Novel Noninvasive Nuclear Medicine Imaging Techniques for Cardiac Inflammation

AbstractPurpose of ReviewInflammation is a key player in a wide range of cardiovascular and myocardial diseases. Given the numerous implications of inflammatory processes in disease initiation and progression, functional imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET) represent valuable diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring tools in patient management. Since increased glucose metabolism is a hallmark of inflammation, PET using the radiolabeled glucose analog [18F]-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) is the mainstay diagnostic test for nuclear imaging of (cardiac) inflammation. Recently, new approaches using more specific tracers to overcome the limited specificity of FDG have emerged.Recent FindingsPET imaging has proven its value in a number of inflammatory conditions of the heart including myocarditis, endocarditis, sarcoidosis, or reactive changes after myocardial infarction. In infection-related endocarditis, FDG-PET and white blood cell scintigraphy have been implemented in current guidelines. FDG-PET is considered as nuclear medical gold standard in myocarditis, pericarditis, or sarcoidosis. Novel strategies, including targeting of somatostatin receptors or C-X-C motif chemokine receptor CXCR4, have shown promising results in first studies.SummaryNuclear medicine techniques offer valuable information in the assessment of myocardial inflammation. Given the possibility to directly visualize inflammatory activity, they represent useful tools for diagnosis, ri...
Source: Current Cardiovascular Imaging Reports - Category: Radiology Source Type: research

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