) is less perceived in the clinical setting. Accordingly, we have read with interest the review addressing left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) in DM1 (J Cardiac Failure August, 2019)4. Cardiologists only occasionally encounter these patients, mainly for arrhythmias (atrial or ventricular) and conduction defects3, and less commonly for HF manifestations, up to cardiogenic shock5.
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundTo evaluate whether planar123I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy predicts risk of death in heart failure (HF) patients up to 5 years after imaging.Methods and ResultsSubjects from ADMIRE-HF were followed for approximately 5 years after imaging (964 subjects, median follow-up 62.7 months). Subjects were stratified according to the heart/mediastinum (H/M) ratio (
Source: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology - Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research
Metabolic syndrome is an increasingly prevalent constellation of disease processes among the global population. Hypertension and obesity are among the contributing etiologies, and obesity increases the likelihood of hypertensive heart disease by creating a proinflammatory state, as well as increasing sympathetic tone and formation of reactive oxygen species. Hypertensive heart disease is characterized by myocardial fibrosis, which portends higher risk of developing reduced ejection fraction, diastolic dysfunction, ischemia, and arrhythmias, making early diagnosis and treatment essential to the prevention of cardiac events.
Source: Heart Failure Clinics - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: research
Background and Aims: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive muscle-wasting disease. Besides skeletal muscle degeneration, important sources of morbidity and mortality are dilated cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias and vascular dysfunction. There is substantial evidence that Tenascin C (TN-C) plays role in left ventricular (LV) remodelling and its serum levels are associated with the severity of LV dysfunction in patients with heart failure. Additionally, recent studies demonstrate that endothelial dysfunction may contribute to the progression of dilated cardiomyopathy.
Source: Atherosclerosis - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Posters 26 - 29 May, 2019 Source Type: research
More News: Arrhythmia | Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy | Cardiology | Cardiovascular | Donepezil | Heart | Heart Failure | PET Scan | Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy | Study