Cluster of atypical adult Guillain-Barr é syndrome temporally associated with neurological illness due to EV-D68 in children, South Wales, United Kingdom, October 2015 to January 2016.

We report a cluster of atypical Guillain-Barré syndrome in 10 adults temporally related to a cluster of four children with acute flaccid paralysis, over a 3-month period in South Wales, United Kingdom. All adult cases were male, aged between 24 and 77 years. Seven had prominent facial diplegia at onset. Available electrophysiological studies showed axonal involvement in five adults. Seven reported various forms of respiratory disease before onset of neurological symptoms. The ages of children ranged from one to 13 years, three of the four were two years old or younger. Enterovirus testing is available for three children; two had evidence of enterovirus D68 infection in stool or respiratory samples. We describe the clinical features, epidemiology and state of current investigations for these unusual clusters of illness. PMID: 26848143 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Source: Euro Surveill - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

Related Links:

Carter Roberts’ motorized wheelchair didn’t arrive until the day he died. It had been a long time coming and his parents had fought hard to get it. The chair cost more than $32,000 and the insurance companies wouldn’t cover it, so the family went to court. One insurer eventually agreed to pay for some components of the chair but not the whole thing. And then none of it mattered anyway. On Sept. 22, 2018, the Roberts’ doorbell rang and the chair was delivered. Also on Sept. 22, 2018, Carter died, just three months shy of his sixth birthday. He had been largely paralyzed for the final two years of his...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Infectious Disease viruses Source Type: news
Conclusion: This review presents the current knowledge on acute flaccid myelitis with respect to the clinical presentation and its differential diagnosis with Guillain-Barr é syndrome and acute transverse myelitis. We also discuss the association with enterovirus D68 and the presumed pathophysiological mechanism of this infection causing anterior horn cell damage. Sharing clinical knowledge and insights from basic research is needed to make progress in diagnosis, trea tment, and prevention of this new polio-like disease.What is Known:•Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is a polio-like condition characterized by rapid...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated ATA as a potential antiviral drug against ZIKV replication. The antiviral activity of ATA against ZIKV replication in vitro showed median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 13.87 ± 1.09 μM and 33.33 ± 1.13 μM in Vero and A549 cells, respectively; without showing any cytotoxic effect in both cell lines (median cytotoxic concentration (CC50)> 1,000 μM). Moreover, ATA protected both cell types from ZIKV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) and apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, pre-treatment of Vero cells with ATA for up to 72 h also resulted...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) was increasingly detected in recent years, coinciding with upsurges of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infections. We reviewed the evidence for a causal relationship between both. Based on reported cases, we provide case definitions for AFM caused by EV-D68 infections to enable a standard procedure for affected patients. Current case definitions are focussing on epidemiological aspects but clinical case definitions are still missing. We propose the following case definitions to be used in clinical practice in order to mirror clinical realities and facilitate a common systematic appro...
Source: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Eur J Paediatr Neurol Source Type: research
This study describes AFP surveillance in Spain from 1998 to 2015. During this time, 678 AFP cases were reported to the Spanish National Surveillance Network. The mean notification rate was 0.58 AFP cases/100,000 population under 15 years old (range: 0.45/100,000-0.78/100,000). Two periods (P) are described: P1 (1998-2006) with the AFP notification rate ranging from 0.66/100,000 to 0.78/100,000, peaking in 2001 (0.84/100,000); and P2 (2007-2015) when the AFP rate ranged from 0.43/100,000 to 0.57/100,000, with the lowest rate in 2009 (0.31/100,000). No poliomyelitis cases were caused by wild PV infections, although two Sabin...
Source: Euro Surveill - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research
This study showed that laboratory markers of recent infection by dengue, Zika or chikungunya arboviruses were detected in the biological samples of approximately one-third of patients with encephalitis, myelitis, encephalomyelitis or Guillain-Barré syndrome, in a surveillance programme in Piauí state, Brazil, between 2015-2016. Fever and myalgia had been associated with these cases. Since in non-tropical countries most infections or parainfectious diseases associated with the nervous system are attributed to herpesviruses, enteroviruses, and Campylobacter jejuni, the present findings indicate that in tropical...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The present cohort shows that it was not possible to establish a causal relationship between GBS and Zika virus, but other viral and bacterial causal agents were identified, such as dengue, chikungunya and enterovirus, with the identification of Campylobacter cases even more remarkable. PMID: 30183060 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Revista de Neurologia - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Rev Neurol Source Type: research
Conclusions: True association of the disease withCampylobacter spp. will enable the proportion ofCampylobacter-induced GBS to be better described in South Africa; this can only be done through systematic studies that include bacterial culture and serology together with molecular methodologies.
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
This article reviews bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic pathogens associated with myelopathy. Infectious myelopathies may be due to direct infection or parainfectious autoimmune-mediated mechanisms; this article focuses primarily on the former. RECENT FINDINGS Some microorganisms exhibit neurotropism for the spinal cord (eg, enteroviruses such as poliovirus and flaviviruses such as West Nile virus), while others are more protean in neurologic manifestations (eg, herpesviruses such as varicella-zoster virus), and others are only rarely reported to cause myelopathy (eg, certain fungal and parasitic infections). Indiv...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research
We report a case of acute segmental flaccid paralysis with respiratory involvement in an adult in the UK, with enterovirus D68 detected in a sputum sample. MR imaging of cervical spinal cord showed a longitudinally extensive T2 hyperintensity in the anterior cord. Cerebrospinal fluid showed an elevated white cell count, predominantly lymphocytic, with otherwise normal constituents and negative viral PCRs. His respiratory function improved after intravenous immunoglobulin, suggesting that this may be useful in such cases. Clinicians should consider enterovirus D68 infection in the differential diagnosis of Guillain-Barr&eac...
Source: Practical Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Pract Neurol Source Type: research
More News: Children | Enterovirus | Epidemiology | Guillain-Barr Syndrome | Infectious Diseases | Neurology | Respiratory Medicine | Study | UK Health