Race modifies default mode connectivity in Alzheimer ’s disease
ConclusionThese findings provide further support that race modifies the AD phenotypes downstream from cerebral amyloid deposition, and identifies key inter-subsystem connections for deep imaging and neuropathologic characterization. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - February 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Insights into the pathogenesis of multiple system atrophy: focus on glial cytoplasmic inclusions
AbstractMultiple system atrophy (MSA) is a debilitating and fatal neurodegenerative disorder. The disease severity warrants urgent development of disease-modifying therapy, but the disease pathogenesis is still enigmatic. Neurodegeneration in MSA brains is preceded by the emergence of glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs), which are insoluble α-synuclein accumulations within oligodendrocytes (OLGs). Thus, preventive strategies against GCI formation may suppress disease progression. However, although numerous studies have tried to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of GCI formation, difficulty remains in understanding...
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - February 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Reprogrammed astrocytes display higher neurogenic competence, migration ability and cell death resistance than reprogrammed fibroblasts
AbstractThe direct reprogramming of somatic cells into induced neural progenitor cells (iNPCs) has been envisioned as a promising approach to overcome ethical and clinical issues of pluripotent stem cell transplantation. We previously reported that astrocyte-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have more tendencies for neuronal differentiation than fibroblast-derived iPSCs. However, the differences of neurogenic potential between astrocyte-derived iNPCs (AiNPCs) and iNPCs from non-neural origins, such as fibroblast-derived iNPCs (FiNPCs), and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Our results suggested that Ai...
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - February 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effect of the micro-environment on α-synuclein conversion and implication in seeded conversion assays
ConclusionThe variable diagnostic accuracy of current α-synuclein RT-QuIC occurs due to different protocols, cohorts and material etc.. An impact of micro-environmental factors on the α-synuclein aggregation and conversion process and the occurrence and detection of differential misfolded α-synuclein types or strains might underpin the clinical hete rogeneity of α-synucleinopathies. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - January 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Deep brain stimulation for Tourette ’s syndrome
AbstractTourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by the presence of multiple motor and vocal tics. TS usually co-occurs with one or multiple psychiatric disorders. Although behavioral and pharmacological treatments for TS are available, some patients do not respond to the available treatments. For these patients, TS is a severe, chronic, and disabling disorder. In recent years, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of basal ganglia-thalamocortical networks has emerged as a promising intervention for refractory TS with or without psychiatric comorbidities. Three major challenges need to be ...
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - January 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Replacing what ’s lost: a new era of stem cell therapy for Parkinson’s disease
ConclusionWith the maturity of the iPSC technology, cell transplantation appears to be a safe and effective therapy. Grafts in non-human primates survive and remain functional for more than 2  years after transplantation, with no signs of tumorigenesis, indicating safety and efficacy of the treatment. However, immunosuppressants are still required because of the lack of “universal stem cells” that would not evoke an immune response. The results of ongoing and upcoming trials by a g lobal consortium known as GForce-PD would be highly anticipated because the success of these trials would open up possibilit...
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - January 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

δ-secretase in neurodegenerative diseases: mechanisms, regulators and therapeutic opportunities
AbstractMammalian asparagine endopeptidase (AEP) is a cysteine protease that cleaves its protein substrates on the C-terminal side of asparagine residues. Converging lines of evidence indicate that AEP may be involved in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, including Alzheimer ’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and frontotemporal dementia. AEP is activated in the aging brain, cleaves amyloid precursor protein (APP) and promotes the production of amyloid-β (Aβ). We renamed AEP to δ-secretase to emphasize its role in APP fragmentation and Aβ production. AEP also cleav es other sub...
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - January 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Correction to: Detecting neurodegenerative pathology in multiple sclerosis before irreversible brain tissue loss sets in
In the original publication of this article [1], the following statement should be added in the Acknowledgement section. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - January 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Microbiome changes: an indicator of Parkinson ’s disease?
AbstractParkinson ’s disease is characterized by dopaminergic neuron loss and intracellular inclusions composed mainly of alpha synuclein (α-syn), but the mechanism of pathogenesis is still obscure. In recent years, more attention has been given to the gut as a key player in the initiation and progression of PD pa thology. Several studies characterizing changes in the microbiome, particularly the gut microbiome, have been conducted. Although many studies found a decrease in the bacterial family Prevotellaceae and in butyrate-producing bacterial genera such as Roseburia and Faecalibacteria, and an increase in th...
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - December 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Detecting neurodegenerative pathology in multiple sclerosis before irreversible brain tissue loss sets in
ConclusionsRecent findings from the fields of advanced neuroradiology and neurochemistry provide the promising prospect of demonstrating degenerative brain pathology in patients with MS before atrophy has installed. Although the overall level of evidence on the presented topic is still preliminary, this Review may pave the way for further longitudinal and multimodal studies exploring the relationships between the abovementioned measures, possibly leading to novel insights in early disease mechanisms and therapeutic intervention strategies. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - December 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Targeting γ-secretase triggers the selective enrichment of oligomeric APP-CTFs in brain extracellular vesicles from Alzheimer cell and mouse models
ConclusionsThis is the first study to demonstrate the presence of oligomeric APP-CTFs in AD mouse models, the levels of which are selectively enriched in endolysosomal compartments including exosomes and amplified by γ-secretase inhibition. Future studies should evaluate the putative contribution of these exosome-associated APP-CTFs in AD onset, progression and spreading. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - December 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Clinicopathologic characterization and abnormal autophagy of CSF1R -related leukoencephalopathy
ConclusionsOur findings support the loss-of-function and haploinsufficiency hypothesis in pathogenesis. Autophagy abnormality may play a role in the disease. Repairing or promoting the phosphorylation level of mutant CSF1R may shed light on therapeutic targets in the future. However, whether peripheral polyneuropathy potentially belongs toCSF1R-related spectrum deserves further study with longer follow-up and more patients enrolled.Trial registrationChiCTR,ChiCTR1800015295. Registered 21 March 2018. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - December 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Oscillation-specific nodal alterations in early to middle stages Parkinson ’s disease
ConclusionsCoupling various oscillations could provide potentially useful information for large-scale network and progressive oscillation-specific nodal alterations were observed in PD patients across early to middle stages. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - November 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Lower serum expression of miR-181c-5p is associated with increased plasma levels of amyloid-beta 1 –40 and cerebral vulnerability in normal aging
ConclusionsThese findings suggest that deregulation of serum miR-181c-5p may indicate cerebral vulnerability in late life. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - November 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Transplantation of bone marrow derived macrophages reduces markers of neuropathology in an APP/PS1 mouse model
ConclusionsBM-M systemically transplanted, promote a decrease in neuroinflammation and a limited reversion of amyloid pathology. This exploratory study may support the potential of BM-M or microglia-like cell therapy and further illuminates the mechanisms of action associated with such transplants. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - October 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Exploratory study on microRNA profiles from plasma-derived extracellular vesicles in Alzheimer ’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies
ConclusionOur data suggest that plasma-EV associated miRNAs may reflect a differential profile for a given dementia-related disorder which, once validated in larger cohorts of patients, could help to improve the differential diagnosis of DLB versus AD. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - October 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Bee venom phospholipase A2 ameliorates amyloidogenesis and neuroinflammation through inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 pathway in Tg2576 mice
ConclusionThese results suggest that bvPLA2 could restore memory by inhibiting the accumulation of A β and inflammatory responses via blockage of STAT3 activity. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - October 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A longitudinal assessment of retinal function and structure in the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer ’s disease
AbstractBackgroundA great body of evidence suggests that there are retinal functional and structural changes that occur in Alzheimer ’s disease (AD). However, whether such changes are primary or secondary remains to be elucidated. We studied a range of retinal functional and structural parameters in association with AD- specific pathophysiological markers in the double transgenic APP/PS1 and control mice across age.MethodsElectroretinogram (ERG) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed in APP/PS1 and wild type (WT) control mice every 3 months from 3 to 12  months of age. For functional assessment, ...
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - October 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Xenografting of human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells from Wharton ’s jelly ameliorates mouse spinocerebellar ataxia type 1
ConclusionsOur findings provide hope for a new therapeutic direction for the treatment of SCA1. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - September 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Beyond the synucleinopathies: alpha synuclein as a driving force in neurodegenerative comorbidities
AbstractThe fundamental role that alpha-synuclein (aSyn) plays in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, including Parkinson ’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy, is a well-accepted fact. A wealth of experimental evidence has linked this relatively small but ubiquitously expressed protein to a plethora of cytopathologic mechanisms and suggests that aSyn may be capable of seeding the progres sive spread of synucleinopathy throughout the brain. Beyond the synucleinopathies, the abnormal deposition of aSyn is frequently seen in a variety of other neurodegenerative proteino...
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - September 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Longitudinal diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging analysis at the cohort level reveals disturbed cortical and callosal microstructure with spared corticospinal tract in the TDP-43 G298S ALS mouse model
ConclusionDTI mapping ofTDP-43G298S mice demonstrated progression in motor areas M1/M2. WBSS and TFAS are useful techniques to localizeTDP-43G298S associated alterations over time in this ALS mouse model, as a biological marker. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - August 30, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Kallikrein-related peptidases 6 and 10 are elevated in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer ’s disease and associated with CSF-TAU and FDG-PET
ConclusionsKLK6 deserves further investigations as a potential biomarker of Tau pathology in AD. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - August 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The interplay of aging, genetics and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of Parkinson ’s disease
ConclusionPD is a multifactorial disorder involving interplay of aging, genetics and environmental factors. This has implications on the development of appropriate animal models of PD which take all these factors into account. Common converging pathways likely include mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired autophagy, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, which are associated with the accumulation and spread of misfolded α-synuclein and neurodegeneration. Understanding the mechanisms involved in the initiation and progression of PD may lead to potential therapeutic targets to prevent PD or modify its course. (Source: T...
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - August 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Efficient RT-QuIC seeding activity for α-synuclein in olfactory mucosa samples of patients with Parkinson’s disease and multiple system atrophy
ConclusionsOur study provide the proof-of-concept that olfactory mucosa samples collected from patients with PD and MSA possess important seeding activities for α-synuclein. Additional studies are required for (i) estimating sensitivity and specificity of the technique and for (ii) evaluating its application for the diagnosis of PD and neurodegenerative parkinsonisms. RT-QuIC analyses of OM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can be combined with the aim of incr easing the overall diagnostic accuracy of these diseases, especially in the early stages. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - August 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Parkinson ’s disease in China: a forty-year growing track of bedside work
AbstractThe number and health burden of Parkinson ’s disease increase rapidly in China. It is estimated that China will have nearly half of the Parkinson’s disease population in the world in 2030. In this review, we present an overview of epidemiology and health economics status of Parkinson’s disease across China and discuss the risk factors of Parkinson’s disease and related complications. From the view of clinical research, we also discuss the current status of clinical trials, diagnostic biomarkers, treatment of Parkinson’s disease, tertiary network and post-occupation education in Chinese...
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - July 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Alzheimer ’s in a dish – induced pluripotent stem cell-based disease modeling
ConclusionStem cell-based disease models have the potential to induce a paradigm shift in biomedical research. In particular, the combination of the iPSC technology with recent advances in gene editing or 3D cell cultures represents a breakthrough for in vitro disease modeling and provides a platform for a better understanding of disease mechanisms in human cells and the discovery of novel therapeutics. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - July 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

How to spot ocular abnormalities in progressive supranuclear palsy? A practical review
ConclusionThe authors urge all concerned physicians to check for such abnormalities with the naked eye in patients with parkinsonism. This method has advantages, including ease of application, reduced time-consumption, and requirement of minimal resources. It will also help physicians to conduct efficient diagnoses since many patients with PSP could intially present with ocular symptoms in busy outpatient clinics. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - July 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Clinical features and genetic spectrum in Chinese patients with recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia
ConclusionOur results expanded the genetic spectrum and clinical profiles of AR-HSP patients and further demonstrated the efficiency and reliability of targeted NGS diagnosing suspected HSP patients. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - June 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Dihydromyricetin and Salvianolic acid B inhibit alpha-synuclein aggregation and enhance chaperone-mediated autophagy
ConclusionsOur data indicate that DHM and Sal B are effective in modulating α-synuclein accumulation and aggregate formation and augmenting activation of CMA, holding potential for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - June 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Current progress of mitochondrial transplantation that promotes neuronal regeneration
ConclusionKey parameters for the success of mitochondrial transplantation depend on the source and quality of isolated mitochondria, delivery protocol, and cellular uptake of supplemented mitochondria. To expedite clinical application of the mitochondrial transplantation, current isolation protocol needs optimization to obtain high percentage of functional mitochondria, isolated mitochondria may be packaged by biomaterials for successful delivery to brain allowing for efficient neuronal uptake. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - June 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

NF- κB/c-Rel deficiency causes Parkinson’s disease-like prodromal symptoms and progressive pathology in mice
ConclusionsIn c-rel-/- mice, reproducing a parkinsonian progressive pathology with non-motor and motor symptoms, a Braak-like pattern of brain ascending α-synuclein deposition occurs. The peculiar phenotype of c-rel-/- mice envisages a potential contribution of c-Rel dysregulation to the pathogenesis of PD. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - May 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Erythrocytic α-Synuclein as a potential biomarker for Parkinson’s disease
ConclusionsThese results suggest that total, aggregated and phosphorylated α-Syn levels are altered in PD erythrocytes and peripheral erythrocytic α-Syn is a potential PD biomarker that needs further validation. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - May 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

DNA repair deficiency in neuropathogenesis: when all roads lead to mitochondria
AbstractMutations in DNA repair enzymes can cause two neurological clinical manifestations: a developmental impairment and a degenerative disease. Polynucleotide kinase 3 ′-phosphatase (PNKP) is an enzyme that is actively involved in DNA repair in both single and double strand break repair systems. Mutations in this protein or others in the same pathway are responsible for a complex group of diseases with a broad clinical spectrum. Besides, mitochondrial dysfunctio n also has been consolidated as a hallmark of brain degeneration. Here we provide evidence that supports a shared role between mitochondrial dysfunction a...
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - May 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

No association between Parkinson disease and autoantibodies against NMDA-type glutamate receptors
ConclusionIt is unlikely albeit not impossible that NMDA antibodies play a significant role in the pathogenesis or progression of Parkinson disease e.g. to Parkinson disease with dementia, while NMDA IgG antibodies define a separate disease of its own. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - April 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cognitive decline is related to high blood glucose levels in older Chinese adults with the ApoE ε3/ε3 genotype
ConclusionWorse cognitive function was correlated withApoE ε3/ε3 genotype carriers with higher BG in community-dwelling older adults. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - April 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Loss of CREST leads to neuroinflammatory responses and ALS-like motor defects in mice
ConclusionOur findings indicate that elevated inflammatory responses in a subset of ALS may be caused by neuron-derived factors, suggesting potential therapeutic methods through inflammation pathways. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - April 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Correction to: Better survival in female SOD1 -mutant patients with ALS: a study of SOD1 -related natural history
AbstractIn the original publication of this article [1], a numerical value in the sentence “The mean (SD) AAO was 43.92 years (9.24) for all subjects, with a significant difference between patients carrying mutations in exon 2 (n = 24, 46.83, 8.31) and exon 4 (n = 18, 37.75, 7.67) (p = 0.002).” is wrong. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - March 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Oral administration of the cannabigerol derivative VCE-003.2 promotes subventricular zone neurogenesis and protects against mutant huntingtin-induced neurodegeneration
ConclusionsThe cannabigerol derivative VCE-003.2 improves subventricular zone-derived neurogenesis in response to mutant huntingtin-induced neurodegeneration, and is neuroprotective by oral administration. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - March 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Enriched gestation activates the IGF pathway to evoke embryo-adult benefits to prevent Alzheimer ’s disease
ConclusionsThese findings suggest that activation of IGF1R/CaMKIV/HAT/BDNF signaling by gestational environment enrichment may serve as a promising strategy to delay AD progression. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - March 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Blocking meningeal lymphatic drainage aggravates Parkinson ’s disease-like pathology in mice overexpressing mutated α-synuclein
ConclusionThe results suggest that brain lymphatic clearance dysfunction may be an aggravating factor in PD pathology. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - March 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Constipation, deficit in colon contractions and alpha-synuclein inclusions within the colon precede motor abnormalities and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system in a mouse model of alpha-synucleinopathy
ConclusionsGastrointestinal dysfunction in A53T αS mice represents an early sign of αS-driven pathology without concomitant CNS involvement. We believe that this model can be very useful to study disease-modifying strategies that could extend the prodromal phase of PD and halt αS pathology from reaching the brain. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - February 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Molecular targets for modulating the protein translation vital to proteostasis and neuron degeneration in Parkinson ’s disease
AbstractParkinson ’s disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, which is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the Substantia Nigra pars compacta concomitant with Lewy body formation in affected brain areas. The detailed pathogenic mechanisms underlying the selec tive loss of dopaminergic neurons in PD are unclear, and no drugs or treatments have been developed to alleviate progressive dopaminergic neuron degeneration in PD. However, the formation of α-synuclein-positive protein aggregates in Lewy body has been identified as a common pathological feature of P...
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - February 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Hydroxytryptamine transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) is associated with delusions in Alzheimer ’s disease
AbstractBackgroundSerotoninergic pathways underlying delusion symptoms in Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) have not been fully clarified. 5-Hydroxytryptamine transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) is a variable number tandem repeats in the promoter region of serotonin transporter encoding-gene affecting transcription.MethodsWe investigated the association of 5-HTTLPR with delusions in a total of 257 consecutive patients clinically diagnosed as AD according to the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer ’s Association criteria. All participants underwent a comprehensive evaluation with a standardized compr...
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - February 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Suppression of astrocytic autophagy by αB-crystallin contributes to α-synuclein inclusion formation
ConclusionsThis study reveals a novel function for CRYAB as a natural inhibitor of astrocytic autophagy and shows  that knockdown of CYRAB may provide a therapeutic target against proteinopathies such as synucleinopathies. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - January 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Better survival in female SOD1 -mutant patients with ALS: a study of SOD1 -related natural history
ConclusionsThe results highlight a distinct mutational distribution and natural history spectrum in ALS patients carryingSOD1 mutations in China. A prominent mild disease progression was observed in female patients, which had rarely been reported in the previous literature. This finding, together with the detailed analysis of natural history among each mutation, can have important implications for future genetic counselling andSOD1-targeted clinical trials. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - January 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Transcranial direct current stimulation enhances theory of mind in Parkinson ’s disease patients with mild cognitive impairment: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study
ConclusionsWe show for the first time that active tDCS over the MFC enhances ToM in patients with PD-MCI, and suggest that non-invasive brain stimulation could be used to ameliorate ToM deficits observed in these patients. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - January 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Amyloid, tau, pathogen infection and antimicrobial protection in Alzheimer ’s disease –conformist, nonconformist, and realistic prospects for AD pathogenesis
ConclusionAD is a multi-factor complex disorder, which likely requires a combinatorial therapeutic approach to successfully slow or reduce symptomatic memory decline. A better understanding of how various causal and/or risk factors affecting disease onset and progression will enhance the likelihood of conceiving effective treatment paradigms, which may involve personalized treatment strategies for individual patients at varying stages of disease progression. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - December 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Correction to: Alterations of brain local functional connectivity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment
In the original publication of this article [1] surname of the first author is wrong. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - December 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Dynamic changes of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis during microglial activation and motor neuron loss in the spinal cord of ALS mouse model
ConclusionsOur data revealed the dynamic changes of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis and an imbalanced M1/M2 microglial activation during ALS pathological progression. These findings may help identify potential molecular targets for ALS therapy. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - December 21, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of rasagiline in Chinese patients with early Parkinson ’s disease: a randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study
ConclusionsRasagiline is effective, safe, and well tolerated as monotherapy for the treatment of Chinese PD patients.Trial registrationClinicaltrials.gov:NCT01556165. Registered 13 Mar 2012. (Source: Translational Neurodegeneration)
Source: Translational Neurodegeneration - December 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research