Current state of medical tourism involving liver transplantation-the risk of infections and potential complications
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):717-722. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.717.ABSTRACTLiver transplant has been shown to significantly improve mortality and quality of life in various liver diseases such as acute liver failure, end-stage liver disease, and liver cancer. While the organ transplant demand is continuing to rise, the organ donation supply remains unmatched. The organ shortage, high cost, and long waiting lists have stimulated a desire for routes that may be unethical. This process which is named transplant tourism is the term used to describe traveling to another country to purchase an organ for transplant. Liver tr...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ritesh Neupane Pahnwat Tonya Taweesedt Humayun Anjum Salim Surani Source Type: research

Hepatitis E virus in professionally exposed: A reason for concern?
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):723-730. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.723.ABSTRACTThe zoonotic risk of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is well established. The HEV seroprevalence rates vary according to geographical region, assays used, and study cohorts. HEV infection is still underdiagnosed, implying the need to evaluate the disease's burden in the general population and specific risk groups, such as professionally exposed. Close contact with various animal reservoirs such as pigs, rabbits, sheep, dogs, wild boars, and deer has been associated with higher anti-HEV seroprevalence as a part of occupational exposure. While exact tran...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Anna Mrzljak Ivan Balen Ljubo Barbic Maja Ilic Tatjana Vilibic-Cavlek Source Type: research

Clinical algorithms for the prevention of variceal bleeding and rebleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):731-746. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.731.ABSTRACTPortal hypertension (PH), a common complication of liver cirrhosis, results in development of esophageal varices. When esophageal varices rupture, they cause significant upper gastrointestinal bleeding with mortality rates up to 20% despite state-of-the-art treatment. Thus, prophylactic measures are of utmost importance to improve outcomes of patients with PH. Several high-quality studies have demonstrated that non-selective beta blockers (NSBBs) or endoscopic band ligation (EBL) are effective for primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding. In se...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Nikolaus Pfisterer Lukas W Unger Thomas Reiberger Source Type: research

Liver injury associated with drug intake during pregnancy
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):747-762. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.747.ABSTRACTDrug use during pregnancy is not common. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a potential complication that is rare but can adversely affect both the mother and the fetus. Although many drugs can directly cause hepatotoxicity, idiosyncratic liver injury is common in pregnancy. Underreporting of adverse drug reactions, lack of adequate literature regarding drug safety in pregnancy, and the inherent difficulty in diagnosing DILI during pregnancy make the management of this condition challenging. This review attempts to describe the existing litera...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Priyanka Kamath Ashwin Kamath Sheetal D Ullal Source Type: research

Racial differences in prevalence and severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):763-773. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.763.ABSTRACTThe aim of this review is to assess the evidence regarding racial differences in the prevalence and severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We reviewed the published literature that reported prevalence, severity, and genetic associations of NAFLD in different ethnic groups. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been associated with NAFLD, but each component of the MetS is present in various races in different percentages and their effect on NAFLD appears to be dissimilar. An elevated triglyceride (TG) level seems to have the strongest...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Maurizio Bonacini Farah Kassamali Swathi Kari Nieves Lopez Barrera Mohamed Kohla Source Type: research

Torsion of spleen and portal hypertension: Pathophysiology and clinical implications
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):774-780. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.774.ABSTRACTThe displacement of spleen from its normal location to other places is known as wandering spleen (WS) and is a rare disease. The repeated torsion of WS is due to the presence of long pedicle and absence/laxity of anchoring ligaments. A WS is an extremely rare cause of left-sided portal hypertension (PHT) and severe gastric variceal bleeding. Left-sided PHT usually occurs as a result of splenic vein occlusion caused by splenic torsion, extrinsic compression of the splenic pedicle by enlarged spleen, and splenic vein thrombosis. There is a paucit...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ashish Kumar Jha Sameer Bhagwat Vishwa Mohan Dayal Arya Suchismita Source Type: research

Impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on prevention and elimination strategies for hepatitis B and hepatitis C
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):781-789. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.781.ABSTRACTThe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality since its first case was discovered in December 2019. Since then, multiple countries have witnessed a healthcare system collapse due to the overwhelming demand for COVID-19 care. Drastic measures have been taken globally in order to curb the spread of the virus. However, those measures have led to the disruption of other aspects of healthcare, increasing the burden due to other medical conditions. We have also stepped back in achieving the ambit...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Syed Tabish Rehman Hareem Rehman Shahab Abid Source Type: research

Prevalence and risk factors of steatosis and advanced fibrosis using transient elastography in the United States' adolescent population
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated a high prevalence of steatosis in the United States' adolescent population. Almost 3% of United States' adolescents had advanced fibrosis. These findings are concerning because a younger age of onset of NAFLD can lead to an earlier development of severe disease, including steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver decompensation.PMID:34367500 | PMC:PMC8326157 | DOI:10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.790 (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Amporn Atsawarungruangkit Yousef Elfanagely Jason Pan Kelsey Anderson James Scharfen Kittichai Promrat Source Type: research

Safety of liver resection in patients receiving antithrombotic therapy: A systematic review of the literature
CONCLUSION: Hepatectomy in patients with chronic ATT can be performed safely without increasing the incidence of bleeding complications, but the safety and effectiveness of chemical thromboprophylaxis against VTE during liver resection is still controversial, especially in the Asian population. Establishing a clear protocol or guideline requires further research using reliable studies with good design.PMID:34367501 | PMC:PMC8326165 | DOI:10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.804 (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Takahisa Fujikawa Source Type: research

Effects of intragastric balloon placement in metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis
CONCLUSION: IGB placement showed significant efficacy in improving alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase levels in patients with metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease as well as improving metabolic markers related to disease progression.PMID:34367502 | PMC:PMC8326158 | DOI:10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.815 (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Jo ão Remí de Freitas Júnior Igor Braga Ribeiro Diogo Turiani Hourneaux de Moura Vitor Massaro Takamatsu Sagae Gabriel Mayo Vieira de Souza Guilherme Henrique Peixoto de Oliveira Sergio A S ánchez-Luna Thiago Ferreira de Souza Eduardo Turiani Hourneau Source Type: research

Current state of medical tourism involving liver transplantation-the risk of infections and potential complications
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):717-722. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.717.ABSTRACTLiver transplant has been shown to significantly improve mortality and quality of life in various liver diseases such as acute liver failure, end-stage liver disease, and liver cancer. While the organ transplant demand is continuing to rise, the organ donation supply remains unmatched. The organ shortage, high cost, and long waiting lists have stimulated a desire for routes that may be unethical. This process which is named transplant tourism is the term used to describe traveling to another country to purchase an organ for transplant. Liver tr...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ritesh Neupane Pahnwat Tonya Taweesedt Humayun Anjum Salim Surani Source Type: research

Hepatitis E virus in professionally exposed: A reason for concern?
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):723-730. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.723.ABSTRACTThe zoonotic risk of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is well established. The HEV seroprevalence rates vary according to geographical region, assays used, and study cohorts. HEV infection is still underdiagnosed, implying the need to evaluate the disease's burden in the general population and specific risk groups, such as professionally exposed. Close contact with various animal reservoirs such as pigs, rabbits, sheep, dogs, wild boars, and deer has been associated with higher anti-HEV seroprevalence as a part of occupational exposure. While exact tran...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Anna Mrzljak Ivan Balen Ljubo Barbic Maja Ilic Tatjana Vilibic-Cavlek Source Type: research

Clinical algorithms for the prevention of variceal bleeding and rebleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):731-746. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.731.ABSTRACTPortal hypertension (PH), a common complication of liver cirrhosis, results in development of esophageal varices. When esophageal varices rupture, they cause significant upper gastrointestinal bleeding with mortality rates up to 20% despite state-of-the-art treatment. Thus, prophylactic measures are of utmost importance to improve outcomes of patients with PH. Several high-quality studies have demonstrated that non-selective beta blockers (NSBBs) or endoscopic band ligation (EBL) are effective for primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding. In se...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Nikolaus Pfisterer Lukas W Unger Thomas Reiberger Source Type: research

Liver injury associated with drug intake during pregnancy
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):747-762. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.747.ABSTRACTDrug use during pregnancy is not common. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a potential complication that is rare but can adversely affect both the mother and the fetus. Although many drugs can directly cause hepatotoxicity, idiosyncratic liver injury is common in pregnancy. Underreporting of adverse drug reactions, lack of adequate literature regarding drug safety in pregnancy, and the inherent difficulty in diagnosing DILI during pregnancy make the management of this condition challenging. This review attempts to describe the existing litera...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Priyanka Kamath Ashwin Kamath Sheetal D Ullal Source Type: research

Racial differences in prevalence and severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):763-773. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.763.ABSTRACTThe aim of this review is to assess the evidence regarding racial differences in the prevalence and severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We reviewed the published literature that reported prevalence, severity, and genetic associations of NAFLD in different ethnic groups. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been associated with NAFLD, but each component of the MetS is present in various races in different percentages and their effect on NAFLD appears to be dissimilar. An elevated triglyceride (TG) level seems to have the strongest...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Maurizio Bonacini Farah Kassamali Swathi Kari Nieves Lopez Barrera Mohamed Kohla Source Type: research

Torsion of spleen and portal hypertension: Pathophysiology and clinical implications
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):774-780. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.774.ABSTRACTThe displacement of spleen from its normal location to other places is known as wandering spleen (WS) and is a rare disease. The repeated torsion of WS is due to the presence of long pedicle and absence/laxity of anchoring ligaments. A WS is an extremely rare cause of left-sided portal hypertension (PHT) and severe gastric variceal bleeding. Left-sided PHT usually occurs as a result of splenic vein occlusion caused by splenic torsion, extrinsic compression of the splenic pedicle by enlarged spleen, and splenic vein thrombosis. There is a paucit...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ashish Kumar Jha Sameer Bhagwat Vishwa Mohan Dayal Arya Suchismita Source Type: research

Impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on prevention and elimination strategies for hepatitis B and hepatitis C
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):781-789. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.781.ABSTRACTThe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality since its first case was discovered in December 2019. Since then, multiple countries have witnessed a healthcare system collapse due to the overwhelming demand for COVID-19 care. Drastic measures have been taken globally in order to curb the spread of the virus. However, those measures have led to the disruption of other aspects of healthcare, increasing the burden due to other medical conditions. We have also stepped back in achieving the ambit...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Syed Tabish Rehman Hareem Rehman Shahab Abid Source Type: research

Prevalence and risk factors of steatosis and advanced fibrosis using transient elastography in the United States' adolescent population
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated a high prevalence of steatosis in the United States' adolescent population. Almost 3% of United States' adolescents had advanced fibrosis. These findings are concerning because a younger age of onset of NAFLD can lead to an earlier development of severe disease, including steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver decompensation.PMID:34367500 | PMC:PMC8326157 | DOI:10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.790 (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Amporn Atsawarungruangkit Yousef Elfanagely Jason Pan Kelsey Anderson James Scharfen Kittichai Promrat Source Type: research

Safety of liver resection in patients receiving antithrombotic therapy: A systematic review of the literature
CONCLUSION: Hepatectomy in patients with chronic ATT can be performed safely without increasing the incidence of bleeding complications, but the safety and effectiveness of chemical thromboprophylaxis against VTE during liver resection is still controversial, especially in the Asian population. Establishing a clear protocol or guideline requires further research using reliable studies with good design.PMID:34367501 | PMC:PMC8326165 | DOI:10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.804 (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Takahisa Fujikawa Source Type: research

Effects of intragastric balloon placement in metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis
CONCLUSION: IGB placement showed significant efficacy in improving alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase levels in patients with metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease as well as improving metabolic markers related to disease progression.PMID:34367502 | PMC:PMC8326158 | DOI:10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.815 (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Jo ão Remí de Freitas Júnior Igor Braga Ribeiro Diogo Turiani Hourneaux de Moura Vitor Massaro Takamatsu Sagae Gabriel Mayo Vieira de Souza Guilherme Henrique Peixoto de Oliveira Sergio A S ánchez-Luna Thiago Ferreira de Souza Eduardo Turiani Hourneau Source Type: research

Current state of medical tourism involving liver transplantation-the risk of infections and potential complications
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):717-722. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.717.ABSTRACTLiver transplant has been shown to significantly improve mortality and quality of life in various liver diseases such as acute liver failure, end-stage liver disease, and liver cancer. While the organ transplant demand is continuing to rise, the organ donation supply remains unmatched. The organ shortage, high cost, and long waiting lists have stimulated a desire for routes that may be unethical. This process which is named transplant tourism is the term used to describe traveling to another country to purchase an organ for transplant. Liver tr...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ritesh Neupane Pahnwat Tonya Taweesedt Humayun Anjum Salim Surani Source Type: research

Hepatitis E virus in professionally exposed: A reason for concern?
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):723-730. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.723.ABSTRACTThe zoonotic risk of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is well established. The HEV seroprevalence rates vary according to geographical region, assays used, and study cohorts. HEV infection is still underdiagnosed, implying the need to evaluate the disease's burden in the general population and specific risk groups, such as professionally exposed. Close contact with various animal reservoirs such as pigs, rabbits, sheep, dogs, wild boars, and deer has been associated with higher anti-HEV seroprevalence as a part of occupational exposure. While exact tran...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Anna Mrzljak Ivan Balen Ljubo Barbic Maja Ilic Tatjana Vilibic-Cavlek Source Type: research

Clinical algorithms for the prevention of variceal bleeding and rebleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):731-746. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.731.ABSTRACTPortal hypertension (PH), a common complication of liver cirrhosis, results in development of esophageal varices. When esophageal varices rupture, they cause significant upper gastrointestinal bleeding with mortality rates up to 20% despite state-of-the-art treatment. Thus, prophylactic measures are of utmost importance to improve outcomes of patients with PH. Several high-quality studies have demonstrated that non-selective beta blockers (NSBBs) or endoscopic band ligation (EBL) are effective for primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding. In se...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Nikolaus Pfisterer Lukas W Unger Thomas Reiberger Source Type: research

Liver injury associated with drug intake during pregnancy
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):747-762. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.747.ABSTRACTDrug use during pregnancy is not common. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a potential complication that is rare but can adversely affect both the mother and the fetus. Although many drugs can directly cause hepatotoxicity, idiosyncratic liver injury is common in pregnancy. Underreporting of adverse drug reactions, lack of adequate literature regarding drug safety in pregnancy, and the inherent difficulty in diagnosing DILI during pregnancy make the management of this condition challenging. This review attempts to describe the existing litera...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Priyanka Kamath Ashwin Kamath Sheetal D Ullal Source Type: research

Racial differences in prevalence and severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):763-773. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.763.ABSTRACTThe aim of this review is to assess the evidence regarding racial differences in the prevalence and severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We reviewed the published literature that reported prevalence, severity, and genetic associations of NAFLD in different ethnic groups. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been associated with NAFLD, but each component of the MetS is present in various races in different percentages and their effect on NAFLD appears to be dissimilar. An elevated triglyceride (TG) level seems to have the strongest...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Maurizio Bonacini Farah Kassamali Swathi Kari Nieves Lopez Barrera Mohamed Kohla Source Type: research

Torsion of spleen and portal hypertension: Pathophysiology and clinical implications
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):774-780. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.774.ABSTRACTThe displacement of spleen from its normal location to other places is known as wandering spleen (WS) and is a rare disease. The repeated torsion of WS is due to the presence of long pedicle and absence/laxity of anchoring ligaments. A WS is an extremely rare cause of left-sided portal hypertension (PHT) and severe gastric variceal bleeding. Left-sided PHT usually occurs as a result of splenic vein occlusion caused by splenic torsion, extrinsic compression of the splenic pedicle by enlarged spleen, and splenic vein thrombosis. There is a paucit...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ashish Kumar Jha Sameer Bhagwat Vishwa Mohan Dayal Arya Suchismita Source Type: research

Impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on prevention and elimination strategies for hepatitis B and hepatitis C
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):781-789. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.781.ABSTRACTThe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality since its first case was discovered in December 2019. Since then, multiple countries have witnessed a healthcare system collapse due to the overwhelming demand for COVID-19 care. Drastic measures have been taken globally in order to curb the spread of the virus. However, those measures have led to the disruption of other aspects of healthcare, increasing the burden due to other medical conditions. We have also stepped back in achieving the ambit...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Syed Tabish Rehman Hareem Rehman Shahab Abid Source Type: research

Prevalence and risk factors of steatosis and advanced fibrosis using transient elastography in the United States' adolescent population
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated a high prevalence of steatosis in the United States' adolescent population. Almost 3% of United States' adolescents had advanced fibrosis. These findings are concerning because a younger age of onset of NAFLD can lead to an earlier development of severe disease, including steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver decompensation.PMID:34367500 | PMC:PMC8326157 | DOI:10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.790 (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Amporn Atsawarungruangkit Yousef Elfanagely Jason Pan Kelsey Anderson James Scharfen Kittichai Promrat Source Type: research

Safety of liver resection in patients receiving antithrombotic therapy: A systematic review of the literature
CONCLUSION: Hepatectomy in patients with chronic ATT can be performed safely without increasing the incidence of bleeding complications, but the safety and effectiveness of chemical thromboprophylaxis against VTE during liver resection is still controversial, especially in the Asian population. Establishing a clear protocol or guideline requires further research using reliable studies with good design.PMID:34367501 | PMC:PMC8326165 | DOI:10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.804 (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Takahisa Fujikawa Source Type: research

Effects of intragastric balloon placement in metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis
CONCLUSION: IGB placement showed significant efficacy in improving alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase levels in patients with metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease as well as improving metabolic markers related to disease progression.PMID:34367502 | PMC:PMC8326158 | DOI:10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.815 (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Jo ão Remí de Freitas Júnior Igor Braga Ribeiro Diogo Turiani Hourneaux de Moura Vitor Massaro Takamatsu Sagae Gabriel Mayo Vieira de Souza Guilherme Henrique Peixoto de Oliveira Sergio A S ánchez-Luna Thiago Ferreira de Souza Eduardo Turiani Hourneau Source Type: research

Current state of medical tourism involving liver transplantation-the risk of infections and potential complications
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):717-722. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.717.ABSTRACTLiver transplant has been shown to significantly improve mortality and quality of life in various liver diseases such as acute liver failure, end-stage liver disease, and liver cancer. While the organ transplant demand is continuing to rise, the organ donation supply remains unmatched. The organ shortage, high cost, and long waiting lists have stimulated a desire for routes that may be unethical. This process which is named transplant tourism is the term used to describe traveling to another country to purchase an organ for transplant. Liver tr...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ritesh Neupane Pahnwat Tonya Taweesedt Humayun Anjum Salim Surani Source Type: research

Hepatitis E virus in professionally exposed: A reason for concern?
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):723-730. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.723.ABSTRACTThe zoonotic risk of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is well established. The HEV seroprevalence rates vary according to geographical region, assays used, and study cohorts. HEV infection is still underdiagnosed, implying the need to evaluate the disease's burden in the general population and specific risk groups, such as professionally exposed. Close contact with various animal reservoirs such as pigs, rabbits, sheep, dogs, wild boars, and deer has been associated with higher anti-HEV seroprevalence as a part of occupational exposure. While exact tran...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Anna Mrzljak Ivan Balen Ljubo Barbic Maja Ilic Tatjana Vilibic-Cavlek Source Type: research

Clinical algorithms for the prevention of variceal bleeding and rebleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):731-746. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.731.ABSTRACTPortal hypertension (PH), a common complication of liver cirrhosis, results in development of esophageal varices. When esophageal varices rupture, they cause significant upper gastrointestinal bleeding with mortality rates up to 20% despite state-of-the-art treatment. Thus, prophylactic measures are of utmost importance to improve outcomes of patients with PH. Several high-quality studies have demonstrated that non-selective beta blockers (NSBBs) or endoscopic band ligation (EBL) are effective for primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding. In se...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Nikolaus Pfisterer Lukas W Unger Thomas Reiberger Source Type: research

Liver injury associated with drug intake during pregnancy
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):747-762. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.747.ABSTRACTDrug use during pregnancy is not common. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a potential complication that is rare but can adversely affect both the mother and the fetus. Although many drugs can directly cause hepatotoxicity, idiosyncratic liver injury is common in pregnancy. Underreporting of adverse drug reactions, lack of adequate literature regarding drug safety in pregnancy, and the inherent difficulty in diagnosing DILI during pregnancy make the management of this condition challenging. This review attempts to describe the existing litera...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Priyanka Kamath Ashwin Kamath Sheetal D Ullal Source Type: research

Racial differences in prevalence and severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):763-773. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.763.ABSTRACTThe aim of this review is to assess the evidence regarding racial differences in the prevalence and severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We reviewed the published literature that reported prevalence, severity, and genetic associations of NAFLD in different ethnic groups. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been associated with NAFLD, but each component of the MetS is present in various races in different percentages and their effect on NAFLD appears to be dissimilar. An elevated triglyceride (TG) level seems to have the strongest...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Maurizio Bonacini Farah Kassamali Swathi Kari Nieves Lopez Barrera Mohamed Kohla Source Type: research

Torsion of spleen and portal hypertension: Pathophysiology and clinical implications
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):774-780. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.774.ABSTRACTThe displacement of spleen from its normal location to other places is known as wandering spleen (WS) and is a rare disease. The repeated torsion of WS is due to the presence of long pedicle and absence/laxity of anchoring ligaments. A WS is an extremely rare cause of left-sided portal hypertension (PHT) and severe gastric variceal bleeding. Left-sided PHT usually occurs as a result of splenic vein occlusion caused by splenic torsion, extrinsic compression of the splenic pedicle by enlarged spleen, and splenic vein thrombosis. There is a paucit...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ashish Kumar Jha Sameer Bhagwat Vishwa Mohan Dayal Arya Suchismita Source Type: research

Impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on prevention and elimination strategies for hepatitis B and hepatitis C
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):781-789. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.781.ABSTRACTThe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality since its first case was discovered in December 2019. Since then, multiple countries have witnessed a healthcare system collapse due to the overwhelming demand for COVID-19 care. Drastic measures have been taken globally in order to curb the spread of the virus. However, those measures have led to the disruption of other aspects of healthcare, increasing the burden due to other medical conditions. We have also stepped back in achieving the ambit...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Syed Tabish Rehman Hareem Rehman Shahab Abid Source Type: research

Prevalence and risk factors of steatosis and advanced fibrosis using transient elastography in the United States' adolescent population
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated a high prevalence of steatosis in the United States' adolescent population. Almost 3% of United States' adolescents had advanced fibrosis. These findings are concerning because a younger age of onset of NAFLD can lead to an earlier development of severe disease, including steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver decompensation.PMID:34367500 | PMC:PMC8326157 | DOI:10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.790 (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Amporn Atsawarungruangkit Yousef Elfanagely Jason Pan Kelsey Anderson James Scharfen Kittichai Promrat Source Type: research

Safety of liver resection in patients receiving antithrombotic therapy: A systematic review of the literature
CONCLUSION: Hepatectomy in patients with chronic ATT can be performed safely without increasing the incidence of bleeding complications, but the safety and effectiveness of chemical thromboprophylaxis against VTE during liver resection is still controversial, especially in the Asian population. Establishing a clear protocol or guideline requires further research using reliable studies with good design.PMID:34367501 | PMC:PMC8326165 | DOI:10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.804 (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Takahisa Fujikawa Source Type: research

Effects of intragastric balloon placement in metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis
CONCLUSION: IGB placement showed significant efficacy in improving alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase levels in patients with metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease as well as improving metabolic markers related to disease progression.PMID:34367502 | PMC:PMC8326158 | DOI:10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.815 (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Jo ão Remí de Freitas Júnior Igor Braga Ribeiro Diogo Turiani Hourneaux de Moura Vitor Massaro Takamatsu Sagae Gabriel Mayo Vieira de Souza Guilherme Henrique Peixoto de Oliveira Sergio A S ánchez-Luna Thiago Ferreira de Souza Eduardo Turiani Hourneau Source Type: research

Current state of medical tourism involving liver transplantation-the risk of infections and potential complications
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):717-722. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.717.ABSTRACTLiver transplant has been shown to significantly improve mortality and quality of life in various liver diseases such as acute liver failure, end-stage liver disease, and liver cancer. While the organ transplant demand is continuing to rise, the organ donation supply remains unmatched. The organ shortage, high cost, and long waiting lists have stimulated a desire for routes that may be unethical. This process which is named transplant tourism is the term used to describe traveling to another country to purchase an organ for transplant. Liver tr...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ritesh Neupane Pahnwat Tonya Taweesedt Humayun Anjum Salim Surani Source Type: research

Hepatitis E virus in professionally exposed: A reason for concern?
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):723-730. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.723.ABSTRACTThe zoonotic risk of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is well established. The HEV seroprevalence rates vary according to geographical region, assays used, and study cohorts. HEV infection is still underdiagnosed, implying the need to evaluate the disease's burden in the general population and specific risk groups, such as professionally exposed. Close contact with various animal reservoirs such as pigs, rabbits, sheep, dogs, wild boars, and deer has been associated with higher anti-HEV seroprevalence as a part of occupational exposure. While exact tran...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Anna Mrzljak Ivan Balen Ljubo Barbic Maja Ilic Tatjana Vilibic-Cavlek Source Type: research

Clinical algorithms for the prevention of variceal bleeding and rebleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):731-746. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.731.ABSTRACTPortal hypertension (PH), a common complication of liver cirrhosis, results in development of esophageal varices. When esophageal varices rupture, they cause significant upper gastrointestinal bleeding with mortality rates up to 20% despite state-of-the-art treatment. Thus, prophylactic measures are of utmost importance to improve outcomes of patients with PH. Several high-quality studies have demonstrated that non-selective beta blockers (NSBBs) or endoscopic band ligation (EBL) are effective for primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding. In se...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Nikolaus Pfisterer Lukas W Unger Thomas Reiberger Source Type: research

Liver injury associated with drug intake during pregnancy
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):747-762. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.747.ABSTRACTDrug use during pregnancy is not common. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a potential complication that is rare but can adversely affect both the mother and the fetus. Although many drugs can directly cause hepatotoxicity, idiosyncratic liver injury is common in pregnancy. Underreporting of adverse drug reactions, lack of adequate literature regarding drug safety in pregnancy, and the inherent difficulty in diagnosing DILI during pregnancy make the management of this condition challenging. This review attempts to describe the existing litera...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Priyanka Kamath Ashwin Kamath Sheetal D Ullal Source Type: research

Racial differences in prevalence and severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):763-773. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.763.ABSTRACTThe aim of this review is to assess the evidence regarding racial differences in the prevalence and severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We reviewed the published literature that reported prevalence, severity, and genetic associations of NAFLD in different ethnic groups. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been associated with NAFLD, but each component of the MetS is present in various races in different percentages and their effect on NAFLD appears to be dissimilar. An elevated triglyceride (TG) level seems to have the strongest...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Maurizio Bonacini Farah Kassamali Swathi Kari Nieves Lopez Barrera Mohamed Kohla Source Type: research

Torsion of spleen and portal hypertension: Pathophysiology and clinical implications
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):774-780. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.774.ABSTRACTThe displacement of spleen from its normal location to other places is known as wandering spleen (WS) and is a rare disease. The repeated torsion of WS is due to the presence of long pedicle and absence/laxity of anchoring ligaments. A WS is an extremely rare cause of left-sided portal hypertension (PHT) and severe gastric variceal bleeding. Left-sided PHT usually occurs as a result of splenic vein occlusion caused by splenic torsion, extrinsic compression of the splenic pedicle by enlarged spleen, and splenic vein thrombosis. There is a paucit...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ashish Kumar Jha Sameer Bhagwat Vishwa Mohan Dayal Arya Suchismita Source Type: research

Impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on prevention and elimination strategies for hepatitis B and hepatitis C
World J Hepatol. 2021 Jul 27;13(7):781-789. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.781.ABSTRACTThe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality since its first case was discovered in December 2019. Since then, multiple countries have witnessed a healthcare system collapse due to the overwhelming demand for COVID-19 care. Drastic measures have been taken globally in order to curb the spread of the virus. However, those measures have led to the disruption of other aspects of healthcare, increasing the burden due to other medical conditions. We have also stepped back in achieving the ambit...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Syed Tabish Rehman Hareem Rehman Shahab Abid Source Type: research

Prevalence and risk factors of steatosis and advanced fibrosis using transient elastography in the United States' adolescent population
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated a high prevalence of steatosis in the United States' adolescent population. Almost 3% of United States' adolescents had advanced fibrosis. These findings are concerning because a younger age of onset of NAFLD can lead to an earlier development of severe disease, including steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver decompensation.PMID:34367500 | PMC:PMC8326157 | DOI:10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.790 (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Amporn Atsawarungruangkit Yousef Elfanagely Jason Pan Kelsey Anderson James Scharfen Kittichai Promrat Source Type: research

Safety of liver resection in patients receiving antithrombotic therapy: A systematic review of the literature
CONCLUSION: Hepatectomy in patients with chronic ATT can be performed safely without increasing the incidence of bleeding complications, but the safety and effectiveness of chemical thromboprophylaxis against VTE during liver resection is still controversial, especially in the Asian population. Establishing a clear protocol or guideline requires further research using reliable studies with good design.PMID:34367501 | PMC:PMC8326165 | DOI:10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.804 (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Takahisa Fujikawa Source Type: research

Effects of intragastric balloon placement in metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis
CONCLUSION: IGB placement showed significant efficacy in improving alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase levels in patients with metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease as well as improving metabolic markers related to disease progression.PMID:34367502 | PMC:PMC8326158 | DOI:10.4254/wjh.v13.i7.815 (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - August 9, 2021 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Jo ão Remí de Freitas Júnior Igor Braga Ribeiro Diogo Turiani Hourneaux de Moura Vitor Massaro Takamatsu Sagae Gabriel Mayo Vieira de Souza Guilherme Henrique Peixoto de Oliveira Sergio A S ánchez-Luna Thiago Ferreira de Souza Eduardo Turiani Hourneau Source Type: research