Current Concepts in Small Animal Gastrointestinal Surgery
This article discusses variations and comparisons of these techniques with different suture patterns, suture materials, types of stapling equipment, and staple sizes along with benefits of surgical reinforcement techniques and leak testing. In addition, a minimally invasive surgical approach for gastrointestinal surgery is discussed briefly. This article also briefly highlights current research under way in determining more accurate means of assessing intestinal tissue viability, because determining when and where to resect compromised, and potentially devitalized, intestine is of utmost importance for patient outcomes. (S...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - January 25, 2022 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Penny J. Regier Source Type: research

Updates in Hepatobiliary Surgery
Advances regarding surgical treatment of hepatobiliary diseases over the past 5  years have resulted in improved outcomes and decreased mortality in veterinary patients. Options for minimally invasive treatment of intrahepatic portosystemic shunts and gallbladder disease have led to decreased morbidity with similar outcomes to open procedures. For extrahepatic portosystemic sh unts, studies evaluating long-term outcome between surgical attenuation and medical management, as well as between options for surgical attenuation, are being used to direct evidence-based treatment of this congenital anomaly. In addition, evalu...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - January 24, 2022 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Mandy L. Wallace Source Type: research

Concepts in Sterilization
This article attempts to synthesize the data and help guide decision making on the type and timing of sterilization procedures performed, including gonad sparing sterilization surgeries. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - January 24, 2022 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Sarah J. Marvel Source Type: research

Updated Information on Gastric Dilatation and Volvulus and Gastropexy in Dogs
Gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) is an acute, life-threatening syndrome of dogs, particularly large and giant breeds with a deep chest conformation. Rapid diagnosis is important for prompt initiation of stabilization therapy and surgical correction. Negative prognostic factors include hyperlactatemia not responding to fluid therapy, gastric perforation, or need for splenectomy or gastric resection. Gastropexy is essential for all dogs affected by GDV, following correct gastric repositioning. Prophylactic gastropexy for at-risk breeds can be performed via minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery. (Source: Veterinary Cli...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - January 24, 2022 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Desiree Rosselli Source Type: research

Updates in Thoracoscopy
Novel approaches and innovations in small animal thoracoscopy are being rapidly developed; this article aims to describe recent updates in commonly performed thoracoscopic procedures, including lung lobectomy, pericardiectomy and pericardial and cardiac neoplasia evaluation, chylothorax treatment, cranial mediastinal mass resection, persistent right aortic arch treatment, and management of pyothorax and primary spontaneous pneumothorax. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - January 24, 2022 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Valery Fairfax Scharf Source Type: research

Updates in Wound Management and Dressings
Wound healing is a complex process that traverses 4 main phases which overlap and are interdependent. Many patient-related factors can impede healing by disrupting the normal pathways from one phase to the next. Wound-related factors also determine the best techniques or dressings for each patient. Species differences between cats and dogs must be understood for the successful treatment of cats. New techniques such as fish skin graft application, photobiomodulation, and bioelectric dressings hold promise as an addition to our armamentarium against wounds. NPWT, hyperbaric oxygen, regenerative medicine techniques, and low-l...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - January 24, 2022 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Nicole J. Buote Source Type: research

Updates in Upper Respiratory Surgery
This article discusses updates in brachycephalic and other upper respiratory surgery of dogs and cats, including schemata for classifying brachycephalic dogs in terms of severity of disease and indications for monitoring and treatment, new characterizations of the primary and secondary components of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS), and updates to traditional brachycephalic airway surgical procedures as well as novel surgeries to treat BOAS, including laser-assisted turbinectomy, the cardiopulmonary effects of brachycephaly on some feline breeds, epiglottic entrapment and retroversion, and upper airway syn...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - January 24, 2022 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Heidi Phillips Source Type: research

Current Concepts in Urinary Surgery
Management of canine and feline ureteral obstructions and urinary incontinence can be both controversial and frustrating. There has been a movement toward minimally invasive procedures, which in certain cases, can be used to both confirm the diagnosis as well as treat the condition. This chapter focuses on the advancements in urologic surgery associated with ureteral obstruction and urinary incontinence with primary focus on ureteral stenting, subcutaneous ureteral bypass systems, transurethral bulking agents, and hydraulic occluders. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - January 24, 2022 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Pamela Schwartz Source Type: research

Updates in Laparoscopy
Minimally invasive surgery continues to be an active area of experimental and clinical research in veterinary medicine. The advances we make in this field correspond to multiple benefits for our patients. New MIS approaches (retroperitoneal, NOTES, robotics) continue to be investigated to provide better visualization and manipulation of important anatomic structures for specific procedures. Increasing the number of MIS techniques available to our patient population is of utmost concern for clinicians and owners and is encouraging exciting new clinical research. New technologies (near-infrared fluorescence, barbed suture, 3...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - January 24, 2022 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Nicole J. Buote Source Type: research

Updated Concepts in Oncologic Surgery: Apocrine Gland Anal Sac Adenocarcinoma and Mast Cell Tumors
Advancements within the field of veterinary surgical oncology are constantly presenting themselves, especially with continued development of comprehensive cancer programs. With the use of more advanced imaging techniques within veterinary medicine, tumor staging is improving and techniques novel to veterinary medicine are being evaluated for potential clinical application. Recommended tumor staging and treatment approach for apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma in dogs has evolved, with the anticipation of good long-term patient outcomes. Preoperative staging for mast cell tumors and recommendations for surgical margins ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - January 24, 2022 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Megan Ann Mickelson Source Type: research

Soft Tissue Surgery: Techniques and Topics for Every Practice and Experience Level
Soft tissue surgery includes topics from every body system and techniques doctors must master and use daily in practice. During my almost 2 decades in veterinary surgery, the complexity of soft tissue cases always appealed to me. It is with these cases that a doctor must meld the skills of a thorough physical examination, diagnostic test interpretation, surgical procedure decision making, and postoperative care management. Clinicians of all experience levels (new graduates to board-certified clinicians) and working in every type of practice (general practice to universities) require updated information on these surgical su...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - January 24, 2022 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Nicole J. Buote Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Communication, Veterinary –Client–Patient Relationship, and Teledentistry
Communication is the basis of any relationship. Communication can help strengthen the relationship between veterinarians, their clients, and their colleagues throughout the profession. Different models of communication have been demonstrated including the directive model, consumerism model, and relationship-centered model. When veterinarians refer to a specialist, they view the referral as an extension of the care they provide. Therefore, developing a relationship with the specialist is an important facet of patient care. Creating an appropriate veterinary –client–patient relationship (VCPR) helps the patient r...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - November 25, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Brenda L. Mulherin, Kristin M. Bannon Source Type: research

Diagnostic Imaging of Oral and Maxillofacial Anatomy and Pathology
This article describes the technical principles and indications for the most often encountered diagnostic imaging modalities in veterinary dentistry and oral surgery; with extensive coverage of intraoral (and extraoral) dental radiographic imaging and interpretation through detailed example figures of common dental and maxillofacial diseases in the dog and cat. Multidetector/multislice computed tomography (MDCT/MSCT) and emergent technologies such as cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) are presented here in detail. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diagnostic ultrasound, which are used less frequently, are briefly disc...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - November 25, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Lenin A. Villamizar-Martinez, Anson J. Tsugawa Source Type: research

Oral Microbiome in Dogs and Cats: Dysbiosis and the Utility of Antimicrobial Therapy in the Treatment of Periodontal Disease
Advances in gene sequence technology and data analysis have enabled the detection and taxonomic identification of microorganisms in  vivo based on their unique RNA or DNA sequences. Standard culture techniques can only detect those organisms that readily grow on artificial media in vitro. Culture-independent technology has been used to provide a more accurate assessment of the richness (total number of species) and diversity ( relative abundance of each species) of microorganisms present in a prescribed location. The microbiome has been defined as the genes and genomes of all microbial inhabitants within a define...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - November 25, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Eric M. Davis, J. Scott Weese Source Type: research

Designing and Equipping a Modern Dentistry and Oral Surgery Suite
Veterinary practices should consider designing and equipping a dedicated space to provide companion animal dental and oral surgical care. A single or multi-table dental suite design will allow organized and efficient delivery of dental care. Each workstation should be equipped with a procedural table that will allow for drainage, shadow-free procedural lighting, an anesthetic machine with monitoring, thermal support, anesthetic scavenger system, dental radiographic equipment, and an air-driven dental delivery system. Lift tables, dental-specific seating, swivel handpieces, and headlamp/surgical loupe lighting should also b...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - November 25, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Stephen Juriga, Sharon Startup Source Type: research

Management of Dental and Oral Developmental Conditions in Dogs and Cats
Developmental dental and oral disorders are present in juvenile patients less than 12 months of age. The conditions are diverse ranging from cosmetic only to requiring advanced surgical intervention to alleviate pain and secondary complications. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and appropriate treatment of dental abnormalities including abnormalities in the number, structure, size, and shape of teeth, as well as oral abnormalities including malocclusions, congenital cleft lip and palate, developmental abnormalities resulting in bony proliferation, and soft-tissue abnormalities of the lip and tongue are discussed throughou...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - November 25, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Stephanie Goldschmidt, Naomi Hoyer Source Type: research

Update on Endodontic, Restorative, and Prosthodontic Therapy
Endodontic therapy is intended to preserve the function of mature teeth with irreversible pulpitis or pulp necrosis or to maintain the vitality of endodontically compromised immature teeth. Standard root canal therapy and vital pulp therapy are 2 mainstays of endodontic treatment. Recent knowledge has improved the outcomes of endodontic treatment with newer materials, such as mineral trioxide aggregate. Composite or prosthodontic crown restoration is also a critical key to success. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - November 25, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Brian Hewitt, Curt Coffman Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Periodontal Infection and Systemic and Distant Organ Disease in Dogs
This article summarizes the information available. Reported changes include an increase in liver-generated acute-phase proteins in response to the infectious insult to the body and evidence of microscopic changes in renal, hepatic, and cardiac tissues. Treatment of periodontal infection results in a decrease in the acute-phase protein concentration, which supports the hypothesis that a cause-and-effect relationship exists between periodontal infection and distant organ changes. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - November 25, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Colin Harvey Source Type: research

Oral and Maxillofacial Tumor Management - From Biopsy to Surgical Removal
The main objective of oral and maxillofacial (OMF) tumor resection is to get local control of the disease. Many OMF tumors can be cured with wide or radical surgery, whereas others might only achieve temporary local control of the disease by removing infection and the source of pain, thereby improving the quality of life of the patient while keeping masticatory function. The standard of care on managing OMF tumors includes the diagnosis and identification of the local and distant extension of the disease to establish an appropriate treatment plan tailored for each patient. In this article, we provide a practical review of ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - November 25, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Ana C. Castej ón-González, Alexander M. Reiter Source Type: research

Patient Triage, First Aid Care, and Management of Oral and Maxillofacial Trauma
Maxillofacial trauma is a common presentation in veterinary medical practice. Accurate assessment, diagnostics, pain management, and finally repair are tenants to treatment. In addition to typical tenants for fracture repair, the restoration of occlusion and return to function (eating, drinking, grooming) are unique to trauma management in these patients. Options for repair include conservative management (tape muzzles), noninvasive repair techniques (interdental wiring and composite splinting), and invasive repair techniques (interfragmentary wiring and plate and screw fixation). (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North Ameri...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - November 25, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Christopher J. Snyder, Charles Lothamer Source Type: research

Role of the Veterinary Technicians and Hygienists in Veterinary Dentistry and Oral Surgery
It is important to remember that dentistry is one area of the veterinary practice that veterinary technicians/nurses/hygienists can take ownership of and drive the dental program forward under the supervision of a veterinarian. With proper training they can perform all skills except diagnosis and surgery. The veterinary technician/nurse/hygienist should educate the client about the dental procedure, perform a thorough oral examination and report findings on the dental chart, take dental radiographs, perform dental scaling and polishing, administer nerve blocks, administer perioceutics, maintain instruments and equipment, a...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - November 25, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Mary L. Berg, Jeanette M. Eliason Source Type: research

Management of Severe Oral Inflammatory Conditions in Dogs and Cats
This article discusses a brief review of important points in the oral diagnosis and management of main canine (canine chronic ulcerative stomatitis (CCUS), eosinophilic stomatitis, and Wegener ’s granulomatosis (WG)) and feline diseases (feline gingivostomatitis/caudal stomatitis, oral eosinophilic lesions, pyogenic granuloma, and autoimmune diseases with oral manifestations), and—whereby possible—information about the current understanding of disease pathogenesis and treatment is o ffered. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - November 25, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Jamie G. Anderson, Philippe Hennet Source Type: research

Virtual Surgical Planning and 3D Printing in Veterinary Dentistry and Oromaxillofacial Surgery
This article introduces the reader to the basic concepts involved in virtual surgical planning and 3D printing as well as their implementation in veterinary oromaxillofacial surgery. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - November 25, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Graham P. Thatcher, Jason W. Soukup Source Type: research

It ’s not Just Dentistry, It’s Dentistry and Oral Surgery!
When I completed my residency at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine (Penn Vet) in 2000, I felt comfortable performing a number of dental and oral surgical diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in dogs and cats. They included oral examination, dental radiography, nerve blocks, dental cleaning, periodontal surgery, tooth extraction, endodontic treatment, restorations and prosthodontic crowns, oral tumor resections, jaw fracture repair, palate defect surgery, temporomandibular joint procedures, and regional lymph node and salivary gland resections. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - November 25, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Alexander M. Reiter Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Veterinary Dentistry and Oral Surgery
VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA: SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - November 25, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: ALEXANDER M. REITER Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - November 25, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contributors
ALEXANDER M. REITER, Dipl Tzt, Dr Med Vet (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - November 25, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contents
Alexander M. Reiter (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - November 25, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Soft   Tissue Surgery (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - November 25, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Diagnostic Imaging: Point-of-Care Ultrasound
VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA: SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 2, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Gregory R. Lisciandro, Jennifer M. Gambino Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 2, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contributors
GREGORY R. LISCIANDRO, DVM (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 2, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contents
Gregory R. Lisciandro and Jennifer M. Gambino (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 2, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Veterinary Dentistry and Oral Surgery (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 2, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

TFAST Accurate Diagnosis of Pleural and Pericardial Effusion, Caudal Vena Cava in Dogs and Cats
TFAST, a standardized and validated thoracic point-of-care ultrasound examination, includes 5 acoustic windows: bilaterally applied chest tube site and pericardial site views plus diaphragmatico-hepatic view, also part of AFAST/ Vet BLUE. TFAST is used for rapid detection of pneumothorax and pleural and pericardial effusion. By following a set of TFAST rules, image interpretation errors are avoided, including mistaking cardiac chambers for effusion. Moreover, TFAST echocardiography is used as a screening test for chamber size and soft tissue abnormalities, volume status and contractility, and intracardiac abnormalities. (S...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 14, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Gregory R. Lisciandro Source Type: research

AFAST Target-Organ Approach and Fluid Scoring System in Dogs and Cats
Point-of-care ultrasonography as part of the physical examination is becoming considered a core skill. AFAST includes 5 acoustic windows over the abdomen and serves as a rapid screening test for free fluid (ascites, retroperitoneal, pleural and pericardial effusion) and soft tissue abnormalities (target-organ approach), and has an abdominal fluid scoring system (semiquantitating volume). Moreover, add-on skills are possible without additional views that include characterizing the caudal vena cava and hepatic veins (volume status), measuring the urinary bladder (volume estimation and urine output), screening for free air (p...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 14, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Gregory R. Lisciandro Source Type: research

Focused Ultrasound Examination of Canine and Feline Emergency Urinary Tract Disorders
This article discusses the usefulness of ultrasound examinations in the management of the patient with an emergency urinary tract disorder. It discusses the use of previously described point-of-care ultrasound protocols such as the abdominal focused assessment with sonography for trauma, triage, and tracking protocol in the unstable azotemic patient. Point-of-care ultrasound examination can help direct investigations and expedite the diagnosis of specific causes of azotemia. The limitations of point-of-care ultrasound assessment of the kidneys, ureter, bladder, and urethra are also addressed, emphasizing that point-of-care...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 14, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Laura Cole, Karen Humm, Helen Dirrig Source Type: research

Focused Ultrasound of the Fetus, Female and Male Reproductive Tracts, Pregnancy, and Dystocia in Dogs and Cats
This article covers image acquisition of the fetus and the reproductive organs of the female (cervix, gravid and nongravid uterus, and ovaries) and male (testicles and prostate) reproductive tracts. This article is a brief overview of normal sonographic anatomy and important clinical conditions for each sex using point-of-care ultrasound as a screening test. In addition to normal sonographic appearance and common conditions of the scrotum and testes, prostate, uterus, and ovaries, this article discusses the use of ultrasound for diagnosis of and evaluating pregnancy, fe tal maturation, and fetal stress during dystocia. (So...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 14, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Robert M. Fulton Source Type: research

Ocular Ultrasound Abnormalities and Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter in Dogs and Cats
Indications for, technique, and findings for normal and abnormal ocular ultrasound are discussed, with specific sonographic findings, images, differential diagnoses, and other considerations. Because the eye is a fluid-filled structure, ultrasound can be used as a screening test when pathology prevents direct examination. Structural abnormalities, such as lens luxation, retinal detachments, and intraocular and orbital masses, also may be defined better using point-of-care ultrasound. Details on additional ophthalmic diagnostics, treatment, and prognosis are not covered. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 14, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Jane Cho Source Type: research

Global FAST for Patient Monitoring and Staging in Dogs and Cats
Please verify if FAST should be expanded at first use – “focused assessment with sonography for trauma”?: Global FAST consists of abdominal FAST, thoracic FAST, and Vet BLUE combined as a single point-of-care ultrasound examination used as an extension of the physical examination. By applying its unbiased set of 15 data imaging points, informatio n is gained while avoiding image interpretation errors, such as satisfaction of search error and confirmation bias error, through selective POCUS imaging. Moreover, Global FAST is used for integrating information from both cavities, rapidly screening for the Hs a...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 14, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Gregory R. Lisciandro, Stephanie C. Lisciandro Source Type: research

Lung Ultrasound Fundamentals, “Wet Versus Dry” Lung, Signs of Consolidation in Dogs and Cats
Vet BLUE, a standardized and validated rapid lung ultrasound examination, includes 9 acoustic windows: 4 transthoracic bilaterally applied named Caudodorsal, Perihilar, Middle, and Cranial Lung Regions plus the Diaphragmatico-Hepatic view of AFAST/TFAST. Moreover, Vet BLUE has a B-line scoring system (weak positives —1, 2, and 3 and strong positives—>3 and infinite) that semiquantitate degree of alveolar-interstitial syndrome and a visual lung language for signs of consolidation (Shred Sign [air bronchogram], Tissue Sign [hepatization], Nodule Sign, and Wedge Sign [pulmonary infarction]). Using its regional,...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 14, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Gregory R. Lisciandro, Stephanie C. Lisciandro Source Type: research

Focused Ultrasound of Vascular System in Dogs and Cats —Thromboembolic Disease
In small animals, point-of-care ultrasound can be used by nonradiologist sonographers to identify thrombosis at several anatomic sites. Dogs and cats are well-suited for vascular interrogation using ultrasound because of their small body size. Ultrasound can be used to investigate targeted vessels based on clinical signs. The safety and tolerability of the examination makes this a useful modality to evaluate critical patients for evidence thromboembolic disease. Once vascular imaging techniques are learned they can be easily coupled with other point-of-care examinations such as focused cardiac ultrasound, Vet Blue, AFAST, ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 14, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Erin Mays, Kathryn Phillips Source Type: research

Lung Ultrasound for Pulmonary Contusions
Lung ultrasound (LUS) has high sensitivity for the rapid and reliable diagnosis of pulmonary contusions (PC) in patients who have sustained trauma. LUS diagnosis of PC exceeds that of thoracic radiographs in multiple animal and human studies. The sonographer should understand potential caveats and confounding variables for proper diagnosis of PC with LUS. LUS does not replace conventional radiography or computed tomography, especially in the polytrauma patient. LUS should be used concurrently with other point-of-care ultrasound trauma protocols to rapidly optimize patient assessment before movement to the radiology suite. ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 11, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Samuel A. Dicker Source Type: research

Focused Ultrasound of Superficial –Soft Tissue Swellings, Masses, and Fluid Collections in Dogs and Cats
Soft tissue swellings, masses, and fluid collections commonly occur in small animal patients and can be the main reason for the clinical examination of the patient or an incidental finding. Several of these masses are likely benign or nonneoplastic, and ultrasound can help further evaluate these lesions to guide treatment planning. Careful attention to optimizing the ultrasound technique and Doppler settings is necessary to ensure that the vascularization of a mass is assessed correctly. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 11, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Susanne Stieger-Vanegas Source Type: research

Lung Ultrasonography for Pneumothorax in Dogs and Cats
This article describes and discusses the lung ultrasonography criteria used to diagnose PTX in both human and small animal patients. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 9, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: S øren R. Boysen Source Type: research

Focused Canine Cardiac Ultrasound
Focused cardiac ultrasound (FCU) is a useful point-of-care imaging tool to assess cardiovascular status in symptomatic dogs in the acute care setting. Unlike complete echocardiography, FCU is a time-sensitive examination involving a subset of targeted ultrasound views to identify severe cardiac abnormalities and is performed as part of an integrated thoracic ultrasound including interrogation of the pleural space and lungs. When integrated with other clinical information, FCU can be helpful in the diagnosis of left-sided and right-sided congestive heart failure, pericardial effusion and tamponade, and severe pulmonary hype...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 9, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Teresa C. DeFrancesco, Jessica L. Ward Source Type: research

Point-of-Care Ultrasound: —The Awakening of a Sleeping Giant
In 1999, as a general practitioner, I declared my first attempt at learning ultrasound a failure after taking an abdominal ultrasound course. Thus, 7 years later as a resident in emergency and critical care (2005-2007), I was resistant to making FAST ultrasound part of my clinical research requirement. The phrase by my Intern Director (1991), the late Dr Michael Garvey, has always been part of my daily practice since: “never send a patient out the door (home) with something you could easily have diagnosed.” Shortly after learning and routinely applying AFAST and TFAST as an extension of the physical exam in 200...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 7, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Gregory R. Lisciandro, Jennifer M. Gambino Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Focused Cardiac Ultrasonography in Cats
This article reviews the definition, advantages, clinical indications, limitations, training recommendations, and a protocol for FCU in cats. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - August 25, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Kerry Loughran Source Type: research

Valuing Diversity in the Team
One of the most impactful ways to create a dynamic team is to foster diversity and inclusivity within the workplace. Workplaces have become more heterogenous as advances in human, women, and civil rights group have spurred greater labor force participation by members of historically underrepresented groups. Studies have shown that leveraging diversity has important implications for the promotion of positive organization change through facilitation of individual and organization performance. Diverse clientele may be more comfortable and feel more welcome working with people in a diverse workplace. (Source: Veterinary Clinic...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - August 3, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Adesola Odunayo, Zenithson Y. Ng Source Type: research

Veterinary Clinical Ethics and Patient Care Dilemmas
This article discusses ethical considerations and principles and propose use of the 4Es model and core communication skills to address ethical dilemmas in veterinary practice. It reviews literature defining ethical issues in practice and provides case examples to show the application of our proposed methods. The goal is to provide veterinary professionals with an approach they can use to frame and address their own ethical decisions. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - August 3, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Callie Fogle, Joanne Intile, Mary Katherine Sheats Source Type: research