The association between brain activity and motor imagery during motor illusion induction by vibratory stimulation.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest the possibility that a neural network primarily comprised of the neural activity of SMA and M1, which are involved in generating motor imagery, may be the neural basis for inducing motor illusions. This may aid in creating a new approach to neurorehabilitation that enables a more robust reorganization of the neural base for patients with brain dysfunction with a motor function disorder. PMID: 29172013 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - November 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Author Index.
Authors: PMID: 29172014 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - November 26, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

A novel low-cost approach for navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation.
CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the proposed system is a viable tool for reliable coil placement during TMS procedures, and can improve accuracy in locating the coil over a desired hotspot both within and between sessions. PMID: 29036851 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - October 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Rehabilitation modality and onset differentially influence whisker sensory hypersensitivity after diffuse traumatic brain injury in the rat.
Authors: Thomas TC, Stockhausen EM, Law LM, Khodadad A, Lifshitz J Abstract BACKGROUND: As rehabilitation strategies advance as therapeutic interventions, the modality and onset of rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are critical to optimize treatment. Our laboratory has detected and characterized a late-onset, long-lasting sensory hypersensitivity to whisker stimulation in diffuse brain-injured rats; a deficit that is comparable to visual or auditory sensory hypersensitivity in humans with an acquired brain injury. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that the modality and onset of rehabilitation therapies ...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - October 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Smooth leader or sharp follower? Playing the Mirror Game with a Robot.
CONCLUSION: The priming effect by the robot on the movements of the human should be considered when designing interactions with robots. Our results demonstrate individual differences in preferences regarding the role of the human and the joint motion path of the robot and the human when performing the "mirror game" collaborative task, and highlight the importance of personalized human-robot interactions. PMID: 29036853 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - October 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Functional repertoire of interleukin-6 in the central nervous system - a review.
Authors: Heese K Abstract In an aging society with dementia imposing an increasing threat to higher brain cognitive functions, understanding the molecular and cellular events of adult neurogenesis is imperative. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), along with its agonistic acting soluble receptor sIL-6R (the combined proteins are also known as Hyper-IL-6), is a promising cytokine that can support neurogenesis under conditions of neurodegeneration when neuron replacement is needed. In contrast to the previously reported gliogenic effects of activation of the IL-6-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) axis, thi...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - October 20, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Reduced TH expression and α-synuclein accumulation contribute towards nigrostriatal dysfunction in experimental hepatic encephalopathy.
CONCLUSION: α-synuclein accumulation following PCA may induce dopaminergic dysfunction via the downregulation of TH, as well as astroglial activation. PMID: 28984618 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - October 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

The therapeutic use of non-invasive brain stimulation in multiple sclerosis - a review.
CONCLUSION: There are still no official recommendations for the therapeutic use of tDCS or rTMS in MS. The huge inter-individual variability of NIBS efficacy is still a big challenge which needs to be solved. However, well-designed studies, deeper knowledge about pathomechanisms underlying MS, and the combination of such techniques with motor and cognitive rehabilitation might results in higher effectiveness of NIBS. PMID: 28984619 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - October 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Making if-then plans counteracts learned non-use in stroke patients: A proof-of-principle study.
CONCLUSION: This observation opens a potential new route to improving stroke rehabilitation. If-then plans may qualify as a viable strategy to overcome the learned non-use of the affected arm. Further research is now required to develop and test therapeutic measures based on this proof-of-principle. PMID: 28984620 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - October 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

The effects of exercise on cognitive function and brain plasticity - a feasibility trial.
CONCLUSION: Acute exercise interventions in sedentary adults can be meaningfully conducted along with cognitive and neurophysiologic measures to assess behavioral and neurobiological effects and assessment of BDNF polymorphism. TMS measures of plasticity can be used to evaluate the effects of exercise on brain plasticity, and relate them to neuropsychological measures of cognition. PMID: 28984621 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - October 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Evaluating the relationship between white matter integrity, cognition, and varieties of  video game learning.
CONCLUSION: Although cognition, to a large extent, was a common predictor of both types of game learning, regional white matter FA could separately predict action and strategy game learning. Given the neural and cognitive correlates of strategy game learning, strategy games may provide a more beneficial training tool for adults suffering from memory-related disorders or declines in processing speed, particularly older adults. PMID: 28968249 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - October 4, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Neuroplasticity and behavioral effects of  fluoxetine after experimental stroke.
Neuroplasticity and behavioral effects of fluoxetine after experimental stroke. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2017 Aug 24;: Authors: Sun Y, Sun X, Qu H, Zhao S, Xiao T, Zhao C Abstract The brain can undergo self-repair and has the ability to compensate for functions lost after a stroke. The plasticity of the ischemic brain is influenced by several factors including aging and pharmacotherapy. Fluoxetine is an antidepressant which enhances serotonergic neurotransmission through selective inhibition of neuronal reuptake of serotonin. In clinical practice, fluoxetine alleviates the symptoms of post-stroke d...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - September 2, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Perceptual learning improves contrast sensitivity, visual acuity, and foveal crowding in amblyopia.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PL improves facilitatory lateral interactions in amblyopic observers, which usually extend over larger separations than in typical foveal vision. The improvement in these basic visual spatial operations leads to a more efficient capability of performing spatial tasks involving high levels of visual processing, possibly due to the refinement of bottom-up and top-down networks of visual areas. PMID: 28800339 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - August 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Reducing the rate of misdiagnosis in  patients with chronic disorders of consciousness: Is there a place for audiovisual stimulation?
CONCLUSION: The audiovisual stimulation paradigm used in the present study may be employed as a supportive bedside tool for improving the differential diagnosis in patients with DoC. PMID: 28800340 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - August 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Robotic-assisted gait training combined with transcranial direct current stimulation in chronic stroke patients: A pilot double-blind, randomized controlled trial.
CONCLUSION: This pilot study suggested that anodal tDCS on the leg motor cortex in the impaired hemisphere may facilitate the effect of RAGT on functional ambulation in chronic stroke patients. Larger clinical trials will be needed to confirm the effect of RAGT combined with tDCS in chronic stroke patients based on the present study. PMID: 28800341 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - August 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Use of melatonin versus valproic acid in prophylaxis of migraine patients: A double-blind randomized clinical trial.
This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of melatonin versus sodium valproate in the prophylaxis of chronic migraine. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial included patients with chronic migraine who were divided into three equal sized groups, and baseline therapy with nortriptyline (10-25 mg) and propranolol (20-40 mg) was used. Patients in groups A, B, and C were adjunctively treated daily with 3 mg melatonin, 200 mg sodium valproate, and a placebo, respectively. The patients underwent treatment for 2 months and follow-up was done at baseline (baseline), first...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - August 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Microsaccade dysfunction and adaptation in hemianopia after stroke.
Authors: Gao Y, Sabel BA Abstract BACKGROUND: Besides the reduction of visual field size, hemianopic patients may also experience other poorly understood symptoms such as blurred vision, diplopia, or reduced visual acuity, which may be related to microsaccade function. OBJECTIVE: To determine (i) if microsaccades are altered in hemianopia; (ii) how altered microsaccade features correlate with visual performances; and (iii) how their direction relates to visual field defect topography. METHODS: In this case-control study, microsaccades of hemianopic stroke patients (n = 14) were assessed with high-resolu...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - August 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Dual tasking negatively impacts obstacle avoidance abilities in post-stroke individuals with visuospatial neglect: Task complexity matters!
CONCLUSION: Individuals with VSN demonstrate cognitive-locomotor interference under dual task conditions, which could severely compromise safety when ambulating in community environments and may explain the poor recovery of independent community ambulation in these individuals. PMID: 28697573 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - July 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

tDCS does not enhance the effects of  robot-assisted gait training in patient with subacute stroke.
CONCLUSION: Combined tDCS and robotic training is a safe and feasible procedure in subacute stroke patients. However, adding tDCS to robot-assisted gait training shows no benefit over robotic gait training alone. PMID: 28697574 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - July 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Bimanual coordination: A missing piece of  arm rehabilitation after stroke.
We present a perspective that this misalignment between real world requirements and intervention strategies may limit the transfer of unimanual capability to spontaneous arm use and functional recovery. We propose that if improving spontaneous engagement and use of the weaker arm in real life is the goal, arm rehabilitation research and treatment need to address the coordinated interaction between arms in targeted theory-guided interventions. Current narrow focus on unimanual deficits alone, difficulty in quantifying bimanual coordination in real-world actions and limited theory-guided focus on control and remediation of d...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - July 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Repetitive dynamic stereo test improved processing time in young athletes.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that repetitive testing of stereovision is effective in improving processing time of stereoscopic tasks in young male athletes significantly long-term. PMID: 28671146 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - July 5, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

SDF-1 overexpression by mesenchymal stem cells enhances GAP-43-positive axonal growth following spinal cord injury.
CONCLUSION: The results from these experiments support the potential role for utilizing SDF-1α as a treatment for enhancing growth and regeneration of axons after traumatic SCI. PMID: 28598857 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - June 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation on spasticity after spinal cord injury.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that iTBS may be a promising therapeutic tool for the spasticity in SCI patients. PMID: 28598858 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - June 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

The role of the dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex (dACC) in a cognitive and emotional counting Stroop task: Two cases.
CONCLUSION: This study reveals that the dACC is not just a subregion of the ACC that contributes to a specific cognitive function, but is rather part of a salience network that influences general brain functioning, influencing cognitive as well as emotional processing. PMID: 28598859 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - June 11, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Therapeutic effects of oral dimethyl fumarate on stroke induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion: An animal experimental study.
Authors: Safari A, Fazeli M, Namavar MR, Tanideh N, Jafari P, Borhani-Haghighi A Abstract BACKGROUND: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has immune-modulatory and neuro-protective characteristics that can be used for treatment of acute ischemic stroke. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the therapeutic effects of DMF on histological and functional recovery of rats after transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. METHODS: 22 Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 275-300 g were randomized into three groups by block randomization. In the sham group (n = 7), the neck was opened, but neither MCA was occluded, nor any drug ...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - May 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Motor cortex stimulation does not lead to  functional recovery after experimental cortical injury in rats.
CONCLUSION: The use of MCS as a standalone treatment did not improve motor impairments in a rat model of severe cortical damage given our specific treatment modalities. PMID: 28506001 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - May 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Transcranial direct current stimulation combined with visuo-motor training as treatment for chronic stroke patients.
CONCLUSION: Four-week visuo-motor training combined with tDCS showed no difference between the Active and Sham groups in the total UE FMA score, which may be explained by heterogeneity of the degree of recovery in the Active group. However, the shoulder-elbow FMA sub-score improved significantly more in the Active compared to the Sham group, which deserves further study. PMID: 28506002 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - May 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Synergy effects of combined multichannel EMG-triggered electrical stimulation and mirror therapy in subacute stroke patients with severe or very severe arm/hand paresis.
CONCLUSION: Additional mirror therapy in combination with EMG-triggered multi-channel electrostimulation is therapeutically beneficial for post-acute stroke patients with very severe arm/hand paresis. PMID: 28506003 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - May 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Update on the application of optic nerve sheath fenestration.
CONCLUSION: We recommend that ONSF should be considered as a meaningful alternative or an adjunct therapy to reduce or delay the visual morbidity of these diseases, although the use of ONSF for some of them remains controversial. PMID: 28339414 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - March 27, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Transcranial direct current stimulation in  individuals with spinal cord injury: Assessment of autonomic nervous system activity.
CONCLUSION: Anodal tDCS of the motor cortex modulated ANS activity in individuals with SCI independent of gender, type and time of lesion. These changes were in the direction of normalization of ANS parameters, thus confirming our initial hypothesis that an enhancement of cortical excitability by tDCS could at least partially restore some of the dysfunctional activity in the ANS system of subjects with SCI. PMID: 28282844 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - March 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Extrinsic feedback and upper limb motor skill learning in typically-developing children and children with cerebral palsy: Review.
CONCLUSION: A better understanding of the influence of feedback on motor learning is needed to optimize motor skill acquisition in children with CP. PMID: 28282845 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - March 13, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Connexin40 correlated with oxidative stress in brains of traumatic brain injury rats.
CONCLUSION: These studies revealed the relationship between levels of Cx40 and oxidative stress after TBI. The cortex Cx40 expression was positively correlated with the cerebral oxidative stress, indicating the involvement of Cx40 in the progress of brain damage. PMID: 28157110 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - February 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Waist-up protection for blind individuals using the EyeCane as a primary and secondary mobility aid.
CONCLUSION: Our work has demonstrated that the EyeCane has the potential to extend the sensory world of blind individuals by expanding their currently accessible inputs, and has offered them a new practical rehabilitation tool. PMID: 28157111 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - February 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Dual-mode noninvasive brain stimulation over the bilateral primary motor cortices in stroke patients.
Authors: Cho JY, Lee A, Kim MS, Park E, Chang WH, Shin YI, Kim YH Abstract BACKGROUND: Noninvasive brain stimulation (NBS) using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has recently been adopted for modulating motor function in stroke patients. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of simultaneous dual-mode stimulation using rTMS and tDCS over the bilateral primary motor cortices (M1) to assess its efficacy as compared to single stimulation using rTMS for the recovery of motor function in subacute stroke patients. METHODS: Thirty subacute stroke ...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - February 7, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Self-awareness rehabilitation after Traumatic Brain Injury: A pilot study to  compare two group therapies.
CONCLUSION: It is important to investigate and treat self-awareness, also to improve the outcome of neuropsychological disorders. The two group therapies proposed seem to be specific for impulsivity and emotional dyscontrol and for cognitive disorders. PMID: 28059799 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Twist and turn into chronic disorders of  consciousness: Potential role of the auditory stapedial reflex.
CONCLUSION: We hypothesize that our conditioning protocol may have entrained and potentiated some spared cortico-subcortical networks that sustained the clinical and electrophysiological amelioration we found. Our data electrophysiologically demonstrate for the first time that primary the auditory area can influence ASR elicitation, and such finding may support the DOC differential diagnosis. PMID: 28059800 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Repeated anodal transcranial direct current stimulation induces neural plasticity-associated gene expression in the rat cortex and hippocampus.
CONCLUSION: These results indicate that altered expression of plasticity-associated genes in the cortex and hippocampus is a molecular substrate of A-tDCS-induced neural plasticity. PMID: 28059801 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Recent progress in translational research on neurovascular and neurodegenerative disorders.
Authors: Demuth HU, Dijkhuizen RM, Farr TD, Gelderblom M, Horsburgh K, Iadecola C, Mcleod DD, Michalski D, Murphy TH, Orbe J, Otte WM, Petzold GC, Plesnila N, Reiser G, Reymann KG, Rueger MA, Saur D, Savitz SI, Schilling S, Spratt NJ, Turner RJ, Vemuganti R, Vivien D, Yepes M, Zille M, Boltze J, ISN&N meeting contributors Abstract The already established and widely used intravenous application of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator as a re-opening strategy for acute vessel occlusion in ischemic stroke was recently added by mechanical thrombectomy, representing a fundamental progress in evidence-based medic...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Whole body vibration (WBV) following spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats: Timing of intervention.
CONCLUSIONS: WBV started 14 days after SCI provides the most benefit (RHI, bladder); starting at 1day after SCI provides no benefit and starting at 28 days may be detrimental. Increasing the intensity of WBV to twice daily did not provide additional benefit. PMID: 28059803 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Bupivacaine increases the rate of  motoneuron death following peripheral nerve injury.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that bupivacaine exacerbates levels of cell death in injured motoneurons. It has been proposed that once a nerve is damaged, it becomes more susceptible to injury elsewhere along the nerve. Thus, an improved understanding of the effects of local anesthetics on neuron survival and axon regeneration may lead to strategies to identify patients at higher risk for permanent neural deficits after peripheral nerve blocks and/or decrease the risk of neural deficit following peripheral nerve blocks. PMID: 28059804 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Crocin protects against cerebral- ischemia-induced damage in aged rats through maintaining the integrity of blood-brain barrier.
CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that crocin or related antioxidants may protect against cerebral ischemia of elderly patients by maintaining the integrity of BBB in aged rats, an effect likely through repressing the activation of matrix metalloproteinase pathway. PMID: 28059805 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Intrahemispheric theta rhythm desynchronization impairs working memory.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, we demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating multi-site large-scale networks in humans, and the disruptive effect of frontoparietal desynchronization on theta phase connectivity and visual-spatial working memory. PMID: 28059806 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 12, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Author Index.
Authors: PMID: 27886015 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - November 26, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Axon guidance molecule expression after cell therapy in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.
CONCLUSION: Overall, our data provide a reliable basis to understand how axons of grafted neurons are able to navigate towards their targets and interact with the molecular environment in the adult brain. This should help to improve the efficiency of cell replacement approaches in PD. PMID: 27858721 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - November 20, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Defective chromatic and achromatic visual pathways in developmental dyslexia: Cues for an integrated intervention programme.
CONCLUSION: These results give rise to speculation concerning the need for a putative approach for promoting both learning how to read and/or improving existing reading skills of children with or at risk of DD. The working hypothesis would be to combine two integrated interventions in a single programme aimed at fostering the function of both the magnocellular and the parvocellular streams. PMID: 27858722 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - November 20, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Safety and improvement of movement function after stroke with atomoxetine: A  pilot randomized trial.
CONCLUSION: Atomoxetine combined with motor training appears safe and may optimize motor training outcomes after stroke. PMID: 27858723 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - November 20, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

The effect of combined therapies on recovery after acquired brain injury: Systematic review of preclinical studies combining enriched environment, exercise, or task-specific training with other therapies.
CONCLUSION: Combined treatments continue to provide hope for enhanced recovery after ABI, however, the research area is in its infancy. This systematic review does not provide conclusive evidence. This is likely due to sparse knowledge regarding optimal treatment parameters. Combined treatments, however, hold the best promise regarding treatment of the complex changes induced by ABI. PMID: 27858724 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - November 20, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Cocaine promotes primary human astrocyte proliferation via JNK-dependent up-regulation of cyclin A2.
CONCLUSION: Cocaine-induced abnormal increases in the number of astrocytes may cause disruption in neuron-glia signaling and contribute to synaptic impairment in the CNS. Understanding the mechanisms of cocaine's effects on human astrocytes may help to reveal the involvement of glial cells in addictive behaviors. PMID: 27834787 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - November 13, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

The role of physical exercise in cognitive recovery after traumatic brain injury: A  systematic review.
CONCLUSION: Evidence of an effect of physical exercise on cognitive recovery suggests further studies should explore this treatment option with greater methodological approaches. Recommendations to reduce risk of bias and methodological shortfalls are discussed and include stricter inclusion criteria to create homogenous groups and larger patient pools, more rigorous cognitive assessments and the study and reporting of additional and combined rehabilitation techniques. PMID: 27834788 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - November 13, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Progesterone treatment shows greater protection in brain vs. retina in a rat model  of middle cerebral artery occlusion: Progesterone receptor levels may play an important role.
CONCLUSION: Inflammatory markers increased in both brain and retina after MCAO, with greater increases observed in brain. Progesterone treatment reduced inflammation, with more dramatic reductions observed in brain than retina. This differential effect may be due to differences in the response of progesterone receptors in brain and retina after injury. PMID: 27802245 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - November 3, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research