Malnutrition in cirrhosis: More food for thought.
Authors: Chapman B, Sinclair M, Gow PJ, Testro AG Abstract Malnutrition is highly prevalent in liver cirrhosis and its presence carries important prognostic implications. The clinical conditions and pathophysiological mechanisms that cause malnutrition in cirrhosis are multiple and interrelated. Anorexia and liver decompensation symptoms lead to poor dietary intake; metabolic changes characterised by elevated energy expenditure, reduced glycogen storage, an accelerated starvation response and protein catabolism result in muscle and fat wasting; and, malabsorption renders the cirrhotic patient unable to fully absorb...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - December 16, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Paraneoplastic syndromes in cholangiocarcinoma.
Authors: Rahman SU, Sana MK, Tahir Z, Ali A, Shah PA Abstract Paraneoplastic syndromes are the symptoms or signs which result from damage to tissues that are distant from the site of malignancy, due to complex interactions between the body's immune system and malignant neoplasm. Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive epithelial malignancy of hepatobiliary tree and it is found to be associated with various paraneoplastic syndromes. These syndromes can present as dermatological, neurological, renal, hematological, or multi-systemic manifestations. Clinical suspicion and timely recognition of these syndromes can le...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - December 16, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Noninvasive scores for the prediction of esophageal varices and risk stratification in patients with cirrhosis.
Authors: Bangaru S, Benhammou JN, Tabibian JH Abstract The primary purpose of variceal screening in patients with cirrhosis is to detect gastroesophageal varices at high risk of hemorrhage and implement preventative intervention(s). It was previously recommended that all patients with cirrhosis undergo initial and periodic longitudinal variceal screening via upper endoscopy. However, there has been growing interest and methods to identify patients with cirrhosis who may not have clinically significant portal hypertension and therefore be unlikely to have varices requiring intervention or benefit from upper endoscop...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - December 16, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Natremia and liver transplantation: The right amount of salt for a good recipe.
Authors: Lenci I, Milana M, Grassi G, Signorello A, Aglitti A, Baiocchi L Abstract An adequate balance between electrolytes and clear water is of paramount importance to maintaining physiologic homeostasis. Natremia imbalance and, in particular, hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte abnormality observed in hospitalized subjects, involving approximately one-fourth of them. Pathological changes occurring during liver cirrhosis predispose patients to an increased risk of sodium imbalance, and hypervolemic hyponatremia has been reported in nearly 50% of subjects with severe liver disease and ascites. Splan...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - December 16, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Inhibition of vascular adhesion protein-1 modifies hepatic steatosis in vitro and in vivo.
CONCLUSION: Our data confirm that the elevations in hepatic VAP-1 expression reported in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis can contribute to steatosis, metabolic disturbance and inflammation. This suggests that targeting the semicarbazide sensitive amine oxidase capacity of VAP-1 may represent a useful adjunct to other therapeutic strategies in NAFLD. PMID: 33312420 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - December 16, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Aceclofenac-induced hepatotoxicity: An ameliorative effect of Terminalia bellirica fruit and ellagic acid.
CONCLUSION: Ellagic acid and T. bellirica fruit extracts exhibited considerable hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities in long-term ACF-treated rats. PMID: 33312421 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - December 16, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Obeticholic acid attenuates human immunodeficiency virus/alcohol metabolism-induced pro-fibrotic activation in liver cells.
CONCLUSION: We conclude that by suppressing oxidative stress and restoring proteasomal and lysosomal functions impaired by HIV and ethanol metabolism, OCA decreases accumulation of HIV in hepatocytes, leading to down-regulation of apoptosis in these cells. In addition, OCA reverses pro-fibrotic and inflammasome-related activation of HSC triggered by engulfment of HIV-containing apoptotic hepatocytes, potentially contributing to suppression of liver fibrosis development. PMID: 33312422 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - December 16, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Screening and identification of bioactive compounds from citrus against non-structural protein 3 protease of hepatitis C virus genotype 3a by fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay and mass spectrometry.
CONCLUSION: Fused NS4A-NS3 protease is functionally more active, which is effectively inhibited by hesperidin from the grapefruit mesocarp extract with an IC50 value of 23.32 µmol/L. PMID: 33312423 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - December 16, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Cannabis use history is associated with increased prevalence of ascites among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A nationwide analysis.
CONCLUSION: Cannabis was associated with higher rates of ascites, but there was no statistical difference in the prevalence of portal hypertension, varices and variceal bleeding, and cirrhosis. PMID: 33312424 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - December 16, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Phase angle and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease before and after bariatric surgery.
CONCLUSION: PA decreased after bariatric surgery, with a direct correlation with weight loss and changes in body composition. The decrease in PA was not correlated with the improvement in NAFLD. PMID: 33312425 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - December 16, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Factors associated with 5-year survival of combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma.
Authors: Sempokuya T, Wien EA, Pattison RJ, Ma J, Wong LL Abstract BACKGROUND: Combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma (HCC/CC) is a rare primary hepatic malignancy which carries a poor prognosis due to its aggressive nature. Few centers have enough cases to draw definitive conclusions and there is limited understanding of prognosis. Given the rarity of HCC/CC, an analysis of large national cancer database was needed to obtain larger number of HCC/CC cases. AIM: To identify associated factors for 5-year survival of HCC/CC. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of The Surveillance, Epidemiology,...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - December 16, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Circulating miR-21-5p level has limited prognostic value in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and is influenced by renal function.
CONCLUSION: The results from this work do not support clinically relevant prognostic value of circulating miR-21 in HCC patients in real-life settings. Following systematic evaluation, we identified renal function and aspartate aminotransferase as potential factors that may affect miR-21 concentration in blood. This knowledge should be considered in future miRNA-based biomarker studies not only for HCC but also for other diseases. PMID: 33312427 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - December 16, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Real impact of tumor marker AFP and PIVKA-II in detecting very small hepatocellular carcinoma ( ≤ 2 cm, Barcelona stage 0) - assessment with large number of cases.
CONCLUSION: In the surveillance of very small HCC nodules (≤ 2 cm in diameter, Barcelona clinical stage 0) the tumor markers AFP and PIVKA-II are not so useful. PMID: 33312428 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - December 16, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Non-invasive splenic parameters of portal hypertension: Assessment and utility.
Authors: Ahmad AK, Atzori S, Maurice J, Taylor-Robinson SD, Lim AK Abstract BACKGROUND: Portal hypertension is a major complication of cirrhosis that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The present gold-standard method to risk stratify and observe cirrhosis patients with portal hypertension is hepatic venous pressure gradient measurement or esophagogastroduodenoscopy. However, these methods are invasive, carry a risk of complications and are associated with significant patient discomfort. Therefore, non-invasive splenic parameters are of clinical interest as potential useful markers in determini...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - December 16, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Outcome of gastric antral vascular ectasia and related anemia after orthotopic liver transplantation.
CONCLUSION: Although GAVE and associated anemia completely resolved in the majority of our patients after OLT, GAVE persisted in a few patients after transplant. Further studies in a large group of patients are necessary to understand the causality of disease and to better understand the factors associated with the persistence of GAVE post-transplant. PMID: 33312430 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - December 16, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B core-related antigen kinetics after adding pegylated-interferon to nucleos(t)ids analogues in hepatitis B e antigen-negative patients.
Authors: Broquetas T, Garcia-Retortillo M, Micó M, Canillas L, Puigvehí M, Cañete N, Coll S, Viu A, Hernandez JJ, Bessa X, Carrión JA Abstract BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B patients under nucleos(t)ids analogues (NAs) rarely achieve hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss. AIM: To evaluate if the addition of pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) could decrease HBsAg and hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) levels and increase HBsAg loss rate in patients under NAs therapy. METHODS: Prospective, non-randomized, open-label trial evaluating the combina...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - December 16, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Occurrence of seeding metastases in resectable perihilar cholangiocarcinoma and the role of low-dose radiotherapy to prevent this.
CONCLUSION: The incidence of seeding metastases in patients with resected PHC in our series was low (1.2%). This low incidence and the inability of providing evidence that preoperative low-dose RT prevents seeding metastases, has led us to discontinue preoperative RT in patients with resectable PHC in our center. PMID: 33312432 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - December 16, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Metalloproteinase expression after desflurane preconditioning in hepatectomies: A randomized clinical trial.
Authors: Koraki E, Mantzoros I, Chatzakis C, Gkiouliava A, Cheva A, Lavrentieva A, Sifaki F, Argiriadou H, Kesisoglou I, Galanos-Demiris K, Bitsianis S, Tsalis K Abstract BACKGROUND: Hepatectomy with inflow occlusion results in ischemia-reperfusion injury; however, pharmacological preconditioning can prevent such injury and optimize the postoperative recovery of hepatectomized patients. The normal inflammatory response after a hepatectomy involves increased expression of metalloproteinases, which may signal pathologic hepatic tissue reformation. AIM: To investigate the effect of desflurane preconditioning on th...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - December 16, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Clinical utility of viscoelastic testing in chronic liver disease: A systematic review.
Authors: Wei H, Child LJ Abstract BACKGROUND: Conventional coagulation tests are widely used in chronic liver disease to assess haemostasis and to guide blood product transfusion. This is despite the fact that conventional tests do not reliably separate those with a clinically significant coagulopathy from those who do not. Viscoelastic testing such as thromboelastography (TEG) correlate with bleeding risk and are more accurate in identifying those who will benefit from blood product transfusion. Despite this, viscoelastic tests have not been widely used in patients with chronic liver disease outside the transplant...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - December 16, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Hepatocellular carcinoma with tumor thrombus extends to the right atrium and portal vein: A case report.
CONCLUSION: HCC with TT expansion to IVC and RA is rare and indicates poor prognosis. There is no consensus about anticoagulation or other interventions in these patients. PMID: 33312435 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - December 16, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Neoadjuvant treatment strategies for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Authors: Akateh C, Ejaz AM, Pawlik TM, Cloyd JM Abstract Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second most common primary liver malignancy and is increasing in incidence. Long-term outcomes are optimized when patients undergo margin-negative resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of patients present with locally advanced, unresectable disease. Furthermore, recurrence rates are high even among patients who undergo surgical resection. The delivery of systemic and/or liver-directed therapies prior to surgery may increase the proportion of patients who are eligible f...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - November 19, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Metabolic syndrome and liver disease in the era of bariatric surgery: What you need to know!
Authors: Ziogas IA, Zapsalis K, Giannis D, Tsoulfas G Abstract Metabolic syndrome (MS) is defined as the constellation of obesity, insulin resistance, high serum triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high blood pressure. It increasingly affects more and more people and progressively evolves into a serious issue with widespread healthcare, cost, and quality of life associated consequences. MS is associated with increased morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular or chronic liver disease. Conservative treatment, which includes diet, exercise, and antidiabetic agents, is the mainstay of trea...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - November 19, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Combined liver-kidney transplantation for rare diseases.
Authors: Knotek M, Novak R, Jaklin-Kekez A, Mrzljak A Abstract Combined liver and kidney transplantation (CLKT) is indicated in patients with failure of both organs, or for the treatment of end-stage chronic kidney disease (ESKD) caused by a genetic defect in the liver. The aim of the present review is to provide the most up-to-date overview of the rare conditions as indications for CLKT. They are major indications for CLKT in children. However, in some of them (e.g., atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome or primary hyperoxaluria), CLKT may be required in adults as well. Primary hyperoxaluria is divided into three typ...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - November 19, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Hepatocellular carcinoma Liver Imaging Reporting and Data Systems treatment response assessment: Lessons learned and future directions.
Authors: Aslam A, Do RKG, Kambadakone A, Spieler B, Miller FH, Gabr AM, Charalel RA, Kim CY, Madoff DC, Mendiratta-Lala M Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with rising clinical and economic burden as incidence increases. There are a multitude of evolving treatment options, including locoregional therapies which can be used alone, in combination with each other, or in combination with systemic therapy. These treatment options have shown to be effective in achieving remission, controlling tumor progression, improving disease free and overall survival in p...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - November 19, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Tumor necrosis family receptor superfamily member 9/tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 pathway on hepatitis C viral persistence and natural history.
In conclusion, TRAF1 dynamics on T cells define a new pathogenic model that describes some aspects of the natural history of HCV, and sheds light on novel immunotherapy strategies for chronic viral infections and cancer. PMID: 33200014 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - November 19, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Apatinib as an alternative therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.
This article intends to review the clinical research and application prospects of apatinib in the field of HCC. PMID: 33200015 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - November 19, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Hepatitis B virus detected in paper currencies in a densely populated city of India: A plausible source of horizontal transmission?
CONCLUSION: It is a common practice in the Indian subcontinent to count paper currencies by applying saliva on fingertips. Paper notes may be a potential source of "horizontal" transmission of this virus, especially if there are cuts/bruises on the oral mucous membrane or skin, but it was practically not possible to demonstrate experimentally such transmission. Detection of potentially intact/viable and "occult" HBV from currency poses potential risk of silent transmission of this virus among the general population. PMID: 33200016 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - November 19, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 polymorphisms in Brazilian patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Authors: Lisboa QC, Nardelli MJ, Pereira PA, Miranda DM, Ribeiro SN, Costa RSN, Versiani CA, Vidigal PVT, Ferrari TCA, Couto CA Abstract BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming the most common chronic liver disease worldwide, with significant morbidity associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Genome-wide association studies demonstrated that the variants rs738409 C/G in the PNPLA3 and rs58542926 C/T in the TM6SF2 genes are determinants of inter-individual and ethnicity-related differences in hepatic fat content and NAFLD progression. AIM: To investigate PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 gen...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - November 19, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Impact of sarcopenia on mortality in patients undergoing liver re-transplantation.
Authors: Dhaliwal A, Larson D, Hiat M, Muinov LM, Harrison WL, Sayles H, Sempokuya T, Olivera MA, Rochling FA, McCashland TM Abstract BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia, which is a loss of skeletal muscle mass, has been reported to increase post-transplant mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing the first liver transplant. Cross-sectional imaging modalities typically determine sarcopenia in patients with cirrhosis by measuring core abdominal musculatures. However, there is limited evidence for sarcopenia related outcomes in patients undergoing liver re-transplantation (re-OLT). AIM: To evaluate the risk of mortality...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - November 19, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Increased incidence of and microbiologic changes in pyogenic liver abscesses in the Mexican population.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of PLA is increasing in Mexico and has a very high mortality rate. ESBL-Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the most common microorganisms causing PLA and are independent predictors of inpatient mortality. PMID: 33200019 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - November 19, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Malnutrition and non-compliance to nutritional recommendations in patients with cirrhosis are associated with a lower survival.
Authors: Crisan D, Procopet B, Epure A, Stefanescu H, Suciu A, Fodor A, Mois E, Craciun R, Crisan N Abstract BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is frequently encountered in patients with cirrhosis and appears to significantly impact their prognosis. While evaluating the burden of malnutrition in cirrhosis is gathering momentum, as suggested by multiple recently published reports, there is still a persistent scarcity of solid data in the field, especially with regards to the role of nutritional interventions. AIM: To assess the prevalence of malnutrition in patients with advanced cirrhosis and to evaluate its impact on su...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - November 19, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Effect of treating chronic hepatitis C with direct-acting antivirals on extrahepatic cutaneous manifestations.
CONCLUSION: Treatment of HCV with DAAs was significantly effective in improving virus-related extrahepatic cutaneous manifestations. PMID: 33200021 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - November 19, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Novel markers of endothelial dysfunction in hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis: More than a mere prediction of esophageal varices.
CONCLUSION: CIMT, ABI, VLDL, LDL/platelet count ratio are good non-invasive predictors of advanced fibrosis, presence of EVs, and endothelial dysfunction in liver cirrhosis. PMID: 33200022 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - November 19, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Kratom induced severe cholestatic liver injury histologically mimicking primary biliary cholangitis: A case report.
CONCLUSION: The use of Kratom has been on the rise in recent years across the United States and Europe. Several case reports have associated adverse health impact of Kratom-containing products including death due to its ability to alter levels of consciousness. Only a few case reports have highlighted the hepatotoxic effects of Kratom. Even fewer reports exist describing the detailed histopathological changes. PMID: 33200023 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - November 19, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Severe COVID-19 after liver transplantation, surviving the pitfalls of learning on-the-go: Three case reports.
CONCLUSION: We illustrate in detail the evolution of a nosocomial COVID-19 outbreak in a liver transplant ward. We believe that these findings will contribute to a better understanding of the natural history of the disease and will improve the treatment of the liver transplant patient with COVID-19. PMID: 33200024 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - November 19, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Role of platelet-albumin-bilirubin score in predicting re-bleeding after band ligation for acute variceal hemorrhage.
Authors: Faisal MS, Singh T, Amin H, Esfeh JM Abstract Platelet-albumin-bilirubin (PALBI) score was proposed by Roayaie et al with modification of previously studied albumin-bilirubin score to include platelet as an indicator of portal hypertension in 2015. Predictive value of this score was recently tested by Elshaarawy et al for re-bleeding in patients presenting with acute variceal hemorrhage. We did a similar study at our center (n = 170) to look at incidence of re-bleeding after band ligation defined as drop in 2 units of hemoglobin and witnessed melena or hematemesis within 2 wk of the procedure. We calculate...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - November 19, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Clinical implications, diagnosis, and management of diabetes in patients with chronic liver diseases.
Authors: Chung W, Promrat K, Wands J Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) negatively affects the development and progression of chronic liver diseases (CLD) of various etiologies. Concurrent DM and CLD are also associated with worse clinical outcomes with respect to mortality, the occurrence of hepatic decompensation, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Unfortunately, early diagnosis and optimal treatment of DM can be challenging, due to the lack of established clinical guidelines as well as the medical complexity of this patient population. We conducted an exploratory review of relevant literature to...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - October 10, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Biomarkers for hepatocellular cancer.
Authors: Singh G, Yoshida EM, Rathi S, Marquez V, Kim P, Erb SR, Salh BS Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. If diagnosed early, curative treatment options such as surgical resection, loco-regional therapies, and liver transplantation are available to patients, increasing their chances of survival and improving their quality of life. Unfortunately, most patients are diagnosed with late stage HCC where only palliative treatment is available. Therefore, biomarkers which could detect HCC early with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity, may play...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - October 10, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Comprehensive review of hepatotoxicity associated with traditional Indian Ayurvedic herbs.
Authors: Philips CA, Ahamed R, Rajesh S, George T, Mohanan M, Augustine P Abstract With growing antipathy toward conventional prescription drugs due to the fear of adverse events, the general and patient populations have been increasingly using complementary and alternative medications (CAMs) for managing acute and chronic diseases. The general misconception is that natural herbal-based preparations are devoid of toxicity, and hence short- and long-term use remain justified among people as well as the CAM practitioners who prescribe these medicines. In this regard, Ayurvedic herbal medications have become one of th...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - October 10, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

N-acetylcysteine and glycyrrhizin combination: Benefit outcome in a murine model of acetaminophen-induced liver failure.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that, compared to N-acetylcysteine alone, co-administration of glycyrrhizin decreases the liver necrosis score and improves survival in a murine model of acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Our study opens a potential new therapeutic pathway in the prevention of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. PMID: 33033567 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - October 10, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Transaminitis is an indicator of mortality in patients with COVID-19: A retrospective cohort study.
CONCLUSION: Our study showed that transaminitis on admission was associated with severe clinical outcomes such as admission to the intensive care unit, need for mechanical ventilation, and mortality. PMID: 33033568 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - October 10, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Clinical efficacy of direct-acting antiviral therapy for recurrent hepatitis C virus infection after liver transplantation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
CONCLUSION: DAAs are effective and safe in the treatment of recurrent HCV infection in LT recipients with history of HCC. Relapse to pre- and post-LT DAA therapy is associated with post-transplantation HCC recurrence. PMID: 33033569 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - October 10, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Surgical treatment of gallbladder cancer: An eight-year experience in a single center.
CONCLUSION: Outcomes for GBC patients remain unacceptable, and improved therapeutic strategies, including neoadjuvant chemotherapy, optimal surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy, should be considered for patients with advanced GBCs. PMID: 33033570 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - October 10, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Can gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging be used to avoid liver biopsy in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?
CONCLUSION: GA-MRI is an effective noninvasive method that may be useful for the differentiation of NASH from isolated steatosis, and could help to avoid liver biopsy in patients with NAFLD. PMID: 33033571 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - October 10, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Sofosbuvir plus ribavirin is tolerable and effective even in elderly patients 75-years-old and over.
Authors: Tamai H, Shingaki N, Ida Y, Shimizu R, Maeshima S, Okamura J, Kawashima A, Nakao T, Hara T, Matsutani H, Nishikawa I, Higashi K Abstract BACKGROUND: Although clinical use of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin has been approved for patients infected with genotype 2 hepatitis C virus, patients ≥ 75-years-old have not been included in previous clinical trials. AIM: To evaluate the real-world safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for elderly patients (≥ 75-years-old) compared to nonelderly patients, we conducted a post-marketing prospective cohort study. METHODS: We treated 265 patients with ge...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - October 10, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease later diagnosed as myotonic dystrophy.
CONCLUSION: When gastroenterologists encounter NAFLD/NASH patients, serum CK should be verified. If hyperCKemia, frontal baldness, a hatched face, history of cataract surgery, and grip myotonia are noted, the possibility of MD may be considered. PMID: 33033573 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - October 10, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Mechanisms and consequences of COVID-19 associated liver injury: What can we affirm?
Authors: Brito CA, Barros FM, Lopes EP Abstract Since the first reports of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in December 2019 in China, numerous papers have been published describing a high frequency of liver injury associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, many of them proposing a link between these findings and patient outcomes. Increases in serum aminotransferase levels (ranging from 16% to 62%) and bilirubin levels (ranging from 5% to 21%) have been reported and seem to be more often observed in patients with severe forms of COVID-19. Although absolute changes in these p...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - September 23, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Review: Pathogenesis of cholestatic liver diseases.
Authors: Yokoda RT, Rodriguez EA Abstract Cholestatic liver diseases (CLD) begin to develop after an impairment of bile flow start to affect the biliary tree. Cholangiocytes actively participate in the liver response to injury and repair and the intensity of this reaction is a determinant factor for the development of CLD. Progressive cholangiopathies may ultimately lead to end-stage liver disease requiring at the end orthotopic liver transplantation. This narrative review will discuss cholangiocyte biology and pathogenesis mechanisms involved in four intrahepatic CLD: Primary biliary cholangitis, primary sclerosin...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - September 23, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Lipidomics in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
Authors: Kartsoli S, Kostara CE, Tsimihodimos V, Bairaktari ET, Christodoulou DK Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common chronic liver disorder in Western countries, comprises steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), with the latter having the potential to progress to cirrhosis. The transition from isolated steatosis to NASH is still poorly understood, but lipidomics approach revealed that the hepatic lipidome is extensively altered in the setting of steatosis and steatohepatitis and these alterations correlate with disease progression. Recent data suggest that both quantity and...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - September 23, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research

Update on diagnosis and management of sepsis in cirrhosis: Current advances.
Authors: Philips CA, Ahamed R, Rajesh S, George T, Mohanan M, Augustine P Abstract Sepsis and septic shock are catastrophic disease entities that portend high mortality in patients with cirrhosis. In cirrhosis, hemodynamic perturbations, immune dysregulation, and persistent systemic inflammation with altered gut microbiota in the background of portal hypertension enhance the risk of infections and resistance to antimicrobials. Patients with cirrhosis develop recurrent life-threatening infections that progress to multiple organ failure. The definition, pathophysiology, and treatment options for sepsis have been ever...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - September 23, 2020 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research