Drug for digestive problem can extend survival for many advanced cancer patients

Advanced cancer patients given a drug designed to relieve constipation caused by pain killers lived longer with less tumor progression than those who did not receive or respond to the drug, researchers report. This is the first study in humans to associate opioid blockade with longer survival. It suggests that methylnaltrexone, approved in 2008 for prevention of opioid-induced constipation, should play a larger role in cancer therapy.
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - Category: Science Source Type: news

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Authors: Lang-Illievich K, Bornemann-Cimenti H Abstract Pain therapy often entails gastrointestinal adverse events. While opioids are effective drugs for pain relief, the incidence of opioid-induced constipation (OIC) varies greatly from 15% to as high as 81%. This can lead to a significant impairment in quality of life, often resulting in discontinuation of opioid therapy. In this regard, a good doctor-patient relationship is especially pivotal when initiating opioid therapy. In addition to a detailed history of bowel habits, patient education regarding the possible gastrointestinal side effects of the drugs is cr...
Source: Korean Journal of Pain - Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Korean J Pain Source Type: research
A 64-YEAR-OLD, 70-kg, 170-cm man presented to the emergency department of the authors ’ institution with acute onset of nausea, vomiting, and diffuse abdominal pain. The patient denied fever, chills, weight loss, heartburn, dysphagia, hematemesis, melena, hematochezia, constipation, abdominal distention, and urinary symptoms. He stated that he had been well until the morning of adm ission. The patient's medical history was notable for gastric cancer that was initially treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (consisting of folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin) and radiation therapy (total of 45 Gy in divided do...
Source: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Diagnostic Dilemma Source Type: research
Abstract On November 21, 2018, the Food and Drug Administration approved glasdegib (Daurismo; Pfizer, New York, NY), a small molecule Hedgehog inhibitor, in combination with low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) for treatment of newly-diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in adults ≥ 75 years or with comorbidities that preclude use of intensive induction chemotherapy. Evidence of clinical benefit came from Study BRIGHT AML 1003, a randomized trial comparing glasdegib+LDAC to LDAC alone for treatment of newly-diagnosed AML in 115 patients either ≥ 75 years old or ≥ 55 years old with pre-existing comorbidities. Effic...
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
This study was carried out in accordance with approval of the Melbourne Health and Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research's Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number: 2013.081). All subjects gave written informed consent for participation and publication. Results and Discussion TGF-β signaling in NK cells is associated with: phosphorylation in SMAD2 and 3, inhibition of IL-15-induced metabolism/proliferation, simultaneous downregulation of CD44, CD49e, and Eomes, and upregulation of CD16 and CD49a expression (7, 10). SMAD family member 4 (SMAD4) belongs to the SMAD family of transcription...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Karin Meissner1,2*, Nicola Talsky1, Elisabeth Olliges1,2, Carmen Jacob1,3,4, Oliver J. Stötzer5, Christoph Salat5, Michael Braun6 and Raluca Flondor1 1Institute of Medical Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany 2Division of Health Promotion, Coburg University of Applied Sciences, Coburg, Germany 3Clinical Neurosciences, Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom 4Wessex Neurological Centre, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, United Kingdom 5Haematology and Oncology, Outpatient Cancer Ca...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusions: This study demonstrated a rapid improvement of many symptoms in the subacute post-operative period in pituitary tumor patients. Disturbed sleep was identified as the only symptom to worsen post-operatively, encouraging potential prospective interventions to improve sleep, and subsequently improve the QOL in pituitary tumor patients following surgical intervention. Introduction Pituitary tumors are relatively rare primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors in adults (1) but make up 10% of all neurosurgical interventions in the United States (2). They are often an incidental finding in autopsies and brain...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In conclusion, the site of action of σ1R for opioid modulation on acute thermal nociception is located at the peripheral and supraspinal levels, and the opioid-potentiating effect is independent of the spinal noradrenaline increase produced by S1RA. Introduction The sigma-1 receptor (σ1R) has been described as the first ligand-regulated molecular chaperone located at the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membranes whose activity is regulated in an agonist-antagonist manner. The σ1R is expressed in key areas for pain control and there is cumulative evidence supporting an involvement of the σ1R...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
WASHINGTON (AP) — U.S. health regulators on Tuesday halted sales of a type of surgical mesh used to repair pelvic conditions in women, following years of patients’ reports of injuries and complications from the implants. The Food and Drug Administration ordered the two remaining makers of the mesh — Boston Scientific and Coloplast — to stop selling it immediately, saying the companies failed to show the mesh is safe for long-term use. Several other major manufacturers, including Johnson &Johnson, previously stopped making the mesh. The FDA action does not apply to surgical mesh used to treat oth...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Boston News Health Boston Scientific FDA Source Type: news
DiscussionRecent evidence suggests that intravenous lidocaine can lead to opioid sparing and chronic postsurgical pain reduction for certain types of surgery. This is the first trial to prospectively investigate the efficacy and safety of intravenous lidocaine in major head and neck cancer surgery.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov,NCT02894710. Registered on 11 August 2016.
Source: Trials - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
How Bad Is Fentanyl? Fentanyl is an extremely dangerous synthetic opioid. Unlike some other opioids that occur naturally, it is man-made for the purpose of helping aid people suffering from extreme pain. It can be administered for recovery after surgery, during cancer treatments or for recovery after a painful injury. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) classifies fentanyl as a Schedule II controlled substance. This means that it is legal for medical use, however, it has an extremely high potential for abuse and addiction. Understanding Fentanyl Significantly stronger than morphine or oxycodone, Fentanyl can be fatal...
Source: Cliffside Malibu - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Addiction Addiction to Pharmaceuticals Drug Rehab Information Drug Treatment Heroin Painkiller Substance Abuse Synthetic fentanyl prescription drug abuse prescription drug addiction prescription drug detox prescription drug use p Source Type: blogs
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