Tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in acute ischemic stroke: Outcomes associated with ambulation.
Authors: Lawson TR, Brown IE, Westerkam DL, Blackhurst DW, Sternberg S, Leacock R, Nathaniel TI Abstract PURPOSE: Several clinical trials have highlighted general favorable outcomes of intravenous tissue type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in acute ischemic stroke using different measures including, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Findings from most of these measures indicate that the benefits of rt-PA are time dependent, thus, supporting intensive efforts to fast-track hospital thrombolytic treatment in patients with stroke. Despite the widespread benefits of rt-P...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Changes of voltage-gated sodium channels in sensory nerve regeneration and neuropathic pain models.
CONCLUSION: Shifts in VGSCs expression occur in parallel to neuropathic pain behavior in rats early after injury, while at later times they appear to be more related to sensory nerve degeneration and regeneration processes. PMID: 25698112 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

The motor learning induces plastic changes in dendritic spines of Purkinje cells from the neocerebellar cortex of the rat.
CONCLUSIONS: Since thin spines are associated with acquiring novel information whilst mushroom spines are associated with long-term information storage, there appears to be a strong relationship between AC motor learning and consolidation. The increase in stubby spines could be related to the regulation of excitatory stimulation underlying motor overactivity. PMID: 25720541 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Theory of mind impairment after severe traumatic brain injury and its relationship with caregivers' quality of life.
CONCLUSIONS: ToM is impaired in individuals with sTBI and adequate levels of SA. Moreover, their ToM performance predicted HRQoL in the caregivers. From a clinical perspective, these results provide understanding of the potential impact of ToM impairment in subjects with sTBI and their social system. PMID: 25720542 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Effects of extradural cortical stimulation on motor recovery in a rat model of subacute stroke.
CONCLUSIONS: ECS in the subacute phase improved the behavior motor function in the stroke rat model, and induced a significant axonal sprouting in the peri-infarct area. PMID: 25735240 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Theta burst stimulation to characterize changes in brain plasticity following mild traumatic brain injury: A proof-of-principle study.
CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results suggest that cTBS can be used to assess M1 synaptic plasticity in subacute phase following mTBI and may provide insights into neurobiological substrates of symptoms and consequences of mTBI. PMID: 25735241 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Cerebellar direct current stimulation modulates pain perception in humans.
CONCLUSIONS: tcDCS modulates pain perception and its cortical correlates. Since it is effective on both N1 and N2/P2 components, we speculate that the cerebellum engagement in pain processing modulates the activity of both somatosensory and cingulate cortices. Present findings prompt investigation of the cerebellar direct current polarization as a possible novel and safe therapeutic tool in chronic pain patients. PMID: 25777683 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Recurrence quantification analysis of surface electromyogram supports alterations in motor unit recruitment strategies by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation.
Authors: Dutta A, Krishnan C, Kantak SS, Ranganathan R, Nitsche MA Abstract PURPOSE: Recent evidence indicates that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can selectively alter the EMG/force relationship of agonist arm muscles; however, the mechanisms mediating those changes are less clear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of anodal tDCS on motor unit synchronization by using a sophisticated non-linear EMG analysis called recurrence quantification analysis (RQA). METHODS: Surface EMG signals were collected from the biceps brachii muscle of eighteen healthy young adults (9 tDCS...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Preclinical model of transcorneal alternating current stimulation in freely moving rats.
CONCLUSIONS: Our setup allows the stimulation of the visual system in unanaesthetised rodents with flicker light and transcorneally applied current travelling along the physiological signalling pathway. This methodology provides the experimental basis for further studies of recovery and restoration of vision. PMID: 25813371 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

A new technique for modeling neuronal connectivity using human pluripotent stem cells.
CONCLUSIONS: We have developed a hPSC-based system for producing connections between neurons from two brain regions, neocortex and midbrain. Future experiments could employ modifications of this method to examine connections between any two brain regions or neuronal subtypes that can be produced from hPSCs in vitro. PMID: 25835555 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Cognitive rehabilitation of working memory in juvenile multiple sclerosis-effects on cognitive functioning, functional MRI and network related connectivity.
CONCLUSIONS: Responders revealed training effects on all applied outcome measures. Disease activity and general intelligence may be factors associated with response to treatment. PMID: 25835556 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Impact of left versus right hemisphere subcortical stroke on the neural processing of action observation and imagery.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with left hemisphere subcortical lesions recruit more cortical regions in the processing of action pictures and videos. This recruitment was further enhanced during imagery. This is most likely related to the fact that the lesion touched the dominant hemisphere. PMID: 25835557 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

a-tDCS on the ipsilesional parietal cortex boosts the effects of prism adaptation treatment in neglect.
CONCLUSIONS: c-tDCS abolished neglect amelioration after PA, possibly because stimulation affected the sensorimotor network controlling prism adaptation. Instead, a-tDCS PPC boosted neglect amelioration after PA probably thanks to increased excitability of residual tissue in the lesioned hemisphere, which in turn might reduce dysfunctional over-excitability of the intact hemisphere. PMID: 25855132 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Limb remote ischemic per-conditioning in combination with post-conditioning reduces brain damage and promotes neuroglobin expression in the rat brain after ischemic stroke.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the conventional per-conditioning combined with post-conditioning may be used as a novel neuroprotective strategy against ischemia-reperfusion injury, and Ngb seems to be one of the important players in limb remote ischemia-mediated neuroprotection. PMID: 25868435 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Multisensory stimulation in hemianopic patients boosts orienting responses to the hemianopic field and reduces attentional resources to the intact field.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the primary visual deficit in hemianopic patients might be accompanied by an ipsilesional attentional bias which might be reduced by multisensory stimulation. PMID: 26409401 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Potential determinants of efficacy of mirror therapy in stroke patients--A pilot study.
CONCLUSIONS: In line with earlier results, initial motor function was confirmed as crucial determinant of motor recovery. Additionally, activity response to the mirror illusion in both precunei was found to be a candidate for determination of the efficacy of MT. PMID: 26409402 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

A double-blind randomized clinical trial on the efficacy of magnetic sacral root stimulation for the treatment of Monosymptomatic Nocturnal Enuresis.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that rSMS has potential as an adjuvant treatment for MNE and deserves further study. PMID: 26409403 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Visuo-motor integration in unresponsive wakefulness syndrome: A piece of the puzzle towards consciousness detection?
CONCLUSIONS: Our protocol could be a promising approach to potentiate the functional connectivity within large-scale visuomotor networks, thus allowing identifying the patients suffering from a functional locked-in syndrome (i.e. individuals showing an extreme behavioral motor dysfunction although with somehow preserved cognitive functions that can be identified only through para-clinical tests) within individuals with UWS. PMID: 26409404 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

The neuroprotective effect of erythropoietin on spinal motor neurons after nerve root avulsion injury in rats.
CONCLUSION: The neuroprotective effect of EPO is not long lasting, but may prolong the time before replantation surgery. PMID: 26409405 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Hyperbaric oxygen can induce neuroplasticity and improve cognitive functions of patients suffering from anoxic brain damage.
CONCLUSIONS: Although further research is needed, the results demonstrate the beneficial effects of HBO2 on CCI in patients after cardiac arrest, even months to years after the acute event. PMID: 26409406 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of motor cortex does not ameliorate spasticity in multiple sclerosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Five-daily sessions of anodal tDCS to the primary motor cortex does do not improve lower limb spasticity in MS patients. PMID: 26409407 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

The temporal expression patterns of fibronectin and its receptors-α5β1 and αvβ3 integrins on blood vessels after cerebral ischemia.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that upregulation of the Fn-α5β1/αVβ3 integrin axis on blood vessels stimulates BEC proliferation at an early stage of angiogenesis post-ischemia. This could form the basis of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at promoting angiogenesis following cerebral ischemia. PMID: 26409408 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Anodal direct current stimulation in the healthy aged: Effects determined by the hemisphere stimulated.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that the hemispheres respond differently to anodal stimulation and the response appears to be task specific but not mediated by age. PMID: 26409409 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Efficacy of cumulative high-frequency rTMS on freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease.
CONCLUSIONS: High frequency rTMS over the M1-LL may serve as an add-on therapy for improving FOG in PD. PMID: 26409410 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside ameliorates memory and movement functions, protects synapses and inhibits α-synuclein aggregation in hippocampus and striatum in aged mice.
CONCLUSION: TSG improved the memory and movement functions in aged mice through protecting synapses and inhibiting α-synuclein overexpression and aggregation in multiple brain regions. The results suggest that TSG may be beneficial to the treatment of ageing-related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID: 26409411 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Improvement of grasping after motor imagery in C6-C7 tetraplegia: A kinematic and MEG pilot study.
CONCLUSION: These findings provide further support for the use of MI to reinforce a compensatory grasping movement (tenodesis) and induce brain plasticity. PMID: 26409412 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Using mental visual imagery to improve autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients: A randomised-controlled trial study.
CONCLUSIONS: The control and stability groups' results ruled out nursing and test learning effects as explanations of AM/EFT improvement. These benefits were corroborated by the patients' comments, which indicated an effective MVI strategy transfer to daily life. Our results suggest that the MVI programme tackles a common cognitive process of scene construction present in AM and EFT. PMID: 26410206 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Do post-stroke patients benefit from robotic verticalization? A pilot-study focusing on a novel neurophysiological approach.
Authors: Calabrò RS, Naro A, Russo M, Leo A, Balletta T, Saccá I, De Luca R, Bramanti P Abstract BACKGROUND: Tilt-table equipped with the dynamic foot-support (ERIGO) and the functional electric stimulation could be a safe and suitable device for stabilization of vital signs, increasing patient's motivation for further recovery, decreasing the duration of hospitalization, and accelerating the adaptation to vertical posture in bedridden patients with brain-injury. Moreover, it is conceivable that verticalization may improve cognitive functions, and induce plastic changes at sensory motor and vestibular...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Involvement of the GABAergic system in the neuroprotective and sedative effects of acacetin 7-O-glucoside in rodents.
CONCLUSIONS: 7-ACAG possesses anticonvulsive and sedative effects. Results suggest that GABAergic activity and neuroprotection are involved in the mechanism of action of 7-ACAG and support this compound's being a potential drug for treatment of anxiety or post-operative conditions caused by neurosurgeries. PMID: 26410208 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Discharge destination after acute hospitalization strongly predicts three month disability outcome in ischemic stroke.
Authors: Zhang Q, Yang Y, Saver JL Abstract PURPOSE: Final global disability 3 months post-stroke is the cardinal endpoint in acute stroke clinical trials. The most similar variable available in administrative datasets is discharge destination at end of the acute hospitalization. We investigated the predictive value of discharge destination for final global disability. METHODS: In the public dataset of the two NINDS-TPA trials, we characterized discharge destination as a 4 level ordinal variable. Correlation coefficients and logistic models probed the relation with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) of global disa...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Motor imagery learning across a sequence of trials in stroke patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Trial-dependent changes during motor imagery learning presented in a different manner in stroke patients. Understanding motor imagery learning in stroke patients is crucial for enhancing the effectiveness of motor-imagery-based BCIs. PMID: 26410210 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Prevention of an increase in cortical ligand binding to AMPA receptors may represent a novel mechanism of endogenous brain protection by G-CSF after ischemic stroke.
CONCLUSIONS: Although infarct volumes did not differ 24 hours after ischemia the increase of AMPA receptor binding densities in G-CSF deficient mice may explain the bigger infarcts previously observed at later time-points with the same stroke model. PMID: 26410211 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Uridine protects against hypoxic-ischemic brain injury by reducing histone deacetylase activity in neonatal rats.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that one mechanism by which uridine provides neuroprotection in neonatal rat HIE model involves reduction in HDAC activity. PMID: 26410212 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Combined effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) on robot-assisted gait training in patients with chronic stroke: A pilot, double blind, randomized controlled trial.
CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary findings support the hypothesis that anodal tDCS combined with cathodal tsDCS may be useful to improve the effects of robotic gait training in chronic stroke. PMID: 26410579 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Short-term monocular patching boosts the patched eye's response in visual cortex.
CONCLUSIONS: We interpret this eye dominance plasticity in adult human visual cortex as homeostatic intrinsic plasticity regulated by an increase of contrast-gain in the patched eye. PMID: 26410580 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Emerging evidence of the association between cognitive deficits and arm motor recovery after stroke: A meta-analysis.
Authors: Mullick AA, Subramanian SK, Levin MF Abstract PURPOSE: Motor and cognitive impairments are common and often coexist in patients with stroke. Although evidence is emerging about specific relationships between cognitive deficits and upper-limb motor recovery, the practical implication of these relationships for rehabilitation is unclear. Using a structured review and meta-analyses, we examined the nature and strength of the associations between cognitive deficits and upper-limb motor recovery in studies of patients with stroke. METHODS: Motor recovery was defined using measures of upper limb motor impair...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Delayed administration of recombinant human erythropoietin reduces apoptosis and inflammation and promotes myelin repair and functional recovery following spinal cord compressive injury in rats.
CONCLUSION: Delayed administration of rhEPO can reduce apoptosis and inflammation, and promote myelin repair and functional recovery following spinal cord compressive injury in rats. PMID: 26444376 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 reverses the neurogenesis and behavioral recovery promoted by forced limb-use in stroke rats.
CONCLUSIONS: SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway seems to be involved in the enhancement of neurogenesis and behavioral recovery induced by post-stroke forced limb-use. PMID: 26444377 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Depressive symptoms influence use of feedback for motor learning and recovery in chronic stroke.
CONCLUSION: The presence of PSD diminished the ability to use auditory feedback for arm motor recovery and motor learning. PMID: 26444639 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effects of Aceglutamide on motor function in a rat model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion.
CONCLUSIONS: Aceglutamide ameliorated motor dysfunction and delayed neuronal death in the SN after ischemia, which involved the inhibition of pro-apoptotic factor TRAF1 and activation of Akt/Bcl-2 signaling pathway. These data provided experimental information for applying Aceglutamide to ischemic stroke treatment. PMID: 26444640 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Functional reorganization and prediction of motor recovery after a stroke: A graph theoretical analysis of functional networks.
CONCLUSIONS: This approach were helpful for understanding dynamic reorganizations of both hemispheric networks after a stroke and finding the implication for recovery. PMID: 26484693 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Effects of implantable peroneal nerve stimulation on gait quality, energy expenditure, participation and user satisfaction in patients with post-stroke drop foot using an ankle-foot orthosis.
Authors: Schiemanck S, Berenpas F, van Swigchem R, van den Munckhof P, de Vries J, Beelen A, Nollet F, Geurts AC Abstract PURPOSE: To investigate whether an implantable functional electrical stimulation (FES) system of the common peroneal nerve (ActiGait®) improves relevant aspects of gait in chronic stroke patients with a drop foot typically using an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO). METHODS: Ten community-dwelling patients participated, of whom eight patients could be analysed. Gait quality (kinematic, kinetic, and spatiotemporal characteristics) during a 10-meter comfortable walk test, normalised net energy exp...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Injectable phenytoin loaded polymeric microspheres for the control of temporal lobe epilepsy in rats.
CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated the feasibility of polymer-based delivery systems incontrolling focal seizures. PMID: 26484695 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Changes in structural integrity are correlated with motor and functional recovery after post-stroke rehabilitation.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest 2 different structural indicators for post-stroke recovery separately at the impairment-based and function-based levels. PMID: 26484696 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Evolution of brain activation after stroke in a constant-effort versus constant-output motor task.
CONCLUSION: We conclude that initial up-regulation of brain activity after stroke is not simply a consequence of enhanced effort early after stroke but rather reflects neural processes involved in reorganisation and recovery of function. PMID: 26484697 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

The Synapse Project: Engagement in mentally challenging activities enhances neural efficiency.
CONCLUSIONS: Sustained engagement in cognitively demanding activities facilitated cognition by increasing neural efficiency. Mentally-challenging activities may be neuroprotective and an important element to maintaining a healthy brain into late adulthood. PMID: 26484698 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Inhibition of glial proliferation, promotion of axonal growth and myelin production by synthetic glycolipid: A new approach for spinal cord injury treatment.
Authors: García-Álvarez I, Fernández-Mayoralas A, Moreno-Lillo S, Sánchez-Sierra M, Nieto-Sampedro M, Doncel-Pérez E Abstract PURPOSE: After spinal cord injury (SCI) a glial scar is generated in the area affected that forms a barrier for axon growth and myelination, preventing functional recovery. Recently, we have described a synthetic glycolipid (IG20) that inhibited proliferation of human glioma cells. We show now that IG20 inhibited the proliferation of astrocytes and microglial cells, the principal cellular components of the glial scar, and promoting axonal outgrowth and myel...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Stimulation targeting higher motor areas in stroke rehabilitation: A proof-of-concept, randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled study of effectiveness and underlying mechanisms.
CONCLUSIONS: Our proof-of-concept study provides early evidence that stimulating higher motor areas can help recruit the contralesional hemisphere in an adaptive role in cases of greater ipsilesional injury. Whether this early evidence of promise translates to remarkable gains in functional recovery compared to existing approaches of stimulation remains to be confirmed in large-scale clinical studies that can reasonably dissociate stimulation of higher motor areas from that of the traditional primary motor cortices. PMID: 26484700 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Anti-edema effects of rhEpo in experimental traumatic brain injury.
CONCLUSION: Current results emphasize clinical utility of rhEpo in treating post-TBI edema. PMID: 26484701 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Hyperbaric oxygen may induce angiogenesis in patients suffering from prolonged post-concussion syndrome due to traumatic brain injury.
CONCLUSION: HBOT may induce cerebral angiogenesis, which improves perfusion to the chronic damage brain tissue even months to years after the injury. PMID: 26484702 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - January 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research