Curcumin alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation in fetal mouse brain.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study in animal models indicates that maternal administration of curcumin alleviates neuroinflammation in the fetal brain caused by LPS. Long-term consumption of curcumin might improve the neurological outcomes of premature neonates delivered from dams suffering from infection/ inflammation. PMID: 30010156 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - July 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Effect of pre-surgery assessments on the prognosis of patients received extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that a defined compensatory stage of cerebral ischemia might be useful for the prognosis of patients receiving EI-CI bypass surgery. PMID: 30010157 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - July 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Hypoglossal-facial nerve "side"-to-side neurorrhaphy for facial paralysis resulting from closed temporal bone fractures.
CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the hypoglossal-facial nerve "side"-to-side neurorrhaphy can preserve the injured facial nerve and is suitable for treating significant incomplete facial paralysis resulting from closed temporal bone fractures, providing an evident beneficial effect. Moreover, this treatment may be performed earlier after the onset of facial paralysis in order to reduce the unfavorable changes to the injured facial nerve and atrophy of its target muscles due to long-term denervation and allow axonal regrowth in a rich supportive environment. PMID: 29889081 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (So...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - June 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Beyond the muscular involvement in non-dystrophic myotonias: The emerging role of neuromodulation.
CONCLUSION: our findings could suggest the deterioration of cortical sensory-motor plasticity in patients with NDMs as a trait of the disease. PMID: 29889082 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - June 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Effect of insulin-coated trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles on IGF-1, IGF-2, and apoptosis in the hippocampus of diabetic male rats.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed the efficacy of insulin coated nanoparticle in oral route manner that can be tested in Phase I- III clinical trials. However, a behavioral study could reveal the efficacy of insulin-loaded nanoparticles in the improvement of cognitive changes through the modulation of IGF-1 and IGF-2 levels in the hippocampus. PMID: 29889083 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - June 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Phenelzine, a small organic compound mimicking the functions of cell adhesion molecule L1, promotes functional recovery after mouse spinal cord injury.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new insights into the role of phenelzine in L1-mediated neural functions and modulation of inflammation. The combined results raise hopes that phenelzine may develop into a therapeutic agent for nervous system injuries. PMID: 29889084 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - June 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

T-cell infiltration into the perilesional cortex is long-lasting and associates with poor somatomotor recovery after experimental traumatic brain injury.
Authors: Ndode-Ekane XE, Matthiesen L, Bañuelos-Cabrera I, Palminha CAP, Pitkänen A Abstract BACKGROUND: T-lymphocyte (T-cell) invasion into the brain parenchyma is a major consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the role of T-cells in the post-TBI functional outcome and secondary inflammatory processes is unknown. We explored the dynamics of T-cell infiltration into the cortex after TBI to establish whether the infiltration relates to post-injury functional impairment/recovery and progression of the secondary injury. METHOD: TBI was induced in rats by lateral fluid-percussion injury, ...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - June 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

A feasibility study of combined intermittent theta burst stimulation and modified constraint-induced aphasia therapy in chronic post-stroke aphasia.
CONCLUSION: This study shows feasibility and safety for combining behavioral and neurostimulation interventions for chronic post-stroke aphasia. Observed changes in linguistic measures were relatively small. However, they were statistically significant and associated with parallel changes observed in the neuroimaging. Our findings support further development and testing of the combined mCIAT and iTBS protocol and comparisons to either CIAT/mCIAT or iTBS applied alone for the treatment of post-stroke aphasia. PMID: 29889086 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - June 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Translating experimental evidence to finding novel ways to promote motor recovery in stroke patients - a review.
Authors: Zhao C, Könönen M, Vanninen R, Pitkänen K, Hiekkala S, Jolkkonen J Abstract Recent advances in basic research have revealed the complex structural plasticity associated with the spontaneous motor recovery after stroke. Various rehabilitative interventions seem to act through the same repair mechanisms to further enhance recovery processes. In this review, we first summarize the current understanding on brain plasticity and repair after stroke. We then outline experimental approaches for studying stroke rehabilitation in rodents and review current rehabilitative practices in stroke patients. ...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - June 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Improvement in upper-limb UPDRS motor scores following fast-paced arm exercise: A pilot study.
Authors: Levy-Tzedek S, Arbelle D, Forman D, Zlotnik Y Abstract BACKGROUND: The symptoms of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have been shown to improve when they perform fast-paced rhythmic cycling movements with their lower limbs. OBJECTIVE: Our goal in this pilot experiment was to test the feasibility and the benefits of a short exercise program involving fast-paced rhythmic movements of the upper limb for patients with PD. METHODS: We used an experimental procedure that elicits large, fast-paced movements by the participants without the direct instructions to do so by the experimenter. Ten particip...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - June 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Kinematic and kinetic benefits of implantable peroneal nerve stimulation in  people with post-stroke drop foot using an ankle-foot orthosis.
CONCLUSIONS: This study substantiates the evidence that implantable peroneal FES as a treatment for post-stroke drop foot may be superior over AFO in terms of knee stability, ankle plantarflexion power, and propulsion. PMID: 29889089 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - June 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Assessment of systemic administration of PEGylated IGF-1 in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury.
CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to its efficacy in rodent models of neurodegenerative diseases, PEG- IGF-1 was not effective in ameliorating early neuronal loss after contusion brain trauma. PMID: 29889090 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - June 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Relation of white matter hyperintensities and motor deficits in chronic stroke.
CONCLUSION: The results suggest that WMH may be an important factor to consider in stroke-related upper extremity motor impairment. Nonetheless, the basis of the largest part of the post-stroke motor deficit remains unaccounted for by structural CNS factors. This component may be behavioral or learned, involving learned nonuse. PMID: 29782327 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - May 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Post-stroke visual neglect affects goal-directed locomotion in different perceptuo-cognitive conditions and on a wide visual spectrum.
Authors: Ogourtsova T, Archambault PS, Lamontagne A Abstract BACKGROUND: Unilateral spatial neglect (USN), a highly prevalent and disabling post-stroke deficit, has been shown to affect the recovery of locomotion. However, our current understanding of USN role in goal-directed locomotion control, and this, in different cognitive/perceptual conditions tapping into daily life demands, is limited. OBJECTIVES: To examine goal-directed locomotion abilities in individuals with and without post-stroke USN vs. healthy controls. METHODS: Participants (n = 45, n = 15 per group) performed goal-directed locomot...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - May 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Longitudinal fMRI study of language recovery after a left hemispheric ischemic stroke.
CONCLUSION: Language recovery after left hemispheric ischemic stroke is likely driven by the previously involved in language and attention left hemispheric networks. PMID: 29782329 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - May 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Electroacupunture contributes to recovery of neurological deficits in experimental stroke by activating astrocytes.
CONCLUSION: EA treatment at the acupoints of Neiguan involved in the regulation of activation of astrocytes, which our data suggested has a cubic correlation relationship with the neurological recovery of MCAO rats. PMID: 29758953 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - May 16, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

The use of transcranial magnetic stimulation to evaluate cortical excitability of lower limb musculature: Challenges and opportunities.
Authors: Kesar TM, Stinear JW, Wolf SL Abstract Neuroplasticity is a fundamental yet relatively unexplored process that can impact rehabilitation of lower extremity (LE) movements. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has gained widespread application as a non-invasive brain stimulation technique for evaluating neuroplasticity of the corticospinal pathway. However, a majority of TMS studies have been performed on hand muscles, with a paucity of TMS investigations focused on LE muscles. This perspective review paper proposes that there are unique methodological challenges associated with using TMS to evaluate cor...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - May 16, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Potential risk of clonally expanded amnion mesenchymal stem cell transplants in contused spinal cords.
CONCLUSION: Acute injection after SCI of a clonally expanded rAM-MSC resulted in aberrant differentiation towards a chondrocytic phenotype that disrupts the spinal cord and inhibits behavioral recovery after SCI. It will be critical to ensure that injection of extensively expanded neonatal cells do not differentiate aberrantly in traumatic CNS tissue and disrupt recovery. PMID: 29614703 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - April 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Constitutively reduced sensory capacity promotes better recovery after spinal cord-injury (SCI) in blind rats of the dystrophic RCS strain.
CONCLUSION: The longer withdrawal latencies suggest a decreased sensitivity in the blind SD/RCS rats, which promotes better recovery after SCI. In this way our results provide indirect support to earlier work showing, that hypersensitivity and chronic pain after contusive SCI impair the recovery of locomotor function. PMID: 29614704 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - April 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Identification of a resilient mouse facial motoneuron population following target disconnection by injury or disease.
CONCLUSION: These results indicate that immunodeficiency and motoneuron disease accelerate axotomy-induced neuron death, but do not increase total neuron death in the context of permanent target disconnection. This consistent finding of a target disconnection-resilient motoneuron population is prevalent in other peripheral nerve injury models and in neurodegenerative disease models as well. Characterization of the distinct populations of vulnerable and resilient motoneurons may reveal new therapeutic approaches for injury and disease. PMID: 29614705 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - April 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Yoga- and meditation-based lifestyle intervention increases neuroplasticity and reduces severity of major depressive disorder: A randomized controlled trial.
Authors: Tolahunase MR, Sagar R, Faiq M, Dada R Abstract BACKGROUND: Current interventions for major depressive disorder (MDD) are suboptimal, and only one third respond to them on initial treatment. Neuroplasticity theories are the basis for several emerging treatments. Evidence on the impact of yoga, a well-known mind-body intervention, on neuroplasticity in MDD is limited. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of 12-week yoga- and meditation- based lifestyle intervention (YMLI) on depression severity and systemic biomarkers of neuroplasticity in adult MDD patients on routine drug treatment. METHODS: A tot...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - April 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Plantar stimulation in parkinsonians: From biomarkers to mobility - randomized-controlled trial.
CONCLUSION: Effective AMPS treatment increased BDNF and decreased Cortisol serum levels and produced improvements in functional mobility. PMID: 29526852 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - March 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Axial diffusivity changes in the motor pathway above stroke foci and functional recovery after subcortical infarction.
This study aimed to investigate diffusion changes in motor fibers above the lesion and identify predictors of motor improvement within 12 weeks after subcortical infarction. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging and the Fugl-Meyer (FM) scale were conducted 1, 4, and 12 weeks (W) after a subcortical infarct. Proportional recovery model residuals were used to assign patients to proportional recovery and poor recovery groups. Region of interest analysis was used to assess diffusion changes in the motor pathway above and below a stroke lesion. Multivariable linear regression was employed to identify predictors of motor improve...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - March 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Neural Restoration Training improves visual functions and expands visual field of patients with homonymous visual field defects.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that NRT may lead to visual field enlargement and translate into untrained visual functions. PMID: 29526854 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - March 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Potential benefits of a cognitive training program in mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
CONCLUSION: People with mild dementia may delay cognitive impairment with a suitable cognitive training program. PMID: 29526855 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - March 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

A wearable resistive robot facilitates locomotor adaptations during gait.
CONCLUSION: This study provides preliminary evidence indicating that robotic-resisted treadmill walking using our knee brace can result in meaningful biomechanical aftereffects that translate to overground walking. PMID: 29526856 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - March 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Combined effects of cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation and transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation on robot-assisted gait training in patients with chronic brain stroke: A pilot, single blind, randomized controlled trial.
CONCLUSION: Our preliminary findings support the hypothesis that cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the contralesional cerebellar hemisphere in combination with cathodal transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation might be useful to boost the effects of robot-assisted gait training in chronic brain stroke patients with walking impairment. PMID: 29526857 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - March 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Paired associative stimulation modulates corticomotor excitability in chronic stroke: A preliminary investigation.
CONCLUSION: These results provide preliminary evidence for the potential of PAS to increase corticomotor excitability that could favorably impact motor skill performance in chronic individuals post-stroke and are an important first step for future studies investigating the clinical application and behavioral relevance of PAS interventions in post stroke patient populations. PMID: 29526858 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - March 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Sensorimotor integration in chronic stroke: Baseline differences and response to sensory training.
CONCLUSION: Sensorimotor integration is differentially impacted by chronic stroke based on the type of afferent feedback. However, both nerve-based and vibration-based measures relate to motor impairment and function in individuals with chronic stroke. PMID: 29526859 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - March 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Rehabilitation of stroke patients with plegic hands: Randomized controlled trial of expanded Constraint-Induced Movement therapy.
Authors: Uswatte G, Taub E, Bowman MH, Delgado A, Bryson C, Morris DM, Mckay S, Barman J, Mark VW Abstract PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of an expanded form of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (eCIMT) that renders CIMT, originally designed for treating mild-to-moderate upper-extremity hemiparesis, suitable for treating severe hemiparesis. METHODS: Twenty-one adults ≥1 year after stroke with severe upper-extremity hemiparesis (with little or no capacity to make movements with the more-affected hand) were randomly assigned to eCIMT (n = 10), a placebo-control procedure (n = 4), or usual care (n...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - March 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Clinical features of patients who might benefit more from walking robotic training.
CONCLUSION: Efficacy of robotic walking training was not associated with global ability at admission. Hence, more severely disabled patients may obtain greater benefit from robotic training, independently by other factors, except the need of a residual trunk control that was identified as a good prognostic factor for robotic walking training. PMID: 29526861 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - March 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Robotic gaming prototype for upper limb exercise: Effects of age and embodiment on user preferences and movement.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrated the feasibility of the system to encourage the performance of repetitive 3D functional movements, and track these movements. Young and old participants preferred to interact with the robot, compared with the non-embodied system. We contribute to the growing knowledge concerning personalized human-robot interactions by (1) demonstrating the priming of the human movement by the robotic movement - an important design feature, and (2) identifying response-speed as a design variable, the importance of which depends on the age of the user. PMID: 29526862 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative ...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - March 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Improvement in activities of daily living after visual training in patients with homonymous visual field defects using Goal Attainment Scaling.
In this study we assess ADL gain of visual training for vision restoration in HVFD patients by means of Goal Attainment Scaling. METHODS: Thirty-five patients trained two predefined regions of the visual field successively at home. In each region we compared the effects of both training rounds, one of which was thus 'directed' and the other 'undirected'. Visual fields were measured with Humphrey and Goldmann perimetry. QoL was assessed with three stroke-related questionnaires and ADL with Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS). RESULTS: Visual training improved the visual field for both Goldmann (ECSG = 5.82±0.94 mm; p = 
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - February 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Effects of combining high- and low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on upper limb hemiparesis in the early phase of stroke.
CONCLUSION: The results indicated that both LF- and LF-HF rTMS were effective in promoting upper limb motor recovery in patients with acute stroke. Combining HF- and LF-rTMS protocol in the present study is tolerable and more beneficial for motor improvement than the unilateral use of LF-rTMS alone. PMID: 29439359 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - February 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Aerobic rehabilitation program for improving muscle function in Parkinson's disease.
Authors: Di Martino S, Tramonti C, Unti E, Del Gamba C, Bonuccelli U, Rossi B, Ceravolo R, Chisari C Abstract BACKGROUND: Parkinson's Disease (PD) is characterized by progressive and disabling symptoms. An impaired oxidative metabolism efficiency was supposed to be involved in the systemic impairment. Rehabilitative treatment represents a valid tool in promoting skeletal muscle's adaptations, even if no solid studies on muscle metabolic features are still available. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficiency of skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism in PD patients in comparison with age-matched controls and test the r...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - February 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Voluntary contraction enhances spinal reciprocal inhibition induced by patterned electrical stimulation in patients with stroke.
CONCLUSION: VC enhanced the PES-induced plastic changes in RI in patients with stroke. This effect can potentially increase the success rate of newer neurorehabilitative approaches in achieving functional recovery after stroke. PMID: 29439361 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - February 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on walking ability after stroke: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: tDCS might have beneficial effects on improving mobility and muscle strength of lower limb among individuals with stroke. Future studies with larger sample sizes and an adequate follow-up period are needed. PMID: 29439362 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - February 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Effects of posture and coactivation on corticomotor excitability of ankle muscles.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that incorporation of measurements in standing in future TMS studies may provide novel insights into neural circuits controlling LL muscles. Standing and standing coactivation tasks may be beneficial for obtaining functionally-relevant neuroplasticity assessments of LL musculature. PMID: 29439363 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - February 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Enhancement of motor learning by focal intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) of either the primary motor (M1) or somatosensory area (S1) in healthy human subjects.
CONCLUSION: Priming with an excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as iTBS of either M1 or S1 can enhance motor learning across different sensorimotor abilities. PMID: 29439364 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - February 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Adaptive motor cortex plasticity following grip reconstruction in individuals with tetraplegia.
CONCLUSION: This result speaks against a topographic reorganization in which the thumb region regains thumb control following surgical tendon transfer. Instead, our findings suggest a neuroplastic mechanism in which motor cortex resources previously dedicated to elbow flexion adapt to control the thumb. PMID: 29439365 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - February 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

The potential dual role of transcallosal inhibition in post-stroke motor recovery.
Authors: Bertolucci F, Chisari C, Fregni F Abstract Up to now, the mechanism of motor impairment and recovery after stroke has been thought to be based on the interhemispheric competition model. According to this model, which assumes that suppressing the excitability of contralesional hemisphere will enhance recovery by reducing transcallosal inhibition (TCI) of the stroke hemisphere, many clinical trials used non-invasive brain stimulation to improve motor function. Despite some positive findings, meta-analysis shows an important source of variability in the results, questioning whether the interhemispheric compet...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - February 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

snRPN controls the ability of neurons to regenerate axons.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that coordinated snRPN-driven activities within the neuron-specific ribonucleoprotein complex regulate the regenerative ability of RGCs in primates, thereby highlighting a potential new role for snRPN within neurons and the possibility of novel postinjury therapies. PMID: 29439367 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - February 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Systemic administration of donepezil attenuates the efficacy of environmental enrichment on neurobehavioral outcome after experimental traumatic brain injury.
Authors: Bondi CO, Yelleswarapu NK, Day-Cooney J, Memarzadeh K, Folweiler KA, Bou-Abboud CE, Leary JB, Cheng JP, Tehranian-DePasquale R, Kline AE Abstract BACKGROUND: The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) donepezil (DON) is recommended as a potential treatment for cognition after clinical traumatic brain injury (TBI) and therefore may be prescribed as an adjunct therapy during rehabilitation. However, a dose-response study evaluating DON after a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury in rats did not reveal cognitive benefits. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of DON on behaviora...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - February 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Repetitive sessions of tDCS to improve naming in post-stroke aphasia: Insights from an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: Repetitive sessions of tDCS are likely to be valuable in enhancing naming accuracy in post-stroke aphasia. PMID: 29439369 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - February 15, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Frequency-specific effects of repetitive magnetic stimulation on primary astrocyte cultures.
CONCLUSION: Our results provide preliminary evidence that rMS can influence astrocyte physiology, indicating the potential for a novel mechanism by which rTMS can influence brain activity. PMID: 29172007 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - November 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Effects of cerebrolysin on nerve growth factor system in the aging rat brain.
CONCLUSION: The pro-neuroplastic "antiaging" effects of CBL in the neocortex of old animals were generally related to the NGF rather than the BDNF system. PMID: 29172008 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - November 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

EPO-releasing neural precursor cells promote axonal regeneration and recovery of function in spinal cord traumatic injury.
CONCLUSION: Our study shows that Er-NPCs promoted recovery of function after spinal cord injury, and that this is accompanied by preservation of myelination and strong re-innervation of the distal cord. Thus, regenerated axons may have contributed to the enhanced recovery of function after SCI. PMID: 29172009 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - November 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Extended Multiple-Field High-Definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) is well tolerated and safe in healthy adults.
CONCLUSION: Prolonged, repeat daily stimulation of multiple brain regions using HD-tDCS is feasible and safe in healthy adults. Preliminary EEG results suggest that HD-tDCS may induce long lasting changes in excitability in the brain. PMID: 29172010 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - November 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Therapy and rehabilitation of mild brain injury/concussion: Systematic review.
CONCLUSION: Of 14 RCTs, six CBT, four digital assistants or videotape feedback and one physical therapy all had significant positive results. One referred patients to consultants and no significant positive results. Two assessed return to employment and no differences between interventions. Limitations are: (1) only four RCTs used the same concussion definition; (2) average age 38 (except for one study of adolescents, (3) all studies used unique interventions; (4) most authors used multiple interventions and effects could not be separated; (5) substantial attrition from eligibles to randomization, (4) only 64% at low risk ...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - November 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Do whole body vibration exercises affect lower limbs neuromuscular activity in populations with a medical condition? A systematic review.
CONCLUSION: By the use of sEMG it was verified that WBVE elicits muscle activation in diseased population. These results may lead to the definition of exercise protocols to maintain or increase muscular activation. However, due to the heterogeneity of methods among studies, there is currently no consensus on the sEMG signal processing. These strategies might also induce effects on muscle strength, balance and flexibility in these and other illnesses. PMID: 29172012 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - November 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research