An experimental investigation into cardiovascular, haemodynamic and salivary alpha amylase reactivity to acute stress in Type D individuals.
Authors: Allen SF, Wetherell MA, Smith MA Abstract Type D personality is characterized by increased social inhibition and negative affectivity. Research demonstrates associations between Type D and poor physical health. Maladaptive sympathetic arousal is suggested as a potential mechanism, however, findings are inconsistent and studies mainly focus on basic cardiovascular parameters. The current study examines cardiovascular and haemodynamic parameters in addition to salivary alpha amylase (sAA) as markers of sympathetic stress reactivity in Type D individuals. Healthy adults (N = 75; 33 Type D; aged ...
Source: Stress - March 13, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Intense resistance training induces pronounced metabolic stress and impairs hypertrophic response in hind-limb muscles of rats.
This study shows that rats submitted to 5 weeks of intensive resistance jump-training - high intensity, large volume, and short rest intervals - present high levels of blood corticosterone associated with negative effects on hypertrophy of types-I and II muscle fibers. PMID: 30857457 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Stress)
Source: Stress - March 13, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Hair cortisol, allostatic load, and depressive symptoms in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
Authors: Berger M, Taylor S, Harriss L, Campbell S, Thompson F, Jones S, Sushames A, Amminger GP, Sarnyai Z, McDermott R Abstract Chronic stress and adversity are associated with poor mental health and are thought to contribute to the existing mental health gap between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and other Australians. Hair cortisol and allostatic load (AL) are indices of sustained stress and may be mediators of the effects of stress on health. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hair cortisol, AL, and depressive symptoms. This cross-sectional study comprised 329 Aborigina...
Source: Stress - March 7, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Sexual orientation, disclosure, and cardiovascular stress reactivity.
Authors: Juster RP, Doyle DM, Hatzenbuehler ML, Everett BG, DuBois LZ, McGrath JJ Abstract Stigma may strain the heart health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals. To date, however, LGB-related differences in cardiovascular diagnosis, risk factors, and basal biomarkers are inconsistently reported. Using a laboratory-based stress paradigm, the current study assessed whether cardiovascular stress reactivity differs as a function of sexual orientation and disclosure status ("coming out") in a sample of healthy young LGB and heterosexual adults. Eighty-seven participants aged 18-45 (M =&thin...
Source: Stress - March 7, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Decreased stress-induced depression-like behavior in lactating rats is associated with changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, brain monoamines, and brain amino acid metabolism.
This study investigated how the behavior, HPA axis activity, brain monoamines, and brain free amino acid metabolism of rats were changed by stress or lactation period. Rats were separated into four groups: (1) control lactating (n = 6), (2) stress lactating (n = 6), (3) control virgin (n = 7), and (4) stress virgin (n = 7) and restrained for 30 min a total of ten times (once every other day) from postnatal day (PND) 1. Depression-like behavior in the forced swimming test (FST) on PND 10 and concentration of corticosterone in plasma, as well as monoamines and L-...
Source: Stress - March 7, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Regulating glycolysis, the TLR4 signal pathway and expression of RBM3 in mouse liver in response to acute cold exposure.
This study focused on the effects of environmental hypothermia on molecular pathways of glucose metabolism in the liver, which is the important metabolic organ in mice. This provides a basis for further study of mice against cold exposure damage. PMID: 30821572 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Stress)
Source: Stress - March 5, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Heart rate increase predicts challenging behavior episodes in preschoolers with autism.
This study examined whether heart rate (HR) predicts challenging behavior in children with autism. While wearing an electrocardiograph monitor, 41 children with autism aged 2- to 4-years participated in tasks designed to induce low-level stress (e.g. waiting for a snack). Coders identified 106 time periods during which challenging behaviors occurred and also coded 106 randomly selected time samples that did not include challenging behaviors. Thirteen (32%) participants exhibited challenging behaviors and were included in the study. Baseline-corrected HR was computed for each behavior/time sample. On average, children with ...
Source: Stress - March 5, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Identification of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in ovary and uterus of laying hens under heat stress.
In this study, nine candidate housekeeping genes were evaluated, and the most stable were YWHAZ, HPRT1, HMBS, RPL13, TFRC, TBP, ACTB, RPL32, and 18SrRNA. PMID: 30806126 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Stress)
Source: Stress - February 27, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Psychobiological impact of speaking a second language in healthy young men.
This study provides initial evidence that speaking a second language in social contexts increases the cortisol stress response. Future research should explore the short- and long-term effects this may have in populations frequently using second languages (e.g. learners of a second language, migrants). PMID: 30806128 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Stress)
Source: Stress - February 27, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

The effects of cinnamaldehyde on acute or chronic stress-induced anxiety-related behavior and locomotion in male mice.
Authors: Etaee F, Komaki A, Faraji N, Rezvani-Kamran A, Komaki S, Hasanein P, Taheri M, Omidi G Abstract Anxiety and stress are considered as universal psychiatric exhibitions of the present societies and lifestyles. Several experiments have been conducted to examine natural anxiolytic agents to find out an alternative to synthetic anxiolytic drugs. The present study investigated the anxiolytic effects of cinnamaldehyde (Cin) on mice behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field (OF) tests. Sixty male Swiss mice, weighing 20-30 g, were divided into six groups including: acute stress +&thinsp...
Source: Stress - February 27, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Legacy environmental polychlorinated biphenyl contamination attenuates the acute stress response in a cartilaginous fish, the Round Stingray.
Authors: Lyons K, Wynne-Edwards KE Abstract In a population of Round Stingrays (Urobatis halleri) sampled from mainland California (polychlorinated biphenyl [PCB] exposed site, n = 46), relative to a nearby offshore island (reference site, n = 34), we tested the hypothesis that stingrays from the PCB-exposed site would have a compromised stress response. Adult male and pregnant female (pregnancy = matrotrophic histotrophy), stingrays were captured via hook and line at both locations over a breeding season and plasma was sampled either immediately (Baseline, males = 10, fema...
Source: Stress - February 27, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

In sickness and in health: partner's physical and mental health predicts cortisol levels in couples.
Authors: Meyer D, Salas J, Barkley S, Buchanan TW Abstract Individuals in stable relationships tend to be healthier than those not in stable relationships. Despite this general positive influence of relationships on health, the mechanisms for the impact of relationship quality on health are not clear. Research has focused on many factors to explain this connection, including inter- and intra-couple dynamics of physiology and behavior. To address this issue, we examined the relationship between perceived health, depressive symptoms, and relationship quality on diurnal cortisol in 30 male/female romantic dyads (N&thi...
Source: Stress - February 27, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Determining the mechanisms through which recent life stress predicts working memory impairments: precision or capacity?
Authors: Shields GS, Ramey MM, Slavich GM, Yonelinas AP Abstract Prior research has found that recent life stress exposure is related to poorer working memory performance, but it remains unclear which aspects of working memory are related to stress. To address this important issue, we examined the extent to which recent life stress exposure was associated with working memory capacity (i.e., the number of items that can be held in working memory) and working memory precision (i.e., the quality of representations of items held within working memory) in a sample of 260 healthy young adults (Mage = 19.95&...
Source: Stress - February 17, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Can acute stress be fatal? A systematic cross-disciplinary review.
This article compares different conditions in humans and in other animals, where it appears as if the human or animal dies with no other reason than being submitted to an extreme condition of mental stress. The conditions examined via a literature search are excited delirium syndrome, malignant catatonia and takotsubo cardiomyopathy in humans, and a capture myopathy in different mammals. The article theoretically suggests that one can die solely from acute stress, but that different forms sensitization probably goes ahead of such a fatal stress reaction. E.g. in cocaine addicts, some psychiatric patients, and in wild anima...
Source: Stress - February 17, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Prenatal cortisol modifies the association between maternal trauma history and child cognitive development in a sex-specific manner in an urban pregnancy cohort.
Authors: Campbell RK, Devick KL, Coull BA, Cowell W, Askowitz T, Goldson B, Wright RO, Wright RJ Abstract Women's experience of trauma may cause lifelong alterations in physiological stress regulation, which can be transmitted to offspring in utero. We investigated, in a prospective pregnancy cohort, associations among maternal lifetime interpersonal trauma (IPT) history, prenatal cortisol dysregulation, and children's memory domains. Sex-specific effects were also explored. Pregnant women were enrolled from Brigham & Women's Hospital and affiliated clinics near Boston, MA, in 2002-2007. IPT was assessed with t...
Source: Stress - February 17, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Periconceptional ethanol exposure alters the stress axis in adult female but not male rat offspring.
This study investigated the effects of periconceptional ethanol (PC:EtOH) exposure on corticosterone concentrations, response to restraint stress and gene expression of adrenal, hypothalamic, and hippocampal glucocorticoid-related pathways in rat offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with PC:EtOH (12.5% v/v EtOH liquid diet) or a control diet from four days before conception, until embryonic day 4. At 6 (adult) and 12-14 (aged) months of age, basal corticosterone concentrations were measured, while in a separate cohort of aged rats, blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma corticosterone concentrations were...
Source: Stress - February 13, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Acute stressor effects on cognitive flexibility: mediating role of stressor appraisals and cortisol.
Authors: Gabrys RL, Howell JW, Cebulski SF, Anisman H, Matheson K Abstract Acute stressor experiences may influence cognition, possibly through actions of cognitive flexibility, which comprises the ability to modify cognitive and behavioral strategies in response to changing environmental demands. In the present investigation, we examined the effects of an acute psychosocial stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test) on a specific form of cognitive flexibility, namely that of set-shifting, which was assessed by the Berg's Card Sorting Task (BCST). Among undergraduate students, the stressor promoted better performance ...
Source: Stress - February 9, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

miR-375 mediates the CRF signaling pathway to regulate catecholamine biosynthesis by targeting Sp1 in porcine adrenal gland.
This study was designed to investigate the relationship between CRF and miR-375 in the regulation of CATs biosynthesis in the porcine adrenal gland. Eight adult female pigs (four controls; four injected intracerebroventricularly with 50 μg of CRF) were used for the in vivo experiments in this study. The results showed that miR-375 was exclusively localized in porcine adrenal medullary cells. Functional studies showed that miR-375 negatively regulated CATs synthesis in primary cells by affecting the expression of the CATs synthetases tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), and phenylethanolamin...
Source: Stress - February 6, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Influence of prenatal transportation stress on innate immune response to an endotoxin challenge in weaned Brahman bull calves †,‡.
The objective of this study was to assess the influence of prenatal stress (PNS) on innate immune responses to an endotoxin challenge in weaned bull calves. Altered innate immune response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as characterized by changes in a range of variables was hypothesized in PNS bull calves. Brahman cows (n = 96; 48 stressed by transportation at five stages of gestation and 48 Controls) produced 85 calves, from which 16 uncastrated male (bull) calves from each PNS and Control treatment were selected for an LPS challenge period. Rectal temperature (RT), sickness behavior score (SBS), serum concent...
Source: Stress - January 25, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Maternal witness to intimate partner violence during childhood and prenatal family functioning alter newborn cortisol reactivity.
Authors: Parade SH, Newland RP, Bublitz MH, Stroud LR Abstract Witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) during childhood is a risk factor for mental health problems across the lifespan. Less is known about the intergenerational consequences of witnessing IPV, and if the current family climate buffers intergenerational effects of witnessing violence. The mother's experience of witnessing IPV against her own mother during childhood, prenatal family dysfunction, and prenatal perceived stress were examined as predictors of offspring cortisol in the first month of life (N = 218 mother-infant dyads). Moth...
Source: Stress - January 25, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Hair cortisol and cortisone as markers of stress in Indigenous and non-Indigenous young adults.
This study aimed to assess the associations of hair cortisol and cortisone with sociodemographic (age, gender, Indigenous Identification), substance use, emotional wellbeing, and emotional stress, in a cohort at increased risk of stressful events and psychological distress. Cross-sectional data (age 21-28 years) are presented from two Australian longitudinal studies; the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (n = 253) and non-Indigenous Top End Cohort (n = 72). A third of the cohort reported psychological distress, with Indigenous participants reporting higher rates of stressful events compared to non-...
Source: Stress - January 22, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Isolation stress impacts Met-enkephalin in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in growing Polish Mountain sheep: a possible role of the opioids in modulation of HPA axis.
Authors: Pierzchała-Koziec K, Dziedzicka-Wasylewska M, Scanes CG Abstract It was hypothesized that there is cross-talk between the classical constituents of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA) and Met-enkephalin in the HPA axis. The study examined effects of isolation stress, sex, and age on concentrations of native Met-enkephalin and pro-enkephalin (PENK) gene expression in tissues of the HPA (hypothalamus, pituitary gland and adrenal cortex) in 3-, 6- and 9-month old female and male lambs. In addition, the effects of isolation stress on in vitro release Met-enkephalin from fragments of the hypoth...
Source: Stress - January 15, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Habituation of the cardiovascular responses to restraint stress in male rats: influence of length, frequency and number of aversive sessions.
Authors: Benini R, Oliveira LA, Gomes-de-Souza L, Crestani CC Abstract Habituation of cardiovascular responses upon repeated exposure to stress is controversial. Hence, we hypothesized that habituation of cardiovascular stress responses is influenced by length, frequency, and number of stress sessions in male Wistar rats. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded via femoral artery catheterization and the tail cutaneous temperature was evaluated using a thermal imager. We observed a faster return of heart rate to baseline values during the post-stress period of the 10th daily session in rats subjected to either 6...
Source: Stress - January 12, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Effects of 5-HTTLPR genotype and cognitive rumination on long-term cortisol reactivity measured in human hair.
Authors: Schepers R, Keulers EH, Markus CR Abstract Ample experimental and associative studies have shown that carrying two short (S) alleles of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) contributes to an increased vulnerability for stress and related affective disorders. Recent findings indicate that this relationship might become even more profound when also possessing a negative ruminative (stress-related) thinking style. However, previous studies on the relationship among 5-HTTLPR, stress, and stress-responsiveness almost exclusively measured salivary cortisol concentrations during exposure to a single acute (l...
Source: Stress - January 11, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Wheel access has opposing effects on stress physiology depending on social environment in female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).
Authors: Jarcho MR, McNeal N, Colburn W, Normann MC, Watanasriyakul WT, Grippo AJ Abstract Physical exercise and chronic social stress are both known to impact general health and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, albeit typically in opposing directions. Therefore, the question we investigated in this study was how these two factors - physical exercise and chronic social isolation - would interact when presented simultaneously in a female rodent model. Adult female prairie voles were separated into four experimental groups: (1) isolated without wheel access, (2) isolated with wheel access, (3) pair...
Source: Stress - January 11, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Maternal circadian cortisol mediates the link between prenatal distress and breastfeeding.
This study is a secondary data analysis of 197 pregnant women with singleton pregnancies who were part of a larger study of the effects of maternal mood on fetal and infant development. About 34% of women reported exclusively breastfeeding, 18% reported exclusively formula feeding, and 48% reported mixed feeding. Participants reported on perceived stress, perinatal anxiety and depression, and socioeconomic status during pregnancy. They provided salivary cortisol samples at three times a day for 3 days at 24, 30, and 36 weeks' gestation. Participants who reported lower socioeconomic status in pregnancy were less likely to b...
Source: Stress - January 11, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

The influence of Val158Met COMT on physiological stress responsivity.
Authors: Serrano JM, Banks JB, Fagan TJ, Tartar JL Abstract We tested the extent to which the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism is associated with stress response and pain in both men and women. The participants were assessed on measures of perceived pain and state/trait anxiety in association with their COMT allele status. We also measured cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) levels since previous research suggests an association between the COMT Val159Met polymorphism, cortisol secretion, and sAA activity. We found significant differences between methionine (Met) allele carriers and ...
Source: Stress - January 11, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Evaluation of the effects of chronic stress applied from the prepubertal to the adult stages or only during adulthood on penile morphology in rats.
Authors: Ribeiro CT, Costa WS, Sampaio FJB, Pereira Sampaio MA, de Souza DB Abstract The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic stress from the prepubertal to the adult stages or during adulthood on penile morphology in rats. The animals were immobilized in a cylinder for 2 h daily for a total of six weeks to simulate stress. Ten rats were exposed to stress stimulus beginning from the prepubertal age, while nine rats were exposed to stress stimulus only during adulthood. Animals were killed at 24 h after the last stress session for short-term evaluation (SP-S and SA-S), while other age...
Source: Stress - January 4, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Stress and hair cortisol concentrations from preconception to the third trimester.
Authors: Orta OR, Tworoger SS, Terry KL, Coull BA, Gelaye B, Kirschbaum C, Sanchez SE, Williams MA Abstract Stress is an important and modifiable determinant of health, and its association with hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) during pregnancy remains unclear. We selected a random sample of 97 participants from a cohort of pregnant participants attending prenatal clinics in Lima, Peru. Each provided a hair sample at enrollment (mean gestational age = 13.1 weeks) and again at full-term delivery. Hair samples were segmented to reflect HCC in preconception and each trimester. At enrollment, meas...
Source: Stress - December 28, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Hypertension linked to allostatic load: from psychosocial stress to inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction.
Authors: Mocayar Marón FJ, Ferder L, Saraví FD, Manucha W Abstract Although a large number of available treatments and strategies, the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases continues to grow worldwide. Emerging evidence supports the notion of counteracting stress as a critical component of a comprehensive therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular disease. Indeed, an unhealthy lifestyle is a burden to biological variables such as plasma glucose, lipid profile, and blood pressure control. Recent findings identify allostatic load as a new paradigm for an integrated understanding of the importance of psycho...
Source: Stress - December 16, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Promoter haplotypes of the corticotropin-releasing hormone encoding gene modulate the physiological stress response in vitro and in vivo.
Authors: Li-Tempel T, Suer T, Tempel T, Larra MF, Winnikes U, Schächinger H, Meyer J, Schote AB Abstract The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a neuropeptide mediating stress responses. CRH exerts effects via the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis as well as immediate effects on the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system. Genetic variants of the CRH promoter were previously found to be associated with altered CRH promoter activity and physiological reactions. Functional characterization of three CRH promoter haplotypes have been performed in vitro using a reporter gene assay under different stimulation c...
Source: Stress - November 29, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Effects of technology-mediated mindfulness practice on stress: psychophysiological and self-report measures.
This study aimed at testing the effect of such novel training approach based on the integration of mental training with brain-sensing wearable devices on physiological (heart rate and variability) and subjective markers of stress (perceived stress, anxiety, and mood states). Participants (N = 55) have been randomly divided into an active control (CONTg) and an experimental group (EXPg). Both groups completed a four-week training constituted by brief daily activities based on mindfulness practices. Experimental participants practiced with the support of dedicated brain-sensing devices. By analyzing pre- and po...
Source: Stress - November 28, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Effects of nicotine and stress exposure across generations in C57BL/6 mice.
Authors: Yohn NL, Caruso MJ, Blendy JA Abstract Chronic administration of nicotine or exposure to stress can produce long-lasting behavioral and physiological changes in humans and animals alike. Further, the impact of nicotine and stress exposure can be inherited by offspring to produce persistent changes in physiology and behavior. To determine if nicotine and stress interact across generations to influence offspring behavior we exposed F0 male mice to nicotine and F1 male and female mice to chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence. We then measured locomotor sensitization to repeated nicotine injections i...
Source: Stress - November 22, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Inherited anxiety-related parent-infant dyads alter LHPA activity.
We examined long-term stress hormones and other stress markers in subjects three generations removed from the Holocaust, to assess the long-term consequences of inherited behavioral and physiological responses to prior stress and trauma. Jewish subjects who recalled overprotective parental behavior had higher hairsteroid-concentrations and dampened limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) axis reactivity compared to German and Russian-German subjects with overprotective parents. We suggest that altered LHPA axis activity in maternally overprotected Jewish subjects may indicate a transmitted pathomechanism of "frus...
Source: Stress - November 15, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Stress at its best: the 1st Munich Winter Conference On Stress.
Authors: Schmidt MV, Chen A PMID: 30394199 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Stress)
Source: Stress - November 6, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Does stress affect food preferences? - a randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of examination stress on measures of food preferences and obesogenic behavior.
Authors: Berg Schmidt J, Johanneson Bertolt C, Sjödin A, Ackermann F, Vibeke Schmedes A, Lynge Thomsen H, Marie Juncher A, Hjorth MF Abstract Lay summary: Human and animal studies have shown that chronic stress interfers with both homeostatic and hedonic appetite control. Here, we investigated the effect of chronic stress on food preferences and eating behavior in real life settings. In random order, fifty healthy students participated in two test periods of 4-5 days; a stressful period (one week prior to an examination) and a nonstressful period (four weeks after an examination). Food preferences were ...
Source: Stress - November 4, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Mental health in familial caregivers of Alzheimer's disease patients: are the effects of chronic stress on cognition inevitable?
This study suggests that the cognitive impairments of caregivers are not necessarily irreversible, as indicated by the results obtained for contextual memory, which could be improved despite the ongoing chronic stress and associated hormonal and neurotrophin dysfunctions. Lay summary The support of a relative with Alzheimer's Disease submits the familial caregivers to a chronic stress condition that increases their own risk of cognitive decline. This study suggests that, irrespective to their alterations on cortisol/DHEA ratio and BDNF levels, caregivers have a cognitive reserve that could probably be engaged to limit the ...
Source: Stress - November 2, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Disruptions in the reproductive system of female rats after prenatal lipopolysaccharide-induced immunological stress: role of sex steroids.
This study was aimed to test the hypothesis that prenatal immunological stress induced by bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), has impact on structure and function of the reproductive system in female offspring. Adult female Wistar rats were divided into two groups, a control group (n = 5) and a LPS group (n = 12). Rats were injected with LPS 50 μg/kg body or 0.9% saline intraperitoneally on the 12th day of pregnancy. After birth the female pups (n = 20 in each group) were divided into four groups: (group 1) 0.9% saline prenatally, sesame oil (vehicle) postnatal...
Source: Stress - October 30, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Central noradrenaline transporter availability is linked with HPA axis responsiveness and copeptin in human obesity and non-obese controls.
Authors: Schinke C, Hesse S, Rullmann M, Becker GA, Luthardt J, Zientek F, Patt M, Stoppe M, Schmidt E, Meyer K, Meyer PM, Orthgieß J, Blüher M, Kratzsch J, Ding YS, Then Bergh F, Sabri O Abstract The central noradrenaline (NA) stress-response network co-mediates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) release. Dysregulation of these systems contributes to stress-related diseases such as human obesity, but their interrelation remains unclear. The study was aimed to test for the first time in vivo whether central noradrenergic activity quantitatively indexed by ...
Source: Stress - October 30, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Building an allostatic load index from data of occupational medical checkup examinations: a feasibility study.
This study provides the first hints that biomarkers form a secondary prevention program are useful in calculating a meaningful ALI. Thus, the concept of allostatic load could be used in workplace health-promotion. PMID: 30348041 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Stress)
Source: Stress - October 25, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Self-regulatory biofeedback training: an intervention to reduce school burnout and improve cardiac functioning in college students.
This study examined the effectiveness of a self-regulatory biofeedback intervention program (Heart Rate Variability Coherence Biofeedback Training [HRVCB]) in contrast to a protocol demonstrated to produce cognitive and physiological improvements (a high intensity interval training protocol [HIIT]) as well as a wait-list control condition at decreasing school burnout in an American collegiate sample (N = 90). Intervention training was conducted over a 4-week span (three sessions per week) with accompanying baseline and post-intervention assessments. In addition to measurements of school burnout and negative a...
Source: Stress - October 23, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

The effect of a corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 antagonist on the fear conditioning response in low- and high-anxiety rats after chronic corticosterone administration.
This study aimed to test the hypothesis that high-anxiety (HR) rats are more sensitive to the effects of chronic corticosterone administration and antalarmin (corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor 1, CRF1 antagonist) injections than low-anxiety (LR) rats, and this effect is accompanied by changes in CRF system activity in brain regions involved in the control of emotions and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Male rats were divided into LR (n = 25) and HR (n = 30) groups according to the duration of conditioned freezing in a contextual fear test. Chronic corticosterone admini...
Source: Stress - October 23, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Comparative evaluation of adolescent repeated psychological or physical stress effects on adult cognitive performance, oxidative stress, and heart rate in female rats.
Authors: Mousavi MS, Riazi G, Imani A, Meknatkhah S, Fakhraei N, Pooyan S, Tofigh N Abstract Multiple adult health problems are associated with adolescent stress. As the brain discriminates physical and psychological stressors by activation of different neural networks, we hypothesized that behavioral and physiological performance would be modulated differently based on the nature of the stressors. Thus, we studied the comparative effects of adolescent repeated physical and psychological stresses on adult cognitive performance, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) and heart rate in female rats. The aim was to diff...
Source: Stress - October 23, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Physical versus psychosocial stress: effects on hormonal, autonomic, and psychological parameters in healthy young men.
Authors: Hermann R, Biallas B, Predel HG, Petrowski K Abstract As a time-efficient training system, high intensity interval training (HIIT) is well known for several beneficial effects. However, the literature on the stress-generating effects of HIIT shows a research deficit. A standardized comparable stressor and different kinds of stress-parameters are needed for quantifying the results. The present study examined the hormonal, autonomic, and psychological stress outcomes of HIIT compared to a standardized psychosocial stressor and tested the cross-stressor-adaptation (CSA) hypothesis which implies a stress-buffe...
Source: Stress - October 23, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

The effects of SIRT1/FoxO1 on LPS induced INS-1 cells dysfunction.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of SIRT1/forkhead box protein 1 (FoxO1) pathway on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced INS-1 cells dysfunction from aspects of oxidative stress and apoptosis. After being treated with 1 mg/L LPS together with or without SIRT1 activator resveratrol (RSV) or SIRT1 inhibitor EX527, cell viability, ROS generation, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide, insulin secretion, and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in INS-1 cells were measured by specific assays. Protein expression of SIRT1, FoxO1, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and acetylated FoxO1 (ac-FoxO1) were detected by wester...
Source: Stress - October 23, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Association between DNA methylation of the KITLG gene and cortisol levels under stress: a replication study.
This study provides support for an association between KITLG methylation and stress cortisol levels, suggesting that DNA methylation of this gene may play a role in the longer term regulation of the stress system. Lay summary   The significant negative association between KITLG DNA methylation and morning cortisol, measured under a stressful condition, suggests that individuals with higher KITLG methylation will secrete lower levels of cortisol whilst under stress. PMID: 30298755 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Stress)
Source: Stress - October 10, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Emotion regulation moderates the association between chronic stress and cardiovascular disease risk in humans: a cross-sectional study.
Authors: Roy B, Riley C, Sinha R Abstract Chronic stress is a risk factor for incident cardiovascular (CV) disease. Emotion regulation is the ability to modulate one's state or behavior in response to a given situation or stressor, and may mitigate the effect of chronic stress on CV disease risk. Data from a cohort of 754 community-dwelling young to middle-aged adults who were assessed between 2007 and 2012 on stress, emotion regulation, and CV risk measures were used to test the hypothesis that emotion regulation mitigates the effect of chronic stress on CV risk. Emotion regulation was measured using the Difficult...
Source: Stress - August 9, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Plasma metabolomic patterns in patients with exhaustion disorder.
This study investigated metabolomics in 20 patients diagnosed with ED and compared them with 21 healthy controls. Plasma metabolic profiles were examined in both fasting and nonfasting (postprandial) conditions. Blood plasma samples were analyzed for metabolite content using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A total of 62 different metabolites were simultaneously detected in each of the samples. Multivariate models indicated systematic differences between patients with ED and healthy controls in both their fasting and nonfasting plasma metabolite levels. Lysine and octadecenoic acid were more abundant and glutamine, gl...
Source: Stress - August 9, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Stress-induced strain and brain region-specific activation of LINE-1 transposons in adult mice.
Authors: Cappucci U, Torromino G, Casale AM, Camon J, Capitano F, Berloco M, Mele A, Pimpinelli S, Rinaldi A, Piacentini L Abstract Transposable elements (TEs) are conserved mobile genetic elements that are highly abundant in most eukaryotic genomes. Although the exact function of TEs is still largely unknown, it is increasingly clear that they are significantly modulated in response to stress in a wide range of organisms, either directly or indirectly through regulation of epigenetic silencing. We investigated the effect of repeated restraint stress (2 h a day, for 5 d) on transcription levels of LIN...
Source: Stress - July 14, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research

Psychosocial stress promotes food intake and enhances the neuroenergetic level in men.
Authors: Kistenmacher A, Goetsch J, Ullmann D, Wardzinski EK, Melchert UH, Jauch-Chara K, Oltmanns KM Abstract Psychosocial stress may lead to increased food consumption and overweight. In turn, obesity is related to reduced brain energy content. We hypothesized that psychosocial stress influencing food intake may alter the neuroenergetic status in the human brain. We tested 14 healthy normal weight men in a randomized crossover design. A modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was carried out to induce psychosocial stress vs. control in a neuroimaging setting. Cerebral energy content, i.e. high ene...
Source: Stress - July 4, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Stress Source Type: research