TFAST Accurate Diagnosis of Pleural and Pericardial Effusion, Caudal Vena Cava in Dogs and Cats
TFAST, a standardized and validated thoracic point-of-care ultrasound examination, includes 5 acoustic windows: bilaterally applied chest tube site and pericardial site views plus diaphragmatico-hepatic view, also part of AFAST/ Vet BLUE. TFAST is used for rapid detection of pneumothorax and pleural and pericardial effusion. By following a set of TFAST rules, image interpretation errors are avoided, including mistaking cardiac chambers for effusion. Moreover, TFAST echocardiography is used as a screening test for chamber size and soft tissue abnormalities, volume status and contractility, and intracardiac abnormalities. (S...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 14, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Gregory R. Lisciandro Source Type: research

AFAST Target-Organ Approach and Fluid Scoring System in Dogs and Cats
Point-of-care ultrasonography as part of the physical examination is becoming considered a core skill. AFAST includes 5 acoustic windows over the abdomen and serves as a rapid screening test for free fluid (ascites, retroperitoneal, pleural and pericardial effusion) and soft tissue abnormalities (target-organ approach), and has an abdominal fluid scoring system (semiquantitating volume). Moreover, add-on skills are possible without additional views that include characterizing the caudal vena cava and hepatic veins (volume status), measuring the urinary bladder (volume estimation and urine output), screening for free air (p...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 14, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Gregory R. Lisciandro Source Type: research

Focused Ultrasound Examination of Canine and Feline Emergency Urinary Tract Disorders
This article discusses the usefulness of ultrasound examinations in the management of the patient with an emergency urinary tract disorder. It discusses the use of previously described point-of-care ultrasound protocols such as the abdominal focused assessment with sonography for trauma, triage, and tracking protocol in the unstable azotemic patient. Point-of-care ultrasound examination can help direct investigations and expedite the diagnosis of specific causes of azotemia. The limitations of point-of-care ultrasound assessment of the kidneys, ureter, bladder, and urethra are also addressed, emphasizing that point-of-care...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 14, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Laura Cole, Karen Humm, Helen Dirrig Source Type: research

Focused Ultrasound of the Fetus, Female and Male Reproductive Tracts, Pregnancy, and Dystocia in Dogs and Cats
This article covers image acquisition of the fetus and the reproductive organs of the female (cervix, gravid and nongravid uterus, and ovaries) and male (testicles and prostate) reproductive tracts. This article is a brief overview of normal sonographic anatomy and important clinical conditions for each sex using point-of-care ultrasound as a screening test. In addition to normal sonographic appearance and common conditions of the scrotum and testes, prostate, uterus, and ovaries, this article discusses the use of ultrasound for diagnosis of and evaluating pregnancy, fe tal maturation, and fetal stress during dystocia. (So...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 14, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Robert M. Fulton Source Type: research

Ocular Ultrasound Abnormalities and Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter in Dogs and Cats
Indications for, technique, and findings for normal and abnormal ocular ultrasound are discussed, with specific sonographic findings, images, differential diagnoses, and other considerations. Because the eye is a fluid-filled structure, ultrasound can be used as a screening test when pathology prevents direct examination. Structural abnormalities, such as lens luxation, retinal detachments, and intraocular and orbital masses, also may be defined better using point-of-care ultrasound. Details on additional ophthalmic diagnostics, treatment, and prognosis are not covered. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 14, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Jane Cho Source Type: research

Global FAST for Patient Monitoring and Staging in Dogs and Cats
Please verify if FAST should be expanded at first use – “focused assessment with sonography for trauma”?: Global FAST consists of abdominal FAST, thoracic FAST, and Vet BLUE combined as a single point-of-care ultrasound examination used as an extension of the physical examination. By applying its unbiased set of 15 data imaging points, informatio n is gained while avoiding image interpretation errors, such as satisfaction of search error and confirmation bias error, through selective POCUS imaging. Moreover, Global FAST is used for integrating information from both cavities, rapidly screening for the Hs a...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 14, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Gregory R. Lisciandro, Stephanie C. Lisciandro Source Type: research

Lung Ultrasound Fundamentals, “Wet Versus Dry” Lung, Signs of Consolidation in Dogs and Cats
Vet BLUE, a standardized and validated rapid lung ultrasound examination, includes 9 acoustic windows: 4 transthoracic bilaterally applied named Caudodorsal, Perihilar, Middle, and Cranial Lung Regions plus the Diaphragmatico-Hepatic view of AFAST/TFAST. Moreover, Vet BLUE has a B-line scoring system (weak positives —1, 2, and 3 and strong positives—>3 and infinite) that semiquantitate degree of alveolar-interstitial syndrome and a visual lung language for signs of consolidation (Shred Sign [air bronchogram], Tissue Sign [hepatization], Nodule Sign, and Wedge Sign [pulmonary infarction]). Using its regional,...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 14, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Gregory R. Lisciandro, Stephanie C. Lisciandro Source Type: research

Focused Ultrasound of Vascular System in Dogs and Cats —Thromboembolic Disease
In small animals, point-of-care ultrasound can be used by nonradiologist sonographers to identify thrombosis at several anatomic sites. Dogs and cats are well-suited for vascular interrogation using ultrasound because of their small body size. Ultrasound can be used to investigate targeted vessels based on clinical signs. The safety and tolerability of the examination makes this a useful modality to evaluate critical patients for evidence thromboembolic disease. Once vascular imaging techniques are learned they can be easily coupled with other point-of-care examinations such as focused cardiac ultrasound, Vet Blue, AFAST, ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 14, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Erin Mays, Kathryn Phillips Source Type: research

Lung Ultrasound for Pulmonary Contusions
Lung ultrasound (LUS) has high sensitivity for the rapid and reliable diagnosis of pulmonary contusions (PC) in patients who have sustained trauma. LUS diagnosis of PC exceeds that of thoracic radiographs in multiple animal and human studies. The sonographer should understand potential caveats and confounding variables for proper diagnosis of PC with LUS. LUS does not replace conventional radiography or computed tomography, especially in the polytrauma patient. LUS should be used concurrently with other point-of-care ultrasound trauma protocols to rapidly optimize patient assessment before movement to the radiology suite. ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 11, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Samuel A. Dicker Source Type: research

Focused Ultrasound of Superficial –Soft Tissue Swellings, Masses, and Fluid Collections in Dogs and Cats
Soft tissue swellings, masses, and fluid collections commonly occur in small animal patients and can be the main reason for the clinical examination of the patient or an incidental finding. Several of these masses are likely benign or nonneoplastic, and ultrasound can help further evaluate these lesions to guide treatment planning. Careful attention to optimizing the ultrasound technique and Doppler settings is necessary to ensure that the vascularization of a mass is assessed correctly. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 11, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Susanne Stieger-Vanegas Source Type: research

Lung Ultrasonography for Pneumothorax in Dogs and Cats
This article describes and discusses the lung ultrasonography criteria used to diagnose PTX in both human and small animal patients. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 9, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: S øren R. Boysen Source Type: research

Focused Canine Cardiac Ultrasound
Focused cardiac ultrasound (FCU) is a useful point-of-care imaging tool to assess cardiovascular status in symptomatic dogs in the acute care setting. Unlike complete echocardiography, FCU is a time-sensitive examination involving a subset of targeted ultrasound views to identify severe cardiac abnormalities and is performed as part of an integrated thoracic ultrasound including interrogation of the pleural space and lungs. When integrated with other clinical information, FCU can be helpful in the diagnosis of left-sided and right-sided congestive heart failure, pericardial effusion and tamponade, and severe pulmonary hype...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 9, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Teresa C. DeFrancesco, Jessica L. Ward Source Type: research

Point-of-Care Ultrasound: —The Awakening of a Sleeping Giant
In 1999, as a general practitioner, I declared my first attempt at learning ultrasound a failure after taking an abdominal ultrasound course. Thus, 7 years later as a resident in emergency and critical care (2005-2007), I was resistant to making FAST ultrasound part of my clinical research requirement. The phrase by my Intern Director (1991), the late Dr Michael Garvey, has always been part of my daily practice since: “never send a patient out the door (home) with something you could easily have diagnosed.” Shortly after learning and routinely applying AFAST and TFAST as an extension of the physical exam in 200...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - September 7, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Gregory R. Lisciandro, Jennifer M. Gambino Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Focused Cardiac Ultrasonography in Cats
This article reviews the definition, advantages, clinical indications, limitations, training recommendations, and a protocol for FCU in cats. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - August 25, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Kerry Loughran Source Type: research

Valuing Diversity in the Team
One of the most impactful ways to create a dynamic team is to foster diversity and inclusivity within the workplace. Workplaces have become more heterogenous as advances in human, women, and civil rights group have spurred greater labor force participation by members of historically underrepresented groups. Studies have shown that leveraging diversity has important implications for the promotion of positive organization change through facilitation of individual and organization performance. Diverse clientele may be more comfortable and feel more welcome working with people in a diverse workplace. (Source: Veterinary Clinic...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - August 3, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Adesola Odunayo, Zenithson Y. Ng Source Type: research

Veterinary Clinical Ethics and Patient Care Dilemmas
This article discusses ethical considerations and principles and propose use of the 4Es model and core communication skills to address ethical dilemmas in veterinary practice. It reviews literature defining ethical issues in practice and provides case examples to show the application of our proposed methods. The goal is to provide veterinary professionals with an approach they can use to frame and address their own ethical decisions. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - August 3, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Callie Fogle, Joanne Intile, Mary Katherine Sheats Source Type: research

Effective Communication in Veterinary Medicine
VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA: SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - August 3, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Christopher A. Adin, Kelly D. Farnsworth Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - August 3, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contributors
CHRISTOPHER A. ADIN, DVM (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - August 3, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Contents
Christopher A. Adin and Kelly D. Farnsworth (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - August 3, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Diagnostic Imaging: Point-of-Care Ultrasound (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - August 3, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Erratum
In the article, “Nutritional Management for Dogs and Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease,” by Valerie J. Parker, published in the May 2021 issue (Volume 51, number 3, pages 685-710), in Table 3 on page 12, for the “2020 AAFCO Feline adult maintenance maximum requirement” under the “Vitamin D (IU)”, the co rrect number should be 752 instead of 75.2. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - August 3, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Addressing Unsatisfactory Performance in Employees
This article provides veterinarians with the tools to structure an evaluation system in their practice that will turn a dreaded task into a mechanism to improve workplace culture and performance. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - July 5, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Christopher A. Adin Source Type: research

Dealing with Unsatisfactory Performance in Employees
This article provides veterinarians with the tools to structure an evaluation system in their practice that will turn a dreaded task into a mechanism to improve workplace culture and performance. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - July 5, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Christopher A. Adin Source Type: research

The Mentor-Mentee Relationship, Addressing Challenges in Veterinary Medicine Together
This article provides a summary of the current veterinary and medical literature concerning mentor-mentee relationships. In particular, the authors discuss how mentorship may be expanded and improved to address current challenges faced by the veterinary profession. They consider both the positive effects of mentorship on retention and recruitment, mental well-being, and competency, as well as the potential negatives or downsides of mentorship. Although rigorous, controlled studies are rare, the available evidence indicates that mentorship may be a key method to restore career satisfaction in veterinary medicine. Further st...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - July 5, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Yvonne Elce Source Type: research

Leading and Influencing Culture Change
Veterinary practices must continuously change to meet the needs of their clients, maintain the standard of patient care, and remain profitable. Ultimately, all changes boil down to the incorporation of new behaviors by the practice employees. However, human nature tends to resist change and most of the change initiatives will fail unless they are guided by a well-defined process of generating a sense of urgency, recruiting a team of opinion leaders, involving the employees, and removing barriers to change. This chapter reviews the barriers to change and will outline a proven process for enacting change in your team. (Sourc...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - July 2, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Christopher A. Adin Source Type: research

Communicating Patient Quality and Safety in Your Hospital
Discussing medical quality starts with defining quality. Human health care publications identify safety, timeliness, efficiency, effectiveness, equity, and patient centeredness as important components of medical quality. Safety is foremost as medical errors are a leading cause of patient death. Studies examining patient outcomes have found that culture is critical. Cultures that emphasize communication, open discussion, and continuous improvement lead to improved patient survival and decreased medical errors. Leadership, training, staff meetings, and processes for gathering input all contribute to a culture of safety. Disc...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - July 2, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Beth Davidow Source Type: research

A Strategy for Effective Generational Communication in Veterinary Medicine
In today ’s veterinary practices, 5 generations (traditionalists, baby boomers, Generation X, millennials, and Generation Z), each with a unique way of looking at the world, are trying to work together effectively. Common strategies for managing this multigenerational workplace include villainizing “othe r” generations or merely tolerating their presence. Conflict, disagreements, and misunderstanding often get in the way of practicing quality medicine. Thus, veterinary health professionals must develop strategies that allow for effective communication, not only within the practice but also with cl ients, ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - July 2, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Elizabeth M. Charles, Kelly Farnsworth Source Type: research

Challenges in Intercultural Communication
This article focuses on both awareness and skills to aid this process. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - July 1, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Kelly Farnsworth Source Type: research

Compassion Fatigue
This article reviews what is known about empathy in a medical setting and how it relates to negative mental health outcomes, such as compassion fatigue. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - July 1, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Kelly Harrison Source Type: research

Suicide Warning Signs and What to Do
This article will provide an overview of the problem of suicide, including suicide risk factors and warning signs, protective factors, and what we can all do to prevent this leading cause of death. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - July 1, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Christine Moutier, Maggie G. Mortali Source Type: research

Communications Training: The Next Level
To effectively communicate, we must realize that we are all different in the way we perceive the world and use this understanding as a guide to our communication with others. —Tony RobbinsVeterinary medicine has changed significantly since the Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice dedicated its first issue to the topic of communication in 2007. At that time, early adopters had recognized the importance of communication skills in veterinary practice , and their efforts contributed to the incorporation of communications training into the accreditation standards of the American Veterinary Medical As...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - June 22, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Christopher A. Adin, Kelly Farnsworth Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Preventive Health Care for Working Dogs
This article covers the basic essential preventive health guidelines for all working dogs as well as the specific breed, occupational, and regional considerations to be taken into account. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - May 29, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Marcella Ridgway Source Type: research

Anesthetic Considerations for Working Dogs
Working dogs pose unique concerns and challenges to the veterinary practitioner. In this article, the authors review the best practices and clinical pearls for anesthetizing working dogs for both routine and emergent procedures. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - May 29, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Ashley Mitek, Jacob Johnson Source Type: research

Working Dog Dentistry
Working dogs serve different functions based on their trained purpose. Due to the nature of their work, they are prone to traumatic dentoalveolar injuries (TDIs). TDIs include tooth wear, fracture, discoloration, and displacement. Undiagnosed or untreated TDIs result in pain, which could lead to poor performance. Veterinarians should educate handlers on potential injuries and perform a thorough oral examination and appropriate diagnostics to identify any oral abnormalities and initiate treatment. The primary goal of treatment is to return dogs to normal function so that they can continue to perform their assigned duty at m...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - May 29, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Stephen Juriga, Karin Bilyard Source Type: research

Current Rules and Regulations for Dogs Working in Assistance, Service, and Support Roles
The legal landscape for dogs working in assistance, service, and support roles is complicated and contradictory. Regulations permit access to public places, allow subsets of dogs ’ emergency transport and treatment, provide elevated protections for K-9s and assistance animals from criminal acts, and make it a crime to fraudulently represent a service animal. Federal and state agencies provide different regulations for dogs to access public places. Identification and verifi cation of the working animal are not standardized. Working dog legislation is a changing landscape that requires veterinarians to be up to date on...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - May 29, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Maureen A. McMichael, Martha Smith-Blackmore Source Type: research

Canine Special Senses
This article provides a brief overview of 3 key sensory systems in working dogs and highlights considerations for care related to each olfaction, audition, and vision. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - May 29, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Melissa Singletary, Lucia Lazarowski Source Type: research

Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation in Working Dogs
This article discusses the diverse factors and considerations of working dog wellness and injury prevention and the importance of recognizing normal and abnormal posture and anatomic structure for performance evaluation and early indication of musculoskeletal injury. The importance of a canine physical fitness program is highlighted and the need for a 4-phase recovery plan to determine if a working dog can safely return to work after injury discussed. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - May 29, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Meghan T. Ramos, Brian D. Farr, Cynthia M. Otto Source Type: research

Hunting Dogs
Herding and hunting dogs are intense, high-drive dogs that work, and often live, outdoors and in constant or repeated close contact with domestic and wild animals. These dogs are at increased risk for injury and exposure to infectious diseases, toxic substances, and environmental threats. The common practice of feeding or allowing access to raw meat from farm or game animals enhances disease transmission risk. These dogs can be affected by infectious diseases and injurious agents that are rarely encountered in other groups of dogs. In addition, their extreme work ethic may lead to delays in diagnosis. (Source: Veterinary C...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - May 29, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Marcella Ridgway Source Type: research

Breeding Program Management
Managing a colony of high-quality, purpose-bred dogs requires strategic organization and planning. Because current demand for working dogs exceeds the supply available, production success should be maximized. Quality should always be emphasized over quantity, especially for the selection of breeding stock. Puppy development plans should take into account the 4 unique phases of puppy development. Many factors influencing breeding decisions are discussed in this article, based on lessons learned from the Canine Performance Sciences program at Auburn University, a medium-sized production colony in its twentieth year that has ...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - May 29, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Pamela S. Haney, Robyn R. Wilborn Source Type: research

Production and Reproductive Management
This article outlines lessons learned over the last 20  years in a medium-sized production program and also reviews other current production programs. Common pitfalls are discussed, including the implications of each, as well as management strategies to help avoid pitfalls. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - May 29, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Robyn R. Wilborn, Pamela S. Haney Source Type: research

Development and Training for Working Dogs
This article provides an overview of critical aspects of puppy development that influence future behavior, and reviews important features of training that influence a dog’s ability to learn and perform its designated task. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - May 29, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Lucia Lazarowski, Melissa Singletary, Bart Rogers, Paul Waggoner Source Type: research

Military Working Dogs
For the clinician treating military working dogs, an understanding of how they are sourced, preventive medicine policies, and common disease conditions is paramount in optimizing the delivery of health care. Military personnel rely heavily on the availability of these K-9s, which bring a diverse array of capabilities to myriad operational settings. Anticipating and mitigating common diseases will ensure these dogs continue to serve the needs of US military and allied forces. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - May 29, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Andrew L. McGraw, Todd M. Thomas Source Type: research

Operational Canine
This article describes the unique characteristics and occupational hazards that pertain to the community of Operational K9s. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - May 29, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Lee Palmer Source Type: research

Assistance, Service, Emotional Support, and Therapy Dogs
This article focuses on the areas where harnessing the canine ’s trainability, mobility, and sociability enables their use for aiding and augmenting humans. This area, which is rapidly expanding, has provided life-changing solutions for persons affected by various impairments and disabilities (eg, visual, hearing, physical, mental). (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - May 29, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Maureen A. McMichael, Melissa Singletary Source Type: research

Herding Dogs
Herding is done predominantly by breeds developed over centuries to millennia specifically for that purpose. Working-level herding breed dogs are intense, high-drive dogs that will work despite severe illness or pain, thereby masking clues that they are ailing or the nature of their problem. The handler should recognize subtle changes that might signal ill health, and veterinarians should take an active role in training handlers on essential skills. Herding dogs typically work entirely outdoors in rural to wilderness environments with continuous exposure to other domestic animals and wildlife and may be affected by trauma,...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - May 29, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Marcella Ridgway Source Type: research

Nutrition of Working Dogs
This article provides an overview of the key aspects of working canine nutrition and provides the nutritional science behind the recommendations made. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - May 29, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Debra L. Zoran Source Type: research

Introduction to Working Dogs
Our canine companions have helped shape the world, as we know it, by serving in roles that enabled humans to advance throughout history. From the earliest domestication where their abilities to effectively and efficiently hunt were harnessed, to present day where their serving of complex roles, improving our safety, security, awareness, productivity, and mobility, is seen. Working dogs have continued to prove themselves an invaluable asset with application and capabilities in areas well beyond their current use. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - May 29, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Maureen A. McMichael, Melissa Singletary Source Type: research

The World of Working Dogs
Ancient artifacts suggest dogs have been helping humans in hunting and herding for thousands of years. The Vikings kept dogs for hunting (Norsk elghund) bear and moose. The Norwegian lundehund hunted puffin, and the Swedish valhund, a close relative of the Welsh corgi, herded cattle. European breeds, the Dutch shepherd, Belgian Malinois, and German shepherd, were originally used for herding sheep and cattle. When World War I broke out, these dogs, recognized for their intelligence, became helpful on the battlefield. (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - May 29, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Maureen A. McMichael, Melissa Singletary Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Working Dogs: An Update for Veterinarians
VETERINARY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA: SMALL ANIMAL PRACTICE (Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice)
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - May 29, 2021 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Maureen A. Mcmichael, Melissa Singletary Source Type: research