Canine Nasal Disease
Nasal disease in dogs is common and is often accompanied by chronic nasal discharge with or without other clinical signs. A thorough history and physical examination often guide the most appropriate choice of diagnostic testing to provide the best chance of attaining a diagnosis as to cause, and therefore, the most appropriate treatment. The purpose of this article is to guide the practitioner through a logical approach to the evaluation of dogs that are presented with signs of nasal disease. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - December 12, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Leah A. Cohn Source Type: research

Bacterial Pneumonia in Dogs and Cats
Bacterial pneumonia is a common clinical diagnosis in dogs but seems to occur less often in cats. Underlying causes include viral infection, aspiration injury, foreign body inhalation, and defects in clearance of respiratory secretions. Identification of the specific organisms involved in disease, appropriate use of antibiotics and adjunct therapy, and control of risk factors for pneumonia improve management. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - December 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Jonathan D. Dear Source Type: research

Canine and Feline Exudative Pleural Diseases
This article covers the pathophysiology, development, and classification of exudative pleural effusions. The most current diagnostic strategies, causes, imaging findings, and medical or surgical treatment options for select diseases are reviewed in detail. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - December 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Steven E. Epstein, Ingrid M. Balsa Source Type: research

Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease
Canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC) refers to a syndrome of diseases that can be caused by several different bacterial and viral pathogens. These pathogens are often highly contagious, and coinfections are common. Clinical signs are frequently mild and self-limiting; however, some individual cases progress to severe disease. Clinical diagnosis of CIRDC is often based on history of exposure and physical examination findings; however, determining the etiologic agent requires application of specific diagnostic tests, and results can be difficult to interpret because of widespread subclinical infections. (Sou...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - December 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Krystle L. Reagan, Jane E. Sykes Source Type: research

Feline Asthma
This article discusses potential pitfalls in the diagnosis of asthma. In addition, current literature investigating new diagnostic tests and therapies for feline asthma is reviewed. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - December 4, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Julie E. Trzil Source Type: research

Canine Chronic Bronchitis
Chronic bronchitis is a syndrome defined by cough on most days for at least 2 months for which no specific cause can be identified. Older small breed dogs are most commonly affected, but bronchitis can also be documented in midsized and larger breed dogs. Diagnostic testing includes physical examination, laboratory testing, radiography, and airway evaluation via bronchoscopy, cytology, and culture. Treatment is directed at reducing exposure to irritants, reducing airway inflammation, and controlling cough. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - December 4, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Elizabeth Rozanski Source Type: research

Respiratory Diseases in Dogs and Cats
Respiratory medicine remains a field rich in discovery through research as well as through clinical practice. This issue of Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice brings together a group of talented, practicing veterinarians from academic institutions and specialty hospitals that has extensive clinical experience managing cases involving the respiratory tract. Authors share their knowledge with the reader and provide a review of the literature on common diseases, including feline asthma, laryngeal paralysis, pneumonia, and bronchomalacia. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - November 23, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Lynelle R. Johnson Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Minimally Invasive Fracture Repair of the Tibia and Fibula
Fractures of the tibia and fibula are common in dogs and cats and occur most commonly as a result of substantial trauma. Tibial fractures are particularly amenable to treatment using minimally invasive fracture repair (MIFR) techniques that preserve blood supply to comminuted fracture fragments, accelerating bone callus production and speeding fracture healing. Treatment of tibial fractures using MIFR techniques has been found to reduce surgical time, reduce the time for fracture healing, and to decrease patient morbidity, while at the same time reducing complications compared with traditional open reduction and internal f...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - November 14, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Brian Beale, Ryan McCally Source Type: research

Minimally Invasive Fracture Repair
VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA: SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - November 14, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Karl C. Maritato, Matthew D. Barnhart Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - November 14, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contributors
KARL C. MARITATO, DVM (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - November 14, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contents
Karl C. Maritato and Matthew D. Barnhart (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - November 14, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Canine and Feline Respiratory Medicine: An Update (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - November 14, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Minimally Invasive Fracture Repair
Throughout the history of fracture repair, there are numerous descriptions of minimally invasive repair implants and techniques that have fallen in and out of favor. In 1886, Carl Hansmann invented the first plate and screws (which were locking) for use in humans. They were placed externally with the plate above the skin and the screws going through the skin into the bone, ultimately an early example of minimally invasive fracture repair (MIFR). Eventually the plates and screws made their way under the skin, and over time the preferred techniques of fracture repair involved opening the fracture site and precise anatomic re...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Karl C. Maritato, Matthew D. Barnhart Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Minimally Invasive Osteosynthesis Techniques of the Femur
A thorough working knowledge of the anatomic landmarks of the femur facilitates anatomic alignment during minimally invasive osteosynthesis (MIO). A variety of fixation techniques, including plate, plate-rod, and interlocking nail, are well suited for stabilization of femoral shaft fractures with MIO techniques. Axis and torsional alignment can be assessed with various intraoperative techniques to ensure that anatomic alignment is obtained. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 24, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Michael P. Kowaleski Source Type: research

Interlocking Nails and Minimally Invasive Osteosynthesis
Reviews of clinical outcomes led to the foundation of a new approach in fracture management known as biological osteosynthesis. As intramedullary rods featuring cannulations and locking devices at both extremities, interlocking nails are well suited for bridging osteosynthesis. Unique biological and mechanical benefits make them ideal for minimally invasive nail osteosynthesis and an attractive, effective alternative to plating, particularly in revisions of failed plate osteosynthesis. Thanks to a new angle-stable locking design, interlocking nailing indications have been expanded to osteosynthesis of epi-metaphyseal fract...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 24, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Lo ïc M. Déjardin, Karen L. Perry, Dirsko J.F. von Pfeil, Laurent P. Guiot Source Type: research

Percutaneous Plate Arthrodesis
Arthrodesis is an elective surgical procedure that aims at eliminating pain and dysfunction by promoting deliberate osseous fusion of the involved joint(s). Percutaneous plating can be used to perform carpal and tarsal arthrodeses in dogs and cats. After cartilage debridement is performed, the plate is introduced through separate plate insertion incisions made remote to the arthrodesis site and advanced along an epiperiosteal tunnel, and screws are inserted through the 3 existing skin incisions. The primary advantage of this technique is a decreased risk of soft-tissue complications, including postoperative swelling, ische...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 22, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Antonio Pozzi, Daniel D. Lewis, Caleb C. Hudson, Stanley E. Kim, Emanuele Castelli Source Type: research

Percutaneous Pinning for Fracture Repair in Dogs and Cats
This article describes the technique of percutaneous pinning in dogs and cats. Only acute fractures evaluated within the first 48  hours after trauma are selected for percutaneous pinning. Reduction is performed with careful manipulation of the fracture to minimize the trauma to the growth plate. After ensuring the fracture is reduced anatomically, smooth pins of appropriate size are inserted through stab incisions or through large-gauge needles. Depending on the anatomic location, the pins are cut flush with the bone or bent over. The main advantages of this technique are the minimal surgical trauma and lower periope...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 22, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Caleb C. Hudson, Stanley E. Kim, Antonio Pozzi Source Type: research

Minimally Invasive Repair of Sacroiliac Luxation
Sacroiliac fracture-luxation is a common injury that is associated with ilial and acetabular fractures of the opposite hemipelvis. Sacroiliac fracture-luxation results in an unstable pelvis and potentially collapse of the pelvic canal. A minimally invasive approach to the reduction and insertion of a screw for fixation of sacroiliac fracture-luxation using fluoroscopic guidance is viable. The advantages of using this technique are that a small incision is made with minimal soft tissue disruption and the surgical time is short. Recent publications have documented that this technique provided superior repair of sacroiliac fr...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 22, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: James Tomlinson Source Type: research

Perioperative Imaging in Minimally Invasive Osteosynthesis
Diagnostic and interventional imaging techniques are an integral part of the surgical planning and execution of any orthopedic procedure. Although this statement is true with conventional osteosynthesis, the reliance on imaging techniques is even more pronounced when minimally invasive surgery is used to achieve fracture repair. In minimally invasive osteosynthesis (MIO), surgical approaches are minimalistic and performed away from the injury sites, which impedes the surgeon ’s ability to ascertain proper surgical execution. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 21, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Laurent P. Guiot, Lo ïc M. Déjardin Source Type: research

Meta-bone fracture repair via Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis
A concise review of the history of meta-bone fracture repair is provided. The relevant surgical anatomy, available instrumentation, and execution of preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative surgical care using minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis are discussed in detail. A short discussion that touches on future directions for care of meta-bone fractures follows. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 21, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Charles S. McBrien Source Type: research

Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis Fracture Reduction Techniques in Small Animals
Indirect fracture reduction is used to align diaphyseal fractures when using minimally invasive fracture repair. Indirect reduction achieves functional fracture reduction without opening the fracture site. The limb is restored to length and spatial alignment is achieved to ensure proper angular and rotational alignment. Fracture reduction can be accomplished using a variety of techniques and devices, including hanging the limb, manual traction, distraction table, external fixators, and fracture distractors. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 18, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Bruno Peirone, Gian Luca Rovesti, Alessandro Boero Baroncelli, Lisa Adele Piras Source Type: research

Minimally Invasive Osteosynthesis Techniques for Humerus Fractures
A thorough knowledge of humeral anatomy is critical to performing minimally invasive techniques. Fluoroscopy, when available, is invaluable in optimizing fracture repair with minimally invasive techniques. Minimally invasive approaches decrease morbidity and allow an earlier return to function. Minimally invasive fracture repair is performed using implant systems similar to open approaches. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 18, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Karl C. Maritato, Gian Luca Rovesti Source Type: research

Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis
This article describes the MIPO technique, which entails stabilization of the fractured radius with a bone plate and screws that are applied without performing an extensive open surgical approach. This technique results in good outcomes, including a rapid time to union and return of function. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 18, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Caleb C. Hudson, Daniel D. Lewis, Antonio Pozzi Source Type: research

Biomechanics of Fracture Fixation
This article reviews the biomechanical parameters of fracture repair that influence construct stiffness and strength. The stiffness influences the relative motion between fracture fragments, known as gap strain, and, thus, callus development. Construct strength determines the magnitude and number of load events that the repair can resist before failure. Surgeons must optimize these parameters in order to achieve satisfactory outcomes for the patients. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 18, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Simon Roe Source Type: research

Minimally Invasive Osteosynthesis Techniques for Articular Fractures
Articular fractures are common injuries in veterinary medicine. The principles of articular fracture repair are anatomic reduction and rigid fixation in order to optimize joint function. Fluoroscopy and arthroscopy are tools commonly used to allow for anatomic reduction with a minimally invasive approach. Minimally invasive techniques can decrease morbidity and promote an early return to function. Different types of articular fractures and options for minimally invasive repair are reviewed in this article. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 18, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Grayson Cole, Brian Beale Source Type: research

Unique Differences of Minimally Invasive Fracture Repair in the Feline
This article highlights the differences in cats relevant to minimally invasive fracture repair and how they affect a surgeon’s approach to fractures in cats. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 18, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Karl C. Maritato, Philipp Schmierer, Antonio Pozzi Source Type: research

Pitfalls of Minimally Invasive Fracture Repair
This article describes some of t he general MIFR challenges a surgeon may encounter. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 15, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Matthew Barnhart Source Type: research

Locoregional Anesthesia for Hind Limbs
The field of locoregional anesthesia is showing good and promising results for intraoperative and postoperative analgesia, reducing opioid requirements and improving early postoperative recovery. Peripheral nerve blocks are being reinvigorated as a viable option to decrease the administration of opioids and some of the consequences of their use and yet provide high-quality analgesia. In this article, techniques to block the pelvic limb are discussed. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 1, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Luis Campoy Source Type: research

Immunomodulatory Effects of Surgery, Pain, and Opioids in Cancer Patients
Surgery is the mainstay of therapy for canine and human solid cancers. Alarmingly, evidence suggests that the process of surgery may exacerbate metastasis and accelerate the kinetics of cancer progression. Understanding the mechanisms by which cancer progression is accelerated as a result of surgery may provide pharmacologic interventions. This review discusses surgery-induced cancer progression. It focuses on immunomodulatory properties of anesthesia and opioids and evidence that studies evaluating the role of opioids in tumor progression are indicated. It concludes by discussing why companion animals with spontaneously a...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 1, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: James A. Perry, Hope Douglas Source Type: research

Alternatives to Opioid Analgesia in Small Animal Anesthesia
VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA: SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 1, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Ciara Barr, Giacomo Gianotti Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 1, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contributors
CIARA BARR, VMD (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 1, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contents
Erratumix (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 1, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Minimally Invasive Fracture Repair (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 1, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Erratum
An error was made in the July 2019 issue of Veterinary Clinics: Small Animal Practice (Volume 49, Issue 4, p. 703-718) in the article “Optimal Vector-borne Disease Screening in Dogs Using Both Serology-based and Polymerase Chain Reaction-based Diagnostic Panels” by Dr. Linda Kidd. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 14, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Acupuncture for the Treatment of Animal Pain
This article discusses the currently recognized components of the pain pathways that are modified by acupuncture. It introduces the role of fibroblasts and fascia in mechanotransduction and discusses the ways in which this provides a link between the acupuncture needle and the nervous system and is a conduit for extracellular fluid movement, lymphatics, and the immune system. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 13, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Bonnie D. Wright Source Type: research

Locoregional Anesthesia of the Head
Locoregional (local and regional) anesthesia is used routinely during surgical procedures of the head. The goal of this article is to provide a practical guide for the clinician to safely perform different techniques in dogs and cats and to minimize the risk of complications associated with locoregional anesthesia. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 11, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Ana C. Castej ón-González, Alexander M. Reiter Source Type: research

Antiinflammatory Drugs
This article reviews the mechanisms of action, clinical use, and recent scientific evidence for the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, grapiprant, acetaminophen (paracetamol), metamizole (dipyrone), and corticosteroids in pain management. The discussion is presented with an emphasis on the treatment of acute pain. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 10, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Beatriz Monteiro, Paulo V. Steagall Source Type: research

Locoregional Anesthesia of the Thoracic Limbs and Thorax in Small Animals
This article provides an overview of some techniques described using objective methods of nerve location, which can be used to provide perioperative locoregional anesthesia and analgesia to the thoracic limb and thorax. The approaches described may be used to decrease the perioperative use of opioids in small animals. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 3, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Diego A. Portela, Marta Romano, Pablo E. Otero Source Type: research

Epidural and Spinal Anesthesia
Epidural and spinal anesthesia with a combination of local anesthetics and opioids (when available) is a commonly used technique in veterinary medicine and a safe one when practiced under strict guidelines. It is a valuable tool in the analgesic armamentarium and can greatly extend the ability to provide analgesia and reduce postoperative opioid requirements. As with all regional anesthetic techniques, clinical experience should be gained in order to practice it efficiently, and care should be taken to minimize the risks and complications associated with its use. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 3, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Manuel Martin-Flores Source Type: research

Alternatives to Opioid Analgesia in Small Animal Anesthesia
Alpha-2 agonists have potent analgesic effects, in addition to their sedative actions. Alpha-2 agonists provide analgesia through any of several routes of administration, including parenteral, oral, epidural or intrathecal and intraarticular, because of spinal and supraspinal actions. Systemic doses are short acting, whereas local administration at the site of action result in longer analgesic effects. The potent cardiovascular and respiratory effects of alpha-2 agonists should be considered when used as analgesics. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - August 31, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Alexander Valverde, Alicia M. Skelding Source Type: research

Local Anesthetics
Local anesthetics are the only class of drugs that can block transduction and transmission of nociception. Physical properties, mechanism of action, and pharmacokinetics of this class of drugs are reviewed in this article. The clinical use, such intravenous administration of lidocaine, and local and systemic toxic effects are covered. A review of current studies published in the human and veterinary literature on lidocaine patches (Lidoderm) and liposomal bupivacaine (Experal and Nocita) are discussed. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - August 30, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Michele Barletta, Rachel Reed Source Type: research

Adjuvant Analgesics in Acute Pain Management
This article reviews the mechanisms of action, clinical use, potential adverse effects, and current evidence of adjuvant analgesics in the treatment of acute pain in companion animals. These drugs should be considered as alternatives aimed at reducing or replacing opioids. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - August 30, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: H élène L.M. Ruel, Paulo V. Steagall Source Type: research

Rehabilitation Therapy in Perioperative Pain Management
This article presents research-based evidence to support the use of these modalities in pain management and to reduce the use of pain medications, including opioids. The mechanism of action, applications, contraindications, and adverse effects of cryotherapy, pulsed electromagnetic field therapy, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and laser therapy are reviewed. Incorporation of 1 or more of these therapies in anesthesia pain management protocols can improve outcomes and reduce potential drug side effects. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - August 28, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Molly J. Flaherty Source Type: research

From Crisis to Opportunity
Currently, on average, 130 people die daily in the United States due to opioid overdosage.1 The opioid epidemic has become a national crisis due to the overprescribing of potent oral opioids in human medicine. To quote drug policy expert, Keith Humphreys2:The biggest misconception is that the US is normal in how it handles prescription opioids.So let ’s compare ourselves to another country. Japan, for example. Older population than us; you would think more aches and pains. Universal access to health care, so more opportunities to prescribe. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - August 7, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Ciara Barr, Giacomo Gianotti Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Recent Advancements in Veterinary Oncology
We are entering an exciting time in veterinary oncology, whereby the seeds planted within the comparative oncology realm many years ago are now coming to bloom in the form of a greater molecular understanding of cancer in companion animals. The comparative animal model has garnered significant interest in both industry and academia, and the ensuing research has yielded breakthrough discoveries from advanced diagnostics to novel therapies, the sum of which provides opportunities to improve the longevity and quality of life of our patients. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - July 23, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Philip J. Bergman, Craig A. Clifford Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Cancer in Companion Animals
VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA: SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - July 23, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Philip J. Bergman, Craig A. Clifford Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - July 23, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contributors
PHILIP J. BERGMAN, DVM, MS, PhD (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - July 23, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research