Drosophila as a model for alcoholism: An interplay of nature and nurture

Alcohol is one of the most widely used and abused drugs in the world, with devastating medical and social consequences. The estimated prevalence of Alcohol Use Disorders is 8.5 percent in the United States, thus affecting more than 17 million Americans. The difficulty and cost of human studies have led to the development of animal models to investigate the genetic, molecular, and neural mechanisms underlying both the short- and long-term effects of ethanol. Rodent models have been most widely used and have provided important insights into these mechanisms. More recently, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been developed as a model to study the effects of ethanol. The experimental and genetic accessibility of Drosophila makes it an ideal organism to study molecular, cellular and neurobiological processes, most of which are conserved between flies and mammals. During acute ethanol exposure, adult flies exhibit locomotor hyperactivity followed by motor incoordination and sedation. Repeated ethanol exposures can induce either tolerance or sensitization in adult flies, depending on the behavioral response being measured; chronic ethanol exposure induces alcohol dependence and relapse-like behavior. In addition, flies exhibit more complex addiction-like behaviors, including a lasting attraction for a cue that predicts ethanol intoxication and a preference for consuming ethanol-containing food even if it’s made unpalatable. In addition to a discussion about the vali...
Source: Videocast - All Events - Category: Journals (General) Tags: Upcoming Events Source Type: video

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Conclusions: ADHD in patients with AD is associated with a higher frequency of PTEs and PTSD with more severe and more impairing PTSD symptoms. In alcohol-dependent patients with ADHD, regular screening for PTSD should be considered.Eur Addict Res
Source: European Addiction Research - Category: Addiction Source Type: research
Conclusion: Screened-positive ADHD is an independent predictor of late SU and AUD, along with self-reported CD and SS. From a public health perspective, identifying ADHD is not only important in childhood and adolescence but also in early adulthood to guide specific interventions to lower risks of drug use initiation and the development of AUD in early adulthood.Eur Addict Res
Source: European Addiction Research - Category: Addiction Source Type: research
AbstractIndigenous communities lack representation in psychiatric epidemiology despite disproportionate exposure to risk factors. We document the cumulative and 12-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders across the early life course among a sample of Indigenous young adults and compare prospective and retrospective reporting of lifetime mental disorders. This community-based participatory research includes data from 735 Indigenous people from 8 reservations/reserves. Personal interviews were conducted between 2002 –2010 and 2017–2018 totaling 9 waves; diagnostic assessments of DSM-IV-TR alcohol abuse/dependen...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - Category: Addiction Source Type: research
The word “bipolar” has become colloquially associated with anything that changes rapidly or is unpredictable: the weather, technology, sports teams, politics, or even a teenager’s attitude. But for roughly 46 million people worldwide, being “bipolar” is far more serious than typical unpredictability, mood swings, or temperamental behavior. And, when bipolar disorder is complicated by substance use disorder (SUD), the situation can become incredibly dangerous for the individual and those around them. Recognizing the symptoms of bipolar and the complicating factors of substance use disorder is c...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Addiction Alcoholism Bipolar Recovery Substance Abuse Addiction Recovery Bipolar Disorder Detox Dual Diagnosis World Bipolar Day Source Type: blogs
DiscussionAll cases were females with long-standing B/P type AN, often with multiple purging behaviors, other impulsive and non-impulsive comorbidities, and many environmental vulnerabilities. Different motivations were found for these extreme behaviors in addition to ED-related factors, mostly not related to suicide. The severity of the medical and psychological condition required multimodal medical and psychological inpatient interventions. The patients mostly did not comply with their treatment, showing considerable indifference to their grave medical condition.
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
While recreational marijuana is legal in 11 states as of November 2019, more states gravitating toward legalizing the recreational use of the substance, and 33 states allowing medical marijuana, there’s apparently no stopping this trend. Cannabis, in the form of marijuana, hemp, and cannabidiol (CBD)  is being used for pain relief, to alleviate stress, cope with anxiety, and a number of other mental health disorders and addictions. Yet, there’s a dearth of clinical studies that have been conducted on the overall effects on a user’s health. Clearly, as Crain’s Detroit Business points out, more ...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: Medications Substance Abuse Cannabis Marijuana Source Type: blogs
Conclusion: Fun seeking on the BAS and frustration intolerance should be considered as targets in prevention and intervention programs for IA among adolescents with ADHD.IntroductionThe negative effects of internet addiction (IA) have become a concern in the past decades. IA is characterized by persistent internet use despite negative consequences, loss of control, preoccupation with internet use, increasing amounts of time spent online, and withdrawal symptoms (1). Internet gaming disorders are listed in the “Conditions for Further Study” section in the Fifth Edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Men...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Does Prenatal Stress Shape Postnatal Resilience? – An Epigenome-Wide Study on Violence and Mental Health in Humans Fernanda Serpeloni1,2, Karl M. Radtke1,3, Tobias Hecker4, Johanna Sill1, Vanja Vukojevic5, Simone G. de Assis2, Maggie Schauer1, Thomas Elbert1 and Daniel Nätt6* 1Clinical Psychology and Neuropsychology, Department of Psychology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany 2Department of Studies in Violence and Health Jorge Careli, National School of Public Health of Rio de Janeiro – National Institute of Women, Children and Adolescents Health Fernandes Figueira, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, ...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
What is a Crystal Meth Addiction? Crystal meth is the name for the street drug crystal methamphetamine. Crystal meth can also be known as ice or glass, and it can be either snorted, smoked or dissolved and injected. It is a very strong and highly addictive drug. It affects the central nervous system, and crystal meth addiction has dangerous life-threatening effects. Understanding Crystal Meth Crystal meth is a man-made stimulant drug that has no legal use. It is made with methamphetamine, pseudoephedrine and a combination of other chemicals. Methamphetamine has been around for a long time, originally created to keep soldie...
Source: Cliffside Malibu - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Addiction Drug Treatment Methamphetamines Substance Abuse crystal methamphetamine meth addiction Source Type: blogs
(University of Barcelona) Some variations in the gene LPHN3-associated with the attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in kids and adults -- could favor likelihood to smoke, consume alcohol, cannabis and other addictive substances, according to an article published in the journal Translational Psychiatry, from the Nature Publishing Group.
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
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