A Comparison Study of Vector Velocity, Spectral Doppler and Magnetic Resonance of Blood Flow in the Common Carotid Artery
Magnetic resonance phase contrast angiography (MRA) is the gold standard for blood flow evaluation. Spectral Doppler ultrasound (SDU) is the first clinical choice, although the method is angle dependent. Vector flow imaging (VFI) is an angle-independent ultrasound method. The aim of the study was to compare VFI- and SDU-estimated peak systolic velocities (PSV) of the common carotid artery (CCA) with PSV obtained by MRA. Furthermore, intra- and inter-observer agreement was determined. MRA estimates were significantly different from SDU estimates (left CCA: p   (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 24, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Andreas Hjelm Brandt, Kristoffer Lindskov Hansen, Caroline Ewertsen, Simon Holbek, Jacob Bjerring Olesen, Ramin Moshavegh, Carsten Thomsen, J ørgen Arendt Jensen, Michael Bachmann Nielsen Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Intra- and Inter-Observer Reproducibility of a 2-D Shear Wave Elastography Technique and the Impact of Ultrasound Experience in Achieving Reliable Data
The aim of the study described here was to evaluate the reproducibility of a new shear-wave elastography (SWE) technique, 2-D SWE.GE, and the impact of ultrasound experience in acquiring reliable measurements, as no official recommendations are available for this system. Elastographic measurements (EMs) were obtained in 60 patients using 2-D-SWE with the GE Logiq E9. Three examiners with different levels of experience in ultrasound-based elastography performed 10 valid EMs on each subject: a novice (C.P.) who had no experience in liver elastography and had performed fewer than 50 ultrasound examinations; an elastography ex...
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 22, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Tudor-Voicu Moga, Ana Maria Stepan, Corina Pienar, Felix Bende, Alina Popescu, Roxana Șirli, Mirela Dănilă, Ioan Sporea Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Application of Various Additional Imaging Techniques for Thyroid Ultrasound: Direct Comparison of Combined Various Elastography and Doppler Parameters to Gray-Scale Ultrasound in Differential Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules
This study was conducted to evaluate the role in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules of various elastographic and Doppler parameters when added to gray-scale ultrasonography (US). One-hundred seventy-one thyroid nodules (63 malignant, 108 benign) in 169 patients were included. Elastography (strain and shear wave elastography) and Doppler (power Doppler, superb microvascular imaging and microflow imaging) images of the same thyroid nodule were obtained using a single US machine. The diagnostic performance parameters of gray-scale US with and without elastography and those of Doppler US were calculated and compared...
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 22, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Jung Hyun Yoon, Eun-Kyung Kim, Jin Young Kwak, Vivian Youngjean Park, Hee Jung Moon Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

A Low-Cost, Durable and Re-Usable Bladder Phantom: Teaching Intravesical Ultrasound Contrast Administration
Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography (ceVUS) is a radiation-free and highly sensitive examination for detecting vesicoureteral reflux and imaging the urethra in children. This examination is performed with ultrasound and intravesical administration of a gas-filled microbubble US contrast agent. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved the use of a US contrast agent for ceVUS in children. Because of the growing interest among physicians and US technologists in using ceVUS in children, a urinary bladder phantom was developed to teach intravesical ultrasound contrast administration to perform ceVUS procedure...
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 22, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Sphoorti Shellikeri, Susan J. Back, Laura Poznick, Kassa Darge Tags: Technical Note Source Type: research

Understanding the Contrast Mechanism in Rotation Elastogram: A Parametric Study
Ultrasound elastography has been found to be useful in different clinical applications. For example, in breast imaging, axial strain elastography provides information related to tissue stiffness, which is used to characterize breast lesions as either benign or malignant. In addition, these lesions also differ in their bonding properties. Benign breast lesions are loosely bonded and malignant breast lesions are firmly bonded to the surrounding tissues. Therefore, only benign breast lesions will rotate/slip on the application of deformation. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 22, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Basavarajappa Lokesh, Anne M. ten Dam, Chris L. de Korte, Arun K. Thittai Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Superselective Drug Delivery Using Doxorubicin-Encapsulated Liposomes and Ultrasound in a Mouse Model of Lung Metastasis Activation
Conventional treatment of lymph node metastasis involves dissection of the tumor and regional lymph nodes, but this may cause activation of latent metastatic tumor cells. However, there are few reports on animal models regarding the activation of latent metastatic tumor cells and effective methods of treating activated tumor cells. Here, we report the use of a superselective drug delivery system in a mouse model of lung metastasis in which activated tumor cells are treated with doxorubicin-encapsulated liposomes (DOX-LP) and ultrasound. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 21, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Tomoki Ouchi, Ariunbuyan Sukhbaatar, Sachiko Horie, Maya Sakamoto, Kiyoto Shiga, Shiro Mori, Tetsuya Kodama Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Ultrasound-Enhanced Protective Effect of Tetramethylpyrazine via the ROS/HIF-1A Signaling Pathway in an in Vitro Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Model
Reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress is an important pathophysiological process during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. It has been reported that the protective effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) against cerebral I/R injury can be significantly improved by its combination with ultrasound exposure. However, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways underlying the synergistic protective effect remain unclear. In the present work, the damage induced by I/R injury was modeled by glutamate-induced toxicity to pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 21, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Chunbing Zhang, Meihong Shen, Fengmeng Teng, Pengfei Li, Feng Gao, Juan Tu, Linjiao Luo, Chih-Kuang Yeh, Dong Zhang Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Evaluation of Examiner Performance Using a Duplex Ultrasound Simulator. Flow Velocity Measurements in Dialysis Access Fistula Models
We developed a duplex ultrasound simulator for training and assessment of scanning skills. We used the simulator to test examiner performance in the measurement of flow velocities in dialysis access fistulas. Test cases were created from 3-D ultrasound scans of two dialysis access fistulas by reconstructing 3-D blood vessel models and simulating blood flow velocity fields within the lumens. The simulator displays a 2-D B-mode or color Doppler image corresponding to transducer position on a mannequin; a spectral waveform is generated according to Doppler sample volume location and system settings. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 21, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Daniel F. Leotta, R. Eugene Zierler, Kurt Sansom, Alberto Aliseda, Mark D. Anderson, Florence H. Sheehan Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Masthead
(Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 18, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Editorial Advisory Board
(Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 18, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 18, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Calendar
(Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 18, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Accuracy and Reproducibility of Sonoelastography for the Assessment of Fibroids and Adenomyosis, with Magnetic Resonance Imaging as Reference Standard
The aims of this prospective diagnostic evaluation study were (i) to estimate the inter-observer agreement and reproducibility of real-time sonoelastography and real-time gray-scale ultrasound in the measurement of uterine and fibroid volumes; (ii) to evaluate the agreement between real-time gray-scale ultrasound, sonoelastography and magnetic resonance imaging with respect to these outcomes; and (iii) to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of sonoelastography in the diagnosis of uterine pathology on stored sonoelastography and gray-scale cine loops. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 18, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Barbara Stoelinga, Wouter J.K. Hehenkamp, Lotte L. Nieuwenhuis, Mandy M.A. Conijn, JanHein H.T.M. van Waesberghe, Hans A.M. Br ölmann, Judith A.F. Huirne Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Jugular Venous Flow Quantification Using Doppler Sonography
A consensus on venous flow quantification using echo spectral Doppler sonography is lacking. Doppler sonography data from 83 healthy individuals were examined using manually traced transverse cross-sectional area and diameter-derived cross-sectional area obtained in longitudinal view measurements of the internal jugular vein. Time-averaged velocity over a 4-s interval was obtained in the longitudinal plane using manual tracing of the waveform. Manual and computer-generated blood flow volume calculations were also obtained for the common carotid artery, for accuracy purposes. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 18, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Karen Marr, Dejan Jakimovski, Marcello Mancini, Ellen Carl, Robert Zivadinov Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

A 3-D Region-Growing Motion-Tracking Method for Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging
A 3-D region-growing motion-tracking (RGMT) method for ultrasound elasticity imaging is described. This 3-D RGMT method first estimates the displacements at a sparse subset of points, called seeds; uses an objective measure to determine, among those seeds, which displacement estimates to trust; and then performs RGMT in three dimensions to estimate displacements for the remaining points in the field. During the growing process in three dimensions, the displacement estimate at one grid point is employed to guide the displacement estimation of its neighboring points using a 3-D small search region. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 18, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Yuqi Wang, Jingfeng Jiang, Timothy J. Hall Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Adaptive Color Gain for Vena Contracta Quantification in Valvular Regurgitation
Severe valvular regurgitation can lead to pulmonary hypertension, atrial fibrillation and heart failure. Vena contracta width is used to estimate the severity of the regurgitation. Parameters affecting visualization of color Doppler have a significant impact on the measurement. We propose a data-driven method for automated adjustment of color gain based on the peak power of the color Doppler signal in the vicinity of the vena contracta. A linear regression model trained on the peak power was used to predict the orifice diameter. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 17, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Pawel Kozlowski, Alfonso Rodriguez-Molares, Thor Andreas Tangen, Kjell Kristoffersen, Hans Torp, Olivier Gerard, Eigil Samset Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Pulmonary Capillary Hemorrhage Induced by Diagnostic Ultrasound in Ventilated Rats
Pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH) can be induced by diagnostic ultrasound —a potential safety issue. Anesthetized rats were intubated for intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV) with 0 end-expiratory pressure, +4 cm H2O end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and −4 cm H2O end-expiratory pressure (NEEP). Rats were imaged at 7.6 MHz with a Philips HDI 5000 ultra sound machine. The output was low (mechanical index [MI] = 0.22) for aiming and then was raised for 5 min in 20 different exposure groups with n = 8. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 17, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Douglas L. Miller, Zhihong Dong, Chunyan Dou, Krishnan Raghavendran Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Echo Intensity Versus Muscle Function Correlations in Older Adults are Influenced by Subcutaneous Fat Thickness
Recently, an equation that allows investigators to correct echo intensity for subcutaneous fat was developed. We evaluated correlations between uncorrected and corrected echo intensity versus measures of lower-extremity function. Twenty-three older adults (11 men, 12 women; mean age  = 72 y) participated. B-Mode ultrasonography was used to quantify rectus femoris echo intensity and subcutaneous fat thickness. Knee extensor isometric peak torque and rate of torque development at 200 ms (RTD200) were determined (joint angle = 90°). (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 15, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Matt S. Stock, Morgan Whitson, Adam M. Burton, Nicole T. Dawson, Eric J. Sobolewski, Brennan J. Thompson Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Quantifies the Perfusion Within Tibial Non-Unions and Predicts the Outcome of Revision Surgery
Vascularity is one of the factors determining successful bone regeneration. This prospective study focused on quantifying the microperfusion of tibial non-unions with contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) 12  wk after revision surgery and comparing it with the osseous consolidation at a maximum of 24 mo assessed with standard radiography and computed tomography. Of 36 patients with tibial non-unions, 28 (77.8%) manifested consolidation, and 8 patients required further revision surgery. CEUS revealed significantly higher perfusion in consolidated versus persistent non-unions for all quantification parameters (e....
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 15, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Daniel Krammer, Gerhard Schmidmaier, Marc-Andr é Weber, Julian Doll, Christoph Rehnitz, Christian Fischer Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Validation of an Open-Source Tool for Measuring Carotid Lumen Diameter and Intima –Media Thickness
In low- and middle-income regions, a relatively large number of deaths occur from cardiovascular disease or stroke. Carotid intima –media thickness (cIMT) and carotid lumen diameter (cLD) are strong indicators of cardiovascular event risk and stenosis severity, respectively. The interactive open-source software described here, Cimtool, is based on active contours for measuring these indicators in clinical practice and thus he lping in preventive diagnosis and treatment. Cimtool was validated using carotid phantoms and real images obtained using ultrasound. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 14, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Hugo Luis Manterola, Lucas Lo Vercio, Alejandro D íaz, Mariana del Fresno, Ignacio Larrabide Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Simultaneous Evaluation of Thermal and Non-Thermal Effects of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound on a Tissue-Mimicking Phantom
Physiologically relevant phantoms with high reliability are essential for extending the therapeutic applications of high-intensity therapeutic ultrasound. Here we describe a tissue-mimicking phantom capable of quantifying temperature changes and observing non-thermal phenomena by high-intensity therapeutic ultrasound. Using polydiacetylene liposomes, we fabricated agar-based polydiacetylene hydrogel phantoms (PHPs) that not only respond to temperature, but also have acoustic properties similar to those of human liver tissue. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Yong Tae Kim, Donghee Ma, Jai Kyoung Sim, Se-Hwa Kim Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Lung Ultrasound Findings Undetectable by Chest Radiography in Children with Community-Acquired Pneumonia
The purpose of our study was to evaluate any differences between lung ultrasonography and chest radiography (CR) images in children with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and, if there are any, to analyze the reasons and possible clinical implications. We reviewed the medical records of patients admitted to the pediatric ward from January 2014 to December 2016 and selected only cases discharged with a diagnosis of CAP who had undergone performed lung ultrasound (LUS) and CR within 24  h of each other. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Giulio Iorio, Maria Capasso, Salvatore Prisco, Giuseppe De Luca, Carlo Mancusi, Bruno Lagan à, Maria Antonietta Piscopo, Vincenzo Comune Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Evaluating Renal Transplant Status Using Viscoelastic Response (VisR) Ultrasound
Chronic kidney disease is most desirably and cost-effectively treated by renal transplantation, but graft survival is a major challenge. Although irreversible graft damage can be averted by timely treatment, intervention is delayed when early graft dysfunction goes undetected by standard clinical metrics. A more sensitive and specific parameter for delineating graft health could be the viscoelastic properties of the renal parenchyma, which are interrogated non-invasively by Viscoelastic Response (VisR) ultrasound, a new acoustic radiation force (ARF)-based imaging method. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Md Murad Hossain, Mallory R. Selzo, Robert M. Hinson, Leslie M. Baggesen, Randal K. Detwiler, Wui K. Chong, Lauren M. Burke, Melissa C. Caughey, Melrose W. Fisher, Sonya B. Whitehead, Caterina M. Gallippi Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Prenatal Diagnosis of Abnormal Invasive Placenta by Ultrasound: Measurement of Highest Peak Systolic Velocity of Subplacental Blood Flow
The aim of the study described here was to identify an efficient criterion for the prenatal diagnosis of abnormal invasive placenta. We evaluated 129 women with anterior placenta previa who underwent trans-abdominal ultrasound evaluation in the third trimester. Spectral Doppler ultrasonography was performed to assess the subplacental blood flow of the anterior lower uterine segment by measuring the highest peak systolic velocity and resistive index. These patients were prospectively followed until delivery and evaluated for abnormal placental invasion. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 7, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Junling Zhang, Hezhou Li, Fang Wang, Hongyan Qin, Qiaohong Qin Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Steato-Score: Non-Invasive Quantitative Assessment of Liver Fat by Ultrasound Imaging
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is becoming a global epidemic. The aim of this study was to develop a system for assessing liver fat content based on ultrasound images. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements were obtained in 61 patients and the controlled attenuation parameter in 54. Ultrasound images were acquired for all 115 participants and used to calculate the hepatic/renal ratio, hepatic/portal vein ratio, attenuation rate, diaphragm visualization and portal vein wall visualization. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 4, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Nicole Di Lascio, Cinzia Avigo, Antonio Salvati, Nicola Martini, Monica Ragucci, Serena Monti, Anna Prinster, Dante Chiappino, Marcello Mancini, Domenico D'Elia, Lorenzo Ghiadoni, Ferruccio Bonino, Maurizia R. Brunetto, Francesco Faita Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Risk Marker Variability in Subclinical Carotid Plaques Based on Ultrasound is Influenced by Cardiac Phase, Echogenicity and Size
Identification of risk markers based on quantitative ultrasound texture analysis of carotid plaques has the ability to define vulnerable components that correlate with increased cardiovascular risk. However, data describing factors with the potential to influence the measurement variability of risk markers are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of electrocardiogram-guided image selection, plaque echogenicity and area on carotid plaque risk markers and their variability in asymptomatic carotid plaques. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 4, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Emma Nyman, Per Lindqvist, Ulf N äslund, Christer Grönlund Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Accuracy and Precision of a Plane Wave Vector Flow Imaging Method in the Healthy Carotid Artery
The objective of the study described here was to investigate the accuracy and precision of a plane wave 2-D vector flow imaging (VFI) method in laminar and complex blood flow conditions in the healthy carotid artery. The approach was to study (i) the accuracy for complex flow by comparing the velocity field from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation to VFI estimates obtained from the scan of an anthropomorphic flow phantom and from an in vivo scan; (ii) the accuracy for laminar unidirectional flow in vivo by comparing peak systolic velocities from VFI with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA); (iii) the precision...
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 4, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Jonas Jensen, Carlos Armando Villag ómez Hoyos, Marie Sand Traberg, Jacob Bjerring Olesen, Borislav Gueorguiev Tomov, Ramin Moshavegh, Simon Holbek, Matthias Bo Stuart, Caroline Ewertsen, Kristoffer Lindskov Hansen, Carsten Thomsen, Michael Bachmann Niel Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Calculation of Left Ventricular Diastolic Time Constant (TAU) in Dogs with Mitral Regurgitation Using Continuous-Wave Doppler
The left ventricular diastolic time constant (Tau) cannot be practically measured non-invasively. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate a new method for the evaluation of Tau using continuous-wave (CW) Doppler in dogs with mitral regurgitation. Guided by ultrasound, we created 12 beagle models of mitral regurgitation and acute ischemic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Raw audio signals of the CW Doppler spectra were collected, and new mitral regurgitation Doppler spectra were observed after computer re-processing. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 4, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Chaoyang Wen, Jing Sun, Chunzhi Fan, Jianping Dou Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Use of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in the Assessment of Uterine Fibroids: A Feasibility Study
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is an innovative ultrasound technique capable of visualizing both the macro- and microvasculature of tissues. In this prospective pilot study, we evaluated the feasibility of using CEUS to visualize the microvasculature of uterine fibroids and compared CEUS with conventional ultrasound. Four women with fibroids underwent gray-scale ultrasound, sonoelastography and power/color Doppler scans followed by CEUS examination. Analysis of CEUS images revealed initial perfusion of the peripheral rim, that is, a pseudo-capsule, followed by enhancement of the entire lesion through vessels traveling...
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 4, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Barbara Stoelinga, Anniek M.C. Dooper, Lynda J.M. Juffermans, Arnoud W. Postema, Hessel Wijkstra, Hans A.M. Br ölmann, Judith A.F. Huirne Tags: Clinical Note Source Type: research

On Patient Related Factors and Their Impact on Ultrasound-Based Shear Wave Elastography of the Liver
The aim of the study was to investigate patient-related factors associated with either reliable or poorly reliable measurement results of ultrasound-based shear wave elastography (SWE) of the liver. A total of 188 patients were analyzed prospectively with binary logistic regression using the interquartile range/median as cutoff to define two groups based on reliable and poorly reliable SWE results. SWE results correlated significantly with liver biopsy. Factors associated with reliable SWE results (i.e., no negative impact on measurements) were age, sex, cirrhosis, antiviral and/or cardiovascular medication, smoking habits...
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 4, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Marie Byenfeldt, Anders Elvin, Per Fransson Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

A Novel FibroScan Examination Dedicated to Spleen Stiffness Measurement
Esophageal varices (EVs) are among the most severe complications of cirrhosis, with a prevalence of 50% to 60% among cirrhotic patients. International guidelines therefore recommend that cirrhotic patients should be screened for the presence of EVs. The main objective of this study was to introduce a new spleen-dedicated FibroScan (Echosens, Paris, France) examination and to assess its performance in detecting large EVs (grade 2 and 3). This novel examination has been validated in simulation and phantom studies and has been used in a population of patients with chronic liver disease. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 3, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: C écile Bastard, Véronique Miette, Paul Calès, Horia Stefanescu, Davide Festi, Laurent Sandrin Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Semi-Automated Segmentation of the Tumor Vasculature in Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Data
The vascular architecture in tumors contains relevant information for tumor classification and evaluation of therapy responses. To develop a reliable and user-independent analysis tool, a foreground detection algorithm was combined with a maximum-intensity projection to obtain a high signal-to-noise image from contrast-enhanced B-mode data sets, enabling vessel segmentation by thresholding. Parameters describing the density of the vascular network, the number of vessels and the number of branches were extracted. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 2, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Benjamin Theek, Tatjana Opacic, Twan Lammers, Fabian Kiessling Tags: Technical Note Source Type: research

Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography in Sclerotherapy for Ovarian Endometrial Cyst
We investigated contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) characteristics related to the perfusion pattern and parameters of the time −intensity curve of ovarian endometrial cysts (OECs) pre- and post-sclerotherapy. Forty-three patients with one-sided, single, untreated OECs underwent CEUS pre- and post-sclerotherapy. OEC wall thickness was measured by 2-D ultrasonography and CEUS, and CEUS enhancement patterns and time−intens ity curve parameters before and after sclerotherapy were compared. OEC wall thickness remained essentially unchanged post-sclerotherapy. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - May 2, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Xiao-Hui Shao, Xiao-Qiu Dong, De-Jiao Kong, Li-Wei Zhang, Lu-Lu Wang, Si-Ming Wang Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Masthead
(Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - April 26, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Editorial Advisory Board
(Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - April 26, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contents
(Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - April 26, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Calendar
(Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - April 26, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Analysis of Transient Shear Wave in Lossy Media
The propagation of shear waves from impulsive forces is an important topic in elastography. Observations of shear wave propagation can be obtained with numerous clinical imaging systems. Parameter estimations of the shear wave speed in tissues, and more generally the viscoelastic parameters of tissues, are based on some underlying models of shear wave propagation. The models typically include specific choices of the spatial and temporal shape of the impulsive force and the elastic or viscoelastic properties of the medium. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - April 26, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Kevin J. Parker, Juvenal Ormachea, Scott Will, Zaegyoo Hah Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Echocardiographic Analysis of Cardiac Function after Infarction in Mice: Validation of Single-Plane Long-Axis View Measurements and the Bi-Plane Simpson Method
Although echocardiography is commonly used to analyze cardiac function in small animal models of cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction, the different echocardiographic methods are validated poorly. End-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume and ejection fraction were analyzed using either standard single-plane analysis from parasternal long-axis B-mode views (PSLAX) or the bi-plane Simpson method (using PSLAX and three short-axis views) and validated using magnetic resonance imaging as standard. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - April 26, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Andre Heinen, Annika Raupach, Friederike Behmenburg, Nina H ölscher, Ulrich Flögel, Malte Kelm, Wolfgang Kaisers, Rianne Nederlof, Ragnar Huhn, Axel Gödecke Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Role of Coronary Flow Velocity in Predicting Adverse Outcome in Clinical Practice
There is a lack of information on the prognostic value of local high velocity in coronary arteries during echocardiography. The aim of the study described here was to define the prognostic value of local velocity>70  cm/s in the left main, anterior or circumflex artery during echocardiography. There were 412 patients in the prospective study. Death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, acute pulmonary edema, acute coronary syndrome and revascularization were defined as major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - April 26, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Angela Zagatina, Nadezhda Zhuravskaya, Maxim Kamenskikh, Dmitry Shmatov, Sergey Sayganov, Fausto Rigo Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Dual-Targeted Microbubbles Specific to Integrin αVβ3 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 for Ultrasonography Evaluation of Tumor Angiogenesis
Aggressive tumors are characterized by angiogenesis that promotes the migration and dissemination of tumor cells. Our aim was to develop a dual-targeted microbubble system for non-invasive evaluation of tumor angiogenesis in ultrasound. Avidinylated microbubbles were conjugated with biotinylated arginylglycylaspartic acid and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) antibodies. Subcutaneous MHCC-97H liver carcinoma models were established. Non-targeted, αvβ3-targeted, VEGFR2-targeted and dual-targeted microbubbles was intravenously injected in series while acquiring ultrasound images of the tumor. ...
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - April 26, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Hai-xia Yuan, Wen-ping Wang, Jie-xian Wen, Le-wu Lin, Agata A. Exner, Pei-shan Guan, Xue-jun Chen Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Muscle Shear Wave Elastography in Inclusion Body Myositis: Feasibility, Reliability and Relationships with Muscle Impairments
Degenerative muscle changes may be associated with changes in muscle mechanical properties. Shear wave elastography (SWE) allows direct quantification of muscle shear modulus (MSM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of SWE in the severely disordered muscle as observed in inclusion body myositis. To explore the clinical relevance of SWE, potential relationships between MSM values and level muscle impairments (weakness and ultrasound-derived muscle thickness and echo intensity) were investigated. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - April 26, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Damien Bachasson, Guillaume J.R. Dubois, Yves Allenbach, Olivier Benveniste, Jean-Yves Hogrel Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Monodisperse Versus Polydisperse Ultrasound Contrast Agents: Non-Linear Response, Sensitivity, and Deep Tissue Imaging Potential
It has been proposed that monodisperse microbubble ultrasound contrast agents further increase the signal-to-noise ratio of contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging. Here, the sensitivity of a polydisperse pre-clinical agent was compared experimentally with that of its size- and acoustically sorted derivatives by using narrowband pressure- and frequency-dependent scattering and attenuation measurements. The sorted monodisperse agents had up to a two-orders-of-magnitude increase in sensitivity, that is, in the average scattering cross section per bubble. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - April 25, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Tim Segers, Pieter Kruizinga, Maarten P. Kok, Guillaume Lajoinie, Nico de Jong, Michel Versluis Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Validation of Musculoskeletal Ultrasound in the Assessment of Experimental Gout Synovitis
The objective of this study was to validate musculoskeletal ultrasound (US) in a rabbit model of acute gout. Acute gout was induced by intra-articular injection of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in 10 rabbits; the 3 controls received vehicle. Rabbit knees were assessed by B-mode and power Doppler (PD) US 24 and 72  h after injections. After 72 h, all rabbits were euthanized. US discriminated between the MSU-injected and control groups with respect to the different inflammatory findings at both at 24 and 72 h and for MSU crystal-related findings after 24 h of injection. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - April 24, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Esperanza Naredo, Juan Pablo Medina, Sandra P érez-Baos, Aranzazu Mediero, Gabriel Herrero-Beaumont, Raquel Largo Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

A Novel Technique for the Standardized Application of Shock Waves in Experimental Research: The Diver Box
The Diver Box is designed to prevent impedance differences, energy loss or damage to neighboring structures caused by the use of shock waves with application gels. The Diver Box is an acrylic glass container filled with tempered water and includes a coupling membrane to prevent the impedance jump from air to water and to avoid the continuous propagation of shock waves into the tissue, maintaining wave dynamics. Different modes of extracorporeal shock waves can be applied to a mouse skin wound without energy loss and protected from harmful phase-reversed waves. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - April 23, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Heiko Sorg, Daniel J. Tilkorn, Jonas Kolbenschlag, Inga Zwetzich, Joerg Hauser, Ole Goertz, Nick Spindler, Stefan Langer, Andrej Ring Tags: Technical Note Source Type: research

Macrophages as Drug Delivery Carriers for Acoustic Phase-Change Droplets
In this study, we propose the use of macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) as carriers of drug-loaded phase-change droplets to penetrate ischemic or hypoxic regions within tumors. The droplets consist of perfluoropentane, lipid and the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX, DOX-droplets). The efficiency of DOX-droplet uptake, migration mobility and viability of DOX-droplet-loaded macrophages (DLMs) were measured using a transmembrane cell migration assay, the alamarBlue assay and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - April 20, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Ching-Hsiang Fan, Ya-Hsuan Lee, Yi-Ju Ho, Chung-Hsin Wang, Shih-Tsung Kang, Chih-Kuang Yeh Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Effect of Microbubble-Enhanced Ultrasound on Radiofrequency Ablation of Rabbit Liver
Microbubble-enhanced ultrasound (MEUS) can non-invasively disrupt and block liver blood perfusion. It may potentially overcome the heat sink effect during a thermal ablation and consequently enhance radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the liver. We propose a new strategy combining RFA with MEUS. For ultrasound treatment, an 831-kHz air-backed focused transducer directed 400-cycle bursts at 4.3  MPa to the liver at a 9-Hz rate. The treatment was nucleated by a lipids microbubble forming MEUS. Eighteen surgically exposed rabbit livers were treated using MEUS combined with RFA; the other 32 livers were treated using MEUS ...
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - April 20, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Zhong Chen, Hongzhi Zhao, Xueyan Qiao, Cuo Yi, Shunji Gao, Wenhong Gao, Zheng Liu Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research

Macrophages as Drug Delivery Carriers for Acoustic Phage-Change Droplets
In this study, we propose the use of macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) as carriers of drug-loaded phase-change droplets to penetrate ischemic or hypoxic regions within tumors. The droplets consist of perfluoropentane, lipid and the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX, DOX-droplets). The efficiency of DOX-droplet uptake, migration mobility and viability of DOX-droplet-loaded macrophages (DLMs) were measured using a transmembrane cell migration assay, the alamarBlue assay and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology - April 20, 2018 Category: Radiology Authors: Ching-Hsiang Fan, Ya-Hsuan Lee, Yi-Ju Ho, Chung-Hsin Wang, Shih-Tsung Kang, Chih-Kuang Yeh Tags: Original Contribution Source Type: research