Low glucocorticoids in stress-related disorders: the role of inflammation.
We described changes in the glucocorticoid system and inflammatory reaction as parts of an integral system, where glucocorticoids and the glucocorticoid receptor reside at the apex of a regulatory network that blocks several inflammatory pathways, while decreased glucocorticoid signaling and/or level leads to unchecked inflammatory reactions to promote pathologies such as PTSD.Lay summary: This review emphasizes the importance of inflammatory reaction in the development of puzzling conditions sometimes observed in severe diseases including post-traumatic stress disorder -the decreased levels of glucocorticoids in the blood...
Source: Stress - May 15, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Chronic stress and anticipatory event-related potentials: the moderating role of resilience.
This study investigated the association between perceived chronic stress and anticipatory processing, measured by event-related potentials, and the moderating role of resilience on this relationship in healthy adults. Fifty-nine healthy volunteers (22.52 ± 1.75 years) underwent a continuous performance test, and anticipatory processing was indexed with the contingent negative variation (CNV) of event-related potentials, the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. The results showed that greater reports of perceived chronic stress were associated with more negative early ...
Source: Stress - May 15, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Laughter Yoga reduces the cortisol response to acute stress in healthy individuals.
In this study we have investigated whether a single laughter yoga session can help us to deal with acute stress. Although laughter yoga did not change how stressful a situation was perceived, it reduced the amount of stress hormones that were released in response to the situation. As such, laughter yoga mightbe a cheap and easily-to-implement add-on to more traditional stress reduction interventions. PMID: 32393092 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Stress)
Source: Stress - May 14, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Are Nestin-positive cells responsive to stress?
Authors: Bornstein SR, Berger I, Steenblock C Abstract In a number of adult tissues, Nestin-positive stem cells/progenitors have been identified and shown to be involved in maintenance and remodeling. Various studies have shown that under stressful conditions, quiescent Nestin-positive progenitor cells are activated. Thereby, they migrate to their target location and differentiate into mature cells. In the current paper, we discuss if Nestin-positive progenitors in the hippocampus and adrenal gland belong to unique cell populations that are responsive to stress. Furthermore, we speculate about the mechanism behind ...
Source: Stress - May 14, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

A proposed role for glucocorticoids in mediating dopamine-dependent cue-reward learning.
Authors: Lopez SA, Flagel SB Abstract Learning to respond appropriately to one's surrounding environment is fundamental to survival. Importantly, however, individuals vary in how they respond to cues in the environment and this variation may be a key determinant of psychopathology. The ability of seemingly neutral cues to promote maladaptive behavior is a hallmark of several psychiatric disorders including, substance use disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Thus, it is important to uncover the neural mechanisms by which such cues are able to attain inordinate...
Source: Stress - May 14, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

"Sick-but-not-dead": Multiple paths to catecholamine deficiency in Lewy Body diseases.
"Sick-but-not-dead": Multiple paths to catecholamine deficiency in Lewy Body diseases. Stress. 2020 May 06;:1-16 Authors: Goldstein DS Abstract Profound depletion of the catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, heart, or both characterize Lewy body diseases such as Parkinson disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and pure autonomic failure. Although one might presume that catecholamine deficiency in these disorders results directly and solely from loss of catecholaminergic neurons, there is increasing evidence that functional abnormalities in extant residual neurons contribute to...
Source: Stress - May 8, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Social defeat stress affectsresident ´s clock gene and Bdnf expression in the brain.
In this study, we assessed the effect of acute and repeated social defeat stress on Per2 and Nr1d1 expression in prefrontal cortexes, hippocampi, pineal glands, olfactory bulbs, cerebella, and pituitary glands. We also evaluated the effect of our experimental setting on levels of Bdnf and plasma corticosterone, two markers widely used to asses the impact of stress on mammalian physiology. Our data show that single and repeated social defeat stress upregulates the expression of both clock genes and Bdnf in all brain structures, and corticosterone in the blood. While the general pattern of Bdnf upregulation suggests higher s...
Source: Stress - April 25, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Stress-mediated hyperactivity and anhedonia resistant to diazepam and fluoxetine in Drosophila.
Authors: Ramos-Hryb AB, Ramirez MF, Lino-de-Oliveira C, Pagani MR Abstract Distresses may induce behavioral phenotypes constituting heuristic models for psychopharmacology studies. In several species, including Drosophila, antidepressants counteract stress-induced phenotypes allowing the use of these models to test new psychoactive drugs. Here, we developed a novel and time-efficient protocol to provoke stress-induced phenotypes in Drosophila for the study of psychopharmacological agents. In the first experiment, flies (n = 12/groups) were exposed to a random-sequence of different types of stresses du...
Source: Stress - April 24, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Psychobiological evidence of the stress resilience fostering properties of a cosmetic routine.
In conclusion, this study suggests that the self-administration of a cosmetic cream enriched with essential oils should be considered as a stress resilience fostering strategy due to its favorable physiological, neuroendocrine and psychological effects. PMID: 32241205 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Stress)
Source: Stress - April 5, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Noradrenergic enhancement of object recognition and object location memory in mice.
This study thereby provides a fundamental proof-of-principle for the investigation of the neural circuitry underlying noradrenergic and arousal effects on long-term memory in mice. PMID: 32233890 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Stress)
Source: Stress - April 4, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Testing a method to improve predictions of disease and mortality risk in western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) using allostatic load.
This report continues the development of ALIs as a clinical tool in wildlife while systematically testing one possible method for determining an optimal ALI for a particular species. PMID: 32228119 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Stress)
Source: Stress - April 2, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Married but lonely. Impact of poor marital quality on diurnal cortisol patterns in older people. Findings from the cross-sectional KORA-Age study.
Conclusion: These findings suggest a differential impact of loneliness on HPA axis dynamics in lonely married men. Our findings highlight the importance to address loneliness even in married people. PMID: 32166997 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Stress)
Source: Stress - March 15, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Validity of the Trier Social Stress Test in studying discrimination stress.
CONCLUSION: The modified instructions did not compromise the validity of the TSST. Prompting participants to discuss specific sources of discrimination may be a useful adaptation of the TSST in studying minority stress reactivity.Summary: The goal of the present study was to adapt a widely used measure of stress reactivity to study the impact of experiences with discrimination on biological systems involved in regulating the stress response. The modification included asking women to discuss a time when they had been treated unfairly and to describe how they responded to that experience. The magnitude of response to the tas...
Source: Stress - March 13, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

The effects of light exposure on the cortisol stress response in human males.
Conclusion: Our findings illustrate the crucial role of light intensity and wavelength for the cortisol stress response, in line with current theoretical knowledge of underlying neurobiological mechanisms.Lay Summary: Effects of different light sources were tested on healthy male adults in the morning after a stress test. Their stress responses showed that a bright light exposure increased the stress hormone level greatest compared to dim white, red or blue light sources. Findings point towards the crucial role of light intensity associated with the hormonal stress response. PMID: 32160826 [PubMed - as supplied by publ...
Source: Stress - March 13, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Exploring hair steroid concentrations in asylum seekers, internally displaced refugees, and immigrants.
Authors: Buchmüller T, Lembcke H, Busch J, Kumsta R, Wolf OT, Leyendecker B Abstract The study of physiological responses in refugees can yield insights into the origin of stress-related mental health disorders. Previous studies on refugees have found alterations in hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). However, the direction of this alteration as well as the association between HCC and psychological stress remain unclear. Mixed findings could be due to the fact that contextual factors have been insufficiently taken into account. In this explorative study we investigated HCCs in female refugees (n=89) living in ...
Source: Stress - March 4, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Enriched environment ameliorates dexamethasone effects on emotional reactivity and metabolic parameters in mice.
Authors: Delanogare E, de Souza RM, Rosa GK, Guanabara FG, Rafacho A, Moreira ELG Abstract Convincing evidence shows that stress is associated with the development and course of psychiatric and metabolic disorders. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis mediates the stress response, a cascade of events that culminate in the release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex. Chronic hypercortisolism typically characterizes stress-related illnesses, such as depression, anxiety, and metabolic syndrome. Considering previous studies pointing that environmental enrichment (EE) mitigates the deleterious effects of...
Source: Stress - March 1, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Social isolation alters hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis activity after chronic variable stress in male C57BL/6 mice.
Authors: Heck AL, Sheng JA, Miller AM, Stover SA, Bales NJ, Tan SML, Daniels RM, Fleury TK, Handa RJ Abstract The chronic variable stress (CVS) paradigm is frequently used to model the changes in hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis function characteristic of many stress-related diseases. However, male C57BL/6 mice are typically resistant to CVS's effects, making it difficult to determine how chronic stress exposure may alter acute HPA function and regulation in these mice. As social support in rodents can profoundly influence physiological and behavioral processes, including the HPA axis, we sought to charact...
Source: Stress - February 27, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Stress, Allostatic Load and Mental Health in Indigenous Australians.
Conclusion: The continued assessment of AL biomarkers and their relationship with past traumas, lifetime stressors and socio-economic factors amongst Indigenous Australians is important to addressing the mental health this population. Measurement of AL biomarkers in a culturally appropriate manner may lead to more targeted preventative measures, interventions and policies, which mitigate the effects of stress at both the individual and societal level. PMID: 32070158 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Stress)
Source: Stress - February 21, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Forgiveness: Protecting Medical Residents from the Detrimental Relationship Between Workplace Bullying and Wellness.
This study suggests that forgiveness may serve as a protective factor and provide an effective means for reducing the negative association between workplace bullying and negative outcomes. PMID: 32063074 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Stress)
Source: Stress - February 20, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Impact of a nutritional supplement during gestation and early childhood on child salivary cortisol, hair cortisol, and telomere length at 4-6 years of age: a follow-up of a randomized controlled trial.
This study addressed a research gap about whether improved nutrition during pregnancy and early childhood impacts telomere length and cortisol in preschool children. There was no difference in child telomere length or cortisol between two trial arms of a nutritional supplementation trial that began during pregnancy. The research outcomes indicate lipid-based nutrient supplements, a relatively new form of supplementation, do not have an effect on markers of stress or cellular aging measured in later childhood. PMID: 32063089 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Stress)
Source: Stress - February 20, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Understanding neurobehavioral effects of acute and chronic stress in zebrafish.
Authors: Demin KA, Taranov AS, Ilyin NP, Lakstygal AM, Volgin AD, de Abreu MS, Strekalova T, Kalueff AV Abstract Stress is a common cause of neuropsychiatric disorders, evoking multiple behavioral, endocrine and neuro-immune deficits. Animal models have been extensively used to understand mechanisms of stress-related disorders and to develop novel strategies for their treatment. Complementing rodent and clinical studies, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one of the most important model organisms in biomedicine. Rapidly becoming a popular model species in stress neuroscience research, zebrafish are highly sensitive to ...
Source: Stress - February 11, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Hair cortisol levels in posttraumatic stress disorder and metabolic syndrome.
This study provides evidence of a chronically dysregulated neuroendocrine mediated stress response in PTSD, with a clear dose-response relationship. HCC do not, however, appear to have specificity for the comorbidity of PTSD and MetS in this sample.Lay summary: We found that levels of the stress hormone, cortisol, measured in hair samples were significantly higher in South African women with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than in women who had also experienced trauma, but did not have PTSD. Hair cortisol levels were, however, not associated with metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors for heart disease, in the...
Source: Stress - February 5, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Physiological and behavioral responses to observing a sibling experience a direct stressor in prairie voles.
This study used a social rodent (prairie voles) to demonstrate that stress transfers among social individuals, consequently producing an increased physiological and behavioral stress response in prairie voles observing their siblings experience stress. This research informs our understanding of the interactions of social experiences and stress in humans. PMID: 32008380 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Stress)
Source: Stress - February 5, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Acute Psychosocial Stress During Retrieval Impairs Pattern Separation Processes On An Episodic Memory Task.
Authors: Nitschke JP, Giorgio LM, Zaborowska O, Sheldon S Abstract Numerous studies have shown that the presence of psychosocial stress impairs the ability to retrieve episodic memories, which raise questions about the specific cognitive processes that underlie this impairment. Here, we tested the hypothesis that stress targets retrieval processes needed to reliability discriminate previously learned from new information within episodic memory, pattern separation processing by measuring the effects of retrieval-induced stress on a modified version of the Mnemonic Similarity Task. In a two-part between-subjects desi...
Source: Stress - February 5, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Children's Hair Cortisol as a Biomarker of Stress at School: A Follow-up Study.
Authors: Groeneveld MG, Savas M, van Rossum EFC, Vermeer HJ Abstract In a previous study, we examined hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in children when first entering elementary school (at 4 years). In this follow-up study we examined their HCC when they entered third grade (at 6 years), where the more playful first grades proceed into a more formal learning setting. Participants were 30 six-year-old children (14 boys). Hair samples (≥ 5 cm) were collected two months after the summer holidays. Hair analysis was conducted using two 2-cm long segments, reflecting the first two months of school attendance ...
Source: Stress - February 5, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Acute and chronic stress differently alter the expression of cytokine and neuronal markers genes in zebrafish brain.
We report the effects of acute and chronic stress on the expression of selective immune-related genes and markers of neuronal function in the brain of the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish were distributed into three groups: the non-stressed control group; the acute stress (AS) group, submitted to a single stressing episode; and the unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) group, submitted to two daily stressing episodes of alternating times and types of stress. The stressing protocols were applied for a period of 14 days. The UCS protocol triggered the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine genes IL-1β and TNF-α, th...
Source: Stress - February 5, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Hair Cortisol predicts Avoidance Behavior and Depressiveness after first-time and single Event Trauma Exposure in Motor Vehicle Crash Victims.
Authors: Petrowski K, Wichmann S, Pyrc J, Steudte-Schmiedgen S, Kirschbaum C Abstract The role of cortisol as a premorbid vulnerability factor for trauma sequelae remains unclear. Furthermore, the onset of long-term endocrine changes in response to first time trauma as a function of later psychopathology is not clarified yet. Thus the predictive value of pre- and post-traumatic hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) for psychological trauma sequelae was investigated in response to motor vehicle crash (MVC).A total of N = 62 MVC survivors participated in this study [46 females, mean age (SD): 43.94(12.95)]...
Source: Stress - January 16, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Chronic unpredictable restraint stress increases hippocampal pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreases motivated behavior in rats.
Authors: Mograbi KM, Suchecki D, da Silva SG, Covolan L, Hamani C Abstract Most chronic stress protocols are too laborious or do not abide by the two main characteristics of the stress concept: uncontrollability and unpredictability. The goal of this study was to establish a simple and reliable model of chronic stress, while maintaining the main features of the concept. Animals were exposed to chronic movement restraint with variable duration (2, 4 or 6 h, in an unpredictable schedule) for 3 weeks and assessed in several physiological and behavioral readouts known to reflect chronic stress states. Bod...
Source: Stress - January 15, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Ultrasound stress compromises the correlates of emotional-like states and brain AMPAR expression in mice: effects of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory herbal treatment.
We examined the behavioral and molecular impact of ultrasound and administration of herbal antioxidant/anti-inflammatory treatment (HAT) on AMPA receptor expression, markers of plasticity, inflammation and oxidative stress. A 3-week ultrasound exposure increased scores of anxiety-like behaviors in the standard tests and altered hippocampal expression as well as internalization of AMPA receptor subunits GluA1-A3. Concomitant treatment with HAT has prevented increases of anxiety-like behaviors and other behavioral changes, normalized hippocampal malondialdehyde content, GSK3β and pro-inflammatory cytokines Il-1β an...
Source: Stress - January 5, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Sex differences in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response following a single or multiple days of sleep restriction.
Authors: Buban KN, Shupe EA, Rothwell SW, John Wu T Abstract One in three adults report experiencing inadequate or disrupted sleep throughout the night, with the incidence being higher in women than in men. Disturbances in nightly sleep results in physiological alterations that contribute to a number of disorders. Poor sleep quality is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of these disorders through interactions with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The present study investigated the effect of one and three days of restricted sleep on HPA axis reactivity. Male and female C57BL/6J (n =&thin...
Source: Stress - January 2, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Race Moderates the Association of Perceived Everyday Discrimination and Hair Cortisol Concentration.
This study examined whether the association of perceived discrimination was more strongly associated with long-term, retrospective cortisol output (as measured by hair cortisol concentration [HCC]) among African American compared to White adults. Participants included 141 community-dwelling adults (72 White, 69 African American; mean age 45.8 years; 67% females). The Everyday Discrimination Scale assessed perceived discrimination. The first 3 cm of proximal scalp hair were analyzed for HCC using enzyme-linked immunoassay. Associations between race, perceived discrimination and HCC were examined using hierarchical mu...
Source: Stress - January 2, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Expression of estrogen receptor alpha in response to stress and estrogen antagonist tamoxifen in the shell gland of Gallus gallus domesticus: Involvement of anti-oxidant system and estrogen.
Authors: Niranjan MK, Koiri R, Srivastava R Abstract Animals are frequently exposed to various kinds of environmental stressors and estrogen is known to play important role in stress response besides its crucial role in regulation of cellular proliferation, metabolic activity and reproduction. The study investigates the estrogen antagonist, tamoxifen (TM), mediated estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) expression, to modulate stress induced parameters in chickens. The study further explores the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and malonaldehyde (MDA) in brain, ovary an...
Source: Stress - January 1, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

The behavioral and neurochemical effects of an inescapable stressor are time of day dependent.
Authors: Daut RA, Ravenel JR, Watkins LR, Maier SF, Fonken LK Abstract Circadian rhythms are ∼24 h fluctuations in physiology and behavior that are synchronized with the light-dark cycle. The circadian system ensures homeostatic balance by regulating multiple systems that respond to environmental stimuli including stress systems. In rats, acute exposure to a series of uncontrollable tailshocks (inescapable stress, IS) produces an anxiety and depression-like phenotype. Anxiety- and fear-related behavioral changes produced by IS are driven by sensitization of serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) neuron...
Source: Stress - December 25, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Learning and memory dysfunction of non-surgery cage-mates of mice with surgery.
Authors: Zheng Y, Zuo Z Abstract A patient can develop cognitive dysfunction and neuroinflammation after surgery. However, it is not known whether these pathological processes occur in people who live together with surgery patients. As an initial step to address this issue in animals, 2 mice with right common carotid arterial exposure were cage-mates with 3 non-surgery mice. Their learning and memory were tested starting 5 days after surgery. Their brain tissues were harvested 1 day or 5 days after surgery. The results showed that mice with surgery and cage-mates of these surgery mice had increased pro-infla...
Source: Stress - December 12, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

The Effect of Traumatic-like Stress Exposure on Alterations in the Temporal Social Behavior of a Rodent Population.
Authors: Han M, Luo H, Bai Y, Zheng S, Li F, Fu J, Jiang S, Liu Z, Zheng X Abstract Though the relationship between traumatic stress and social behavior, which has been explored for years, is dynamic and largely estimated between dyads, little is known about the causal effects of traumatic stress exposure on the time-dependent dynamic alterations in the social behaviors on a large-group level. We thus investigated the effect of a single prolonged stress (SPS) exposure, a classical animal model that recapitulates posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like symptoms in rodents, on the spatiotemporal, social behavior ch...
Source: Stress - December 10, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Association of Differential Symptoms of Stress to Hair Cortisol and Cortisone Concentrations among Pregnant Women in Kenya.
Conclusions: Specific stress symptoms may have unique relationships to specific biomarkers and be more useful in assessment than general perceived stress. Assays of both hair cortisol and cortisone might enable a more comprehensive assessment of glucocorticoid activity and better prediction of health risks from stress.Lay Summary: Understanding stress among rural pregnant Kenyan women may help in addressing risks during pregnancy that lead to adverse birth outcomes. Findings suggest that a woman's tendency to think negatively about life and to doubt her ability to handle life's problems are symptoms of stress that may cont...
Source: Stress - November 23, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Hair cortisol levels and mental health problems in children and adolescents exposed to victimization.
Authors: de Azeredo LA, Viola TW, Rothmann LM, Trentin R, Arteche AX, Haag Kristensen C, Buchweitz A, Grassi-Oliveira R Abstract Youths who experience multiple forms of victimization are at a heightened risk for psychopathology across the lifespan. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a key target for the investigation of neurobiological changes induced by chronic stress and violence exposure. The measurement of hair cortisol concentration allows the investigation of long-term HPA activity and its association with victimization. The present study investigated the impact of exposure to polyvictimization ...
Source: Stress - November 10, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Chronic stress influences nociceptive sensitivity of female rats in an estrous cycle-dependent manner.
Authors: Yang CX, Wang Y, Lu Q, Lian YN, Anto EO, Zhang Y, Wang W Abstract Exposure to chronic stress can influence nociception and further induce hyperalgesia. Whether stress modulation of pain in female animals occurs in an estrous cycle-specific manner is still unclear. We profiled the changes in nociception (thermal, mechanical, formalin-evoked acute and inflammatory pain) of female Sprague-Dawley rats after treatment with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and investigated whether these changes occur in an estrous cycle-dependent manner. The results showed that CUMS female rats exhibited a lower mechanic...
Source: Stress - November 3, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Recent life stress predicts blunted acute stress response and the role of executive control.
Authors: Xin Y, Yao Z, Wang W, Luo Y, Aleman A, Wu J Abstract The present study examined the associations between recent life stress and responses to acute psychological stress, and how these associations varied with executive control. Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), salivary cortisol, and affective states were measured before, during and after the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an effective laboratory stressor, in 54 healthy participants, and executive control function was tested with a Go/No-Go task in a neutral context on a different day. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that...
Source: Stress - November 3, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Data-driven discovery of mid-pregnancy immune markers associated with maternal lifetime stress: results from an urban pre-birth cohort.
Authors: Cowell W, Colicino E, Lee AG, Bosquet Enlow M, Flom JD, Berin C, Wright RO, Wright RJ Abstract Changes to the maternal inflammatory milieu may be a mechanism through which maternal psychosocial stress is transmitted to the fetus. Research investigating a limited number of immune markers may miss important signals. We take a proteomics approach to investigate maternal lifetime stress and 92 biomarkers of immune system status. Participants were enrolled in an urban, dual-site (Boston, n = 301 and New York City, n = 110) pregnancy cohort. We measured maternal lifetime history of st...
Source: Stress - October 31, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Fingernail cortisol as a marker of chronic stress exposure in Indigenous and non-Indigenous young adults.
Authors: Davison B, Singh GR, Oguoma VM, McFarlane J Abstract Cumulative exposure to stress over a long period can negatively impact an individual's health. Significant advancements in biomarkers of chronic stress have been made, with the use of fingernails recently explored. Cross sectional data from the Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort (Indigenous) and Top End Cohort (non-Indigenous) was used to investigate the associations (sociodemographic and emotional) of fingernail cortisol in Indigenous and non-Indigenous young adults. Details on sociodemographic (age, gender, Indigenous Identification), smoking and alcoh...
Source: Stress - October 29, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Decision making under stress: Mild hypoxia leads to increased risk-taking.
Authors: Pighin S, Bonini N, Hadjichristidis C, Schena F, Savadori L Abstract People tend to take more risks under stressful conditions. In the present study, we examined the effect of mild hypoxia, an unconscious and ongoing stressor, on decisions under uncertainty where probabilities are unknown. Participants completed the Balloon Analogue Risk Taking task (BART) in both a normoxic (20.9% oxygen concentration) and a mildly hypoxic (14.1% oxygen concentration) environment. The results indicate that people take more risks in a mildly hypoxic than in a normoxic environment. Despite inducing significant changes in ph...
Source: Stress - October 17, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Corticosterone and progesterone differentially regulate HPA axis and neuroimmune responses to stress in male rats.
Authors: Hueston CM, Deak T Abstract In response to stressor exposure, expression of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1) is increased within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Surgical removal of the adrenal glands (ADX) potentiated stress-induced IL-1 expression, suggesting a role for adrenal-derived hormones in constraining stress-evoked increases in IL-1. While corticosterone (CORT) is a primary factor inhibiting IL-1 expression, progesterone (PROG) is also released by the adrenal glands in male rats in response to stress and also has potent anti-inflammatory properties. This...
Source: Stress - October 10, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Hypothalamic-Pituitary axis response to a 0.25-mg dexamethasone test in women with fibromyalgia.
Conclusions. As other syndromes like post-traumatic stress disorder or emotionally unstable personality disorders, also related with high incidence of severe trauma, FMS patients presented significant low basal cortisol. However, they did not have cortisol hypersuppression as is commonly found in the mentioned disorders. The relation of FMS with lifetime traumas and with emotional instability should be further investigated in order to improve psychological treatment approaches for these patients. Lay summary: Patients with fibromyalgic syndrome have basal hypocortisoism but no cortisol hypersuppression after dexamethasone ...
Source: Stress - October 10, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Chronic restraint stress exacerbates neurological deficits and disrupts the remodeling of the neurovascular unit in a mouse intracerebral hemorrhage model.
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of CRS on a mouse ICH model. Adult male C57BL mice were subjected to infusion of collagenase IV (to induce ICH) or saline (for sham) into the left striatum. After ICH, animals were stressed with application of CRS protocol for 21 days. Our results showed that CRS significantly exacerbated neurological deficits (Garcia test, corner turn test and wire grip test) and the ipsilateral brain atrophy and reduced body weight gain after ICH. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that CRS exerted significant suppressive effects on neuron, astrocyte, vascular endothelial cell and pericyte and e...
Source: Stress - October 10, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Acute restraint stress increases blood pressure and oxidative stress in the cardiorenal system of rats: a role for AT1 receptors.
Authors: do Vale GT, Leoni D, Sousa AH, Gonzaga NA, Uliana DL, La Gata DC, Resstel LB, Padovan CM, R Tirapelli C Abstract We evaluate whether acute restraint stress may affect the oxidative state of the cardiorenal system and the possible contribution of angiotensin II/AT1 receptors in such response. Male Wistar rats were restrained for 60 min within wire mesh chambers. Some rats were treated with losartan (selective AT1 receptor antagonist, 10 mg/kg, p.o., gavage) 30 min before being stressed. Biochemical analyses were conducted after the 60-min period of restraint. Treatment with losartan pre...
Source: Stress - October 6, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Assessment of Feasibility and Outcomes of a Salivary Cortisol Collection Protocol in Five American Indian Communities.
Authors: Walls M, Dertinger M, Unzen M, Forsberg A, Aronson B, Wille S, al'Absi M, Gathering for Health Team Abstract We evaluated the feasibility and outcomes of administering a naturalistic saliva collection procedure and assessment in American Indian (Indigenous) communities. We focus on Indigenous adults living with type 2 diabetes given the "epidemic" of the disease disproportionately impacting many tribal groups. Data are from community-based participatory research (CBPR) involving 5 tribal communities. Participants were randomly selected from tribal clinic records. The sample includes 188 adults li...
Source: Stress - October 4, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Salivary Cortisol responses to acute stress vary between allergic and healthy individuals: The role of plasma oxytocin, emotion regulation strategies, reported stress and anxiety.
This study addressed stress experiences and emotion regulation in allergic and non-allergic adults. Allergics scored higher on emotion suppression, had higher pre-stress concentrations of plasma oxytocin and exhibited a stronger salivary cortisol response to stress than healthy people. The research outcomes indicate that allergic individuals cope less efficiently with acute stress but may benefit from adaptive emotion regulation strategies such as reappraisal. PMID: 31578916 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Stress)
Source: Stress - October 4, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Interleukin-1 α in the ventral hippocampus increases stress vulnerability and inflammation-related processes.
Interleukin-1α in the ventral hippocampus increases stress vulnerability and inflammation-related processes. Stress. 2019 Sep 27;:1-34 Authors: Pearson-Leary J, Eacret D, Bhatnagar S Abstract Mechanisms of stress vulnerability remain elusive. Previous research demonstrated that inflammation-related processes in the brain play a role in stress vulnerability. Our previous research showed that inflammatory processes in the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) induced a stress vulnerable phenotype. To further understand neuroinflammatory processes in the vHPC in stressed rats, we determined that protein levels...
Source: Stress - September 29, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Involvement of D2 receptor in the NAc in chronic unpredictable stress-induced depression-like behaviours.
Authors: Qiao H, Yang S, Xu C, Ma XM, An SC Abstract D2 receptors (D2Rs) located in both pre- and postsynaptic membranes of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are involved in the stress response and associated behaviours. The role of D2Rs in chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced depression-like behaviours is not clear. Quinpirole (a D2R agonist) and eticlopride (a D2R antagonist) were stereotactically delivered into the NAc before Sprague Dawley rats underwent CUS. CUS-induced depression-like behaviours were accompanied by a significant decrease in both the dopamine (DA) level and D2R e...
Source: Stress - September 27, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research