Molecular markers for colorectal cancer screening

Colorectal cancer (CRC), although a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, has seen a declining incidence and mortality in countries with programmatic screening. Faecal occult blood testing and endoscopic approaches are the predominant screening methods currently. The discovery of the adenoma–carcinoma sequence and a greater understanding of the genetic and epigenetic changes that drive the formation of CRC have contributed to innovative research to identify molecular markers for highly accurate, non-invasive screening tests for CRC. DNA, proteins, messenger RNA and micro-RNA have all been evaluated. The observation of tumour cell exfoliation into the mucocellular layer of the colonic epithelium and proven stability of DNA in a harsh stool environment make stool DNA a particularly promising marker. The development of a clinically useful stool DNA test has required numerous technical advances, including optimisation in DNA stabilisation, the development of assays with high analytical sensitivity, and the identification of specific and broadly informative molecular markers. A multitarget stool DNA test, which combines mutant and methylated DNA markers and a faecal immunochemical test, recently performed favourably in a large cross-sectional validation study and has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the screening of asymptomatic, average-risk individuals. The ultimate way in which molecular marker screening assays will be used in cli...
Source: Gut - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: GUT Recent advances in clinical practice, Colon cancer Source Type: research

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Abstract Stimuli-responsive liposomes are promising drug carriers for cancer treatment because they enable controlled drug release and the maintenance of desired drug concentrations in tumor tissue. In particular, near-IR (NIR) light is a useful stimulus for triggering drug release from liposomes based on its advantages such as deep tissue penetration and safety. Previously, we found that a silicon phthalocyanine derivative, IR700, conjugated to antibodies, can induce the rupture of the cell membrane following irradiation by NIR light. Based on this finding, we constructed IR700-modified liposomes (IR700 liposomes...
Source: Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Biol Pharm Bull Source Type: research
Authors: Kim MY Abstract Induction of apoptosis in human cancer cells by Sasa quelpaertensis Nakai has been considered to be a potential therapeutic target for cancer treatment; however, the underlying mechanisms of action are not well understood. The present study investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO•) and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) during apoptosis induced by Sasa quelpaertensis Nakai extracts (SQE) in p53-wild type (WT) and p53-null HCT116 colon carcinoma cells. Trypan blue exclusion and Annexin V/propidium iodide assays were used to test for antiproliferation, and apoptosis and cell cycle. Griess ...
Source: Oncology Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Lett Source Type: research
o Gangemi The human microbiota is made up of the fungi, bacteria, protozoa and viruses cohabiting within the human body. An altered microbiota can provoke diseases such as cancer. The mechanisms by which a modified microbiota can intervene in the onset and progression of neoplastic diseases are manifold. For instance, these include the effects on the immune system and the onset of obesity. A different mechanism seems to be constituted by the continuous and bidirectional relationships existing between microbiota and miRNAs. MiRNAs emerged as a novel group of small endogenous non-coding RNAs from that control gene expres...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
AbstractCleavage of the MUC1 glycoprotein yields two subunits, an extracellular alpha-subunit bound to a smaller transmembrane beta-subunit. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the MUC1 alpha –beta junction comprising the SEA domain, a stable cell-surface moiety, were generated. Sequencing of all seven anti-SEA domain mAbs showed that they clustered into four groups and sequences of all groups are presented here. mAb DMB5F3 with picomolar affinity for the MUC1 SEA target was selected f or further evaluation. Immunohistochemical staining of a series of malignancies with DMB5F3 including lung, prostate, breas...
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
DR DANIEL ALBO (Augusta, GA): There is a significant shift in the presentation of colorectal cancer in population-based studies. Currently, 3 of 10 rectal cancers are actually diagnosed before the age of 50 years. I noticed that you focused your study on colon cancer patients. Did you notice a significant number of these patients who present with rectal disease as a primary site, in particular, the carcinomatosis data set? Those are known to have an even more aggressive prognostic factor of outcomes.
Source: Journal of the American College of Surgeons - Category: Surgery Tags: Southern surgical association article Source Type: research
To evaluate the expression of immune checkpoint genes, their concordance with expression of IFNγ, and to identify potential novel ICP related genes (ICPRG) in colorectal cancer (CRC), the biological connectivity of six well documented (“classical”) ICPs (CTLA4, PD1, PDL1, Tim3, IDO1, and LAG3) with IFNγ and its co-expressed genes was examined by NGS in 79 CRC/healthy colon tissue pairs. Identification of novel IFNγ- induced molecules with potential ICP activity was also sought. In our study, the six classical ICPs were statistically upregulated and correlated with IFNγ, CD8A, CD8B, CD4, ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Alterations in the extracellular matrix (ECM) likely facilitate the first steps of cancer cell metastasis and supports tumor progression. Recent data has demonstrated that alterations in collagen XVII (BP180), a transmembrane protein and structural component of the ECM, can have profound effects on cancer invasiveness. Collagen XVII is a homotrimer of three α1 (XVII) chains. Its intracellular domain contains binding sites for plectin, integrin β4, and BP230, while the extracellular domain facilitates interactions between the cell and the ECM. Collagen XVII and its shed ectodomain have been implicated in cell mot...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Abstract We establish a near-infrared two-photon fluorescent probe for the detection of CE2 with high selectivity and sensitivity. This probe exhibits low cytotoxicity and superior tissue penetration ability for evaluating the real-time activity of CE2 in living cells, in cancer tissues, and in a colon carcinoma mice model. PMID: 32186556 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Chemical Communications - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chem Commun (Camb) Source Type: research
Lorenzo Mortara Human RNASET2 acts as a powerful oncosuppressor protein in in vivo xenograft-based murine models of human cancer. Secretion of RNASET2 in the tumor microenvironment seems involved in tumor suppression, following recruitment of M1-polarized macrophages. Here, we report a murine Rnaset2-based syngeneic in vivo assay. BALB/c mice were injected with parental, empty vector-transfected or murine Rnaset2-overexpressing mouse C51 or TS/A syngeneic cells and tumor growth pattern and immune cells distribution in tumor mass were investigated. Compared to control cells, mouse Rnaset2-expressing C51 cells showed s...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Identifying the early-stage colon adenocarcinoma (ECA) patients who have lower risk cancer vs. the higher risk cancer could improve disease prognosis. Our study aimed to explore whether the glandular morpholog...
Source: Journal of Translational Medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
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