Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors for Kidney and Bladder Cancer: Adrenotoxic Consequences

Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a described potential treatment toxicity with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). The presenting symptoms of AI are often non-specific and common symptoms of metastatic cancer. They include fatigue, loss of appetite, weight loss, nausea, abdominal pain, and muscle pain.1 This often leads to a delay in diagnosis until patients are hospitalized with an adrenal crisis.2 Of note, AI may occur due to a primary autoimmune response as well as secondary to pituitary failure or hypophysitis/hypopituitarism.
Source: Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Source Type: research