Diffuse traumatic brain injury in the mouse induces a transient proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in injured white matter tracts.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that traumatic axonal injury in the mouse induces a transient proliferative response of residing OPCs. These proliferating OPCs may replace dead oligodendrocytes and contribute to remyelination, which needs evaluation in future studies. PMID: 27768001 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - October 22, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Steroid/Antiviral for the treatment of Bell's palsy: Double blind randomized clinical trial.
CONCLUSION: The combination of steroid and antiviral treatment increases the possibility of recovery in moderately severe to complete acute Bell's palsy. PMID: 27689547 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - October 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Mental chronometry and mental rotation abilities in stroke patients with different degrees of sensory deficit.
This study investigated the influence of somatosensory deficits on temporal (mental chronometry, MC) and spatial aspects of motor imagery abilities. METHODS: Stroke patients (n = 70;
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - October 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

The effects of combined repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation on motor function in patients with stroke.
Authors: Kwon TG, Park E, Kang C, Chang WH, Kim YH Abstract BACKGROUND: Both transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), when provided to stroke patients in combination with motor training, enhance therapeutic efficacy and motor function. However, the majority of previous studies have only examined a single treatment modality. OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated the modulating influence of combination dual-mode brain stimulation upon bihemispheric stimulation with motor training in stroke patients. METHODS: Twenty stroke patients with hemiparesis underwent fi...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - October 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Association between genetic variation in the dopamine system and motor recovery after stroke.
Authors: Kim BR, Kim HY, Chun YI, Yun YM, Kim H, Choi DH, Lee J Abstract BACKGROUND: The dopamine system plays a key role in motor learning and neuroplasticity. Several studies have studied the efficacy of dopaminergic drugs in enhancing motor recovery after stroke, but the effects are controversial. Although genetic variations in plasticity-related genes influence each individual's capacity for recovery after stroke, limited studies have investigated the effects of polymorphism of dopamine-related genes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association between motor recovery in stroke patients and polymorphi...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - October 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Effects of anodal tDCS and occupational therapy on fine motor skill deficits in patients with chronic stroke.
CONCLUSION: Fine motor skill deficits in chronic stroke survivors can be improved when intensive OT is primed with anodal tDCS over the ipsilesional hemisphere. PMID: 27689551 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - October 2, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Subcortical encoding of speech cues in  children with congenital blindness.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that neuroplasticity resulting from congenital blindness can be measured subcortically and has a heightened effect on temporal, musical and speech processing abilities. The findings have been discussed based on models of plasticity and the influence of corticofugal modulation in synthesizing complex auditory stimuli. PMID: 27589504 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - September 4, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

A new therapeutic application of  brain-machine interface (BMI) training followed by hybrid assistive neuromuscular dynamic stimulation (HANDS) therapy for patients with severe hemiparetic stroke: A proof of concept study.
CONCLUSION: Combining BMI training with HANDS therapy could be an effective therapeutic strategy for severe UE paralysis after stroke. PMID: 27589505 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - September 4, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Enhanced motor function and its neurophysiological correlates after navigated low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the contralesional motor cortex in stroke.
CONCLUSION: Navigated Low-frequency rTMS involving precise and consistent targeting of the contralesional hemisphere in stroke patients enhanced the cortical excitability of the ipsilesional hemisphere and the motor response of the hemiparetic hand. PMID: 27567753 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - August 30, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Perceptual learning leads to long lasting visual improvement in patients with central vision loss.
CONCLUSION: The results show for the first time that PL with a lateral masking configuration has strong, non-invasive and long lasting rehabilitative potential to improve residual vision in the PRL of patients with central vision loss. PMID: 27567754 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - August 30, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Designing sensory-substitution devices: Principles, pitfalls and potential.
Authors: Kristjánsson Á, Moldoveanu A, Jóhannesson Ó, Balan O, Spagnol S, Valgeirsdóttir VV, Unnpórsson R Abstract An exciting possibility for compensating for loss of sensory function is to augment deficient senses by conveying missing information through an intact sense. Here we present an overview of techniques that have been developed for sensory substitution (SS) for the blind, through both touch and audition, with special emphasis on the importance of training for the use of such devices, while highlighting potential pitfalls in their design. One example of a pitfall ...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - August 30, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

The neurophysiological effects of  single-dose theophylline in patients with chronic stroke: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized cross-over study.
CONCLUSION: A single dose of theophylline is well-tolerated by patients with chronic stroke, but does not alter cortical excitability. The inverse relationship between baseline inhibition and its change suggests the existence of a homeostatic process. The lack of effect on cortical inhibition may be related to an insufficiently long exposure to theophylline, or to differential responsiveness of disinhibited neural circuitry in patients with stroke. PMID: 27567756 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - August 30, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Illusion of arm movement evoked by tendon vibration in patients with spinal cord injury.
CONCLUSION: The study provides a preliminary evidence of the possible use of the proprioceptive stimulation in the upper limbs of people living with SCI. Results are discussed in the light of recent advancements of brain-computer applications based on motor imagery for the control of neuroprosthetic and robotic devices in patients with severe sensorimotor deficits. PMID: 27567757 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - August 30, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Chronic corticosterone administration reduces dendritic complexity in mature, but  not young granule cells in the rat dentate gyrus.
CONCLUSION: These data suggest that mature neurons are likely more vulnerable to chronic exposure to CORT; this may be due to their higher expression of GRs when compared to younger DG neurons. PMID: 27567758 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - August 30, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

After-effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation on the excitability of  the motor cortex in rats.
CONCLUSION: We propose that anodal tDCS with a sufficient duration of stimulation may modulate transcallosal plasticity. PMID: 27567759 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - August 30, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

The effects of mechanical focal vibration on  walking impairment in multiple sclerosis patients: A randomized, double-blinded vs placebo study.
Conclusion: Our results suggest a beneficial effect of FV on walking impairment in MS patients suffering from spasticity and/or postural instability, which partially lasted until follow up. PMID: 27567760 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - August 30, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Special Section: Language System Plasticity in Aphasia; Guest Editor: Roy Hamilton.
Authors: PMID: 27567761 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - August 30, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Regular Section.
Authors: PMID: 27567762 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - August 30, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Enhanced motor function and its neurophysiological correlates after navigated low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the contralesional motor cortex in stroke.
CONCLUSION: Navigated low-frequency rTMS involving precise and consistent targeting of the contralesional hemisphere in stroke patients enhanced the cortical excitability of the ipsilesional hemisphere and the motor response of the hemiparetic hand. PMID: 27567763 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - August 30, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Inosine enhances recovery of grasp following cortical injury to the primary motor cortex of the rhesus monkey.
CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that inosine can enhance recovery of function following cortical injury in monkeys. PMID: 27497459 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - August 10, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Modulating transcallosal and intrahemispheric brain connectivity with tDCS: Implications for interventions in Aphasia.
Authors: Zheng X, Dai W, Alsop DC, Schlaug G Abstract BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance or diminish cortical excitability levels depending on the polarity of the stimulation. One application of non-invasive brain-stimulation has been to modulate a possible inter-hemispheric disinhibition after a stroke. This disinhibition model has been developed mainly for the upper extremity motor system, but it is not known whether the language/speech-motor system shows a similar inter-hemispheric interaction. We aimed to examine physiological evidence of inter- and intra-hemispheri...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - July 31, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Treadmill vs Cycling in Parkinson's disease rehabilitation: Commentary on "Intensive cycle ergometer training improves gait speed and endurance in patients with Parkinson's disease: A comparison with treadmill training" by Arcolin et al., 2016.
Treadmill vs Cycling in Parkinson's disease rehabilitation: Commentary on "Intensive cycle ergometer training improves gait speed and endurance in patients with Parkinson's disease: A comparison with treadmill training" by Arcolin et al., 2016. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2016 Jul 25; Authors: Fernández-Del-Olmo M PMID: 27472846 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - July 31, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Reply to Commentary by Miguel Fern ández-del-Olmo on "Intensive cycle ergometer training improves gait speed and endurance in patients with Parkinson's disease: A comparison with treadmill training" by Arcolin et al., 2016.
Reply to Commentary by Miguel Fernández-del-Olmo on "Intensive cycle ergometer training improves gait speed and endurance in patients with Parkinson's disease: A comparison with treadmill training" by Arcolin et al., 2016. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2016 Jul 25; Authors: PMID: 27472847 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - July 31, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Neuroplasticity in the language system: Reorganization in post-stroke aphasia and in neuromodulation interventions.
Authors: Hamilton RH PMID: 27472848 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - July 31, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Factors influencing the response to  high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with subacute stroke.
Factors influencing the response to high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with subacute stroke. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2016 Jun 25; Authors: Chang WH, Uhm KE, Shin YI, Pascual-Leone A, Kim YH Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) aids motor recovery in patients with subacute stroke. However, the response to high-frequency rTMS is highly variable between patients. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with improved motor function in response to high-frequency rTMS in subacute...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - July 21, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Specific transfer effects following variable priority dual-task training in older adults.
CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study help better understand the benefits of VPT attentional training on transfer effects, which is an essential outcome for cognitive training effectiveness and relevancy. PMID: 27372514 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - July 5, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Factors influencing the response to high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with subacute stroke.
Factors influencing the response to high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with subacute stroke. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2016 Jun 25; Authors: Chang WH, Uhm KE, Shin YI, Pascual-Leone A, Kim YH Abstract BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) aids motor recovery in patients with subacute stroke. However, the response to high-frequency rTMS is highly variable between patients. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with improved motor function in response to high-frequency rTMS in subacute...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - July 5, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

The pathophysiology of post-stroke aphasia: A network approach.
CONCLUSION: Understanding the pathophysiological mechanism of post-stroke aphasia on a neurophysiological systems level as well as on the molecular level becomes more and more important for aphasia treatment, as the field moves from standardized therapies towards more targeted individualized treatment strategies comprising behavioural therapies as well as non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS). PMID: 27314978 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - June 18, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Cortical thickness and metabolite concentration in chronic stroke and the relationship with motor function.
CONCLUSION: While stroke impairs both structure and biochemistry in the ipsilesional hemisphere our data suggest that tNAA has the strongest relationship with motor function. PMID: 27258945 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - June 5, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

The effects of bi-hemispheric M1-M1 transcranial direct current stimulation on primary motor cortex neurophysiology and metabolite concentration.
CONCLUSION: In line with recent studies showing important inter-subject variability following M1-supraorbital tDCS, the present data show that M1-M1 stimulation is also associated with large response variability. The absence of significant effects suggests that current measures may lack sensitivity to assess changes in M1 neurophysiology and metabolism associated with M1-M1 tDCS. PMID: 27232951 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - May 29, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Fooling the brain by mirroring the hand: Brain correlates of the perceptual capture of limb ownership.
CONCLUSION: Transient perceptions of ownership can be captured experimentally, and are associated with localized sites of neural activation. This is an initial step toward eventual development of therapeutic targets for interventions including brain computer interfaces (BCIs) aimed at ameliorating the negative effects associated with impaired or missing limbs. PMID: 27232952 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - May 29, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Cerebellar tDCS as a novel treatment for aphasia? Evidence from behavioral and resting-state functional connectivity data in healthy adults.
CONCLUSION: We provide proof-of-principle evidence that cerebellar neuromodulation improves verbal fluency and impacts resting-state connectivity in language circuits. These findings suggest that the cerebellum is a viable candidate for neuromodulation in people with aphasia. PMID: 27232953 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - May 29, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Imaging network level language recovery after left PCA stroke.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings emphasize a network view of aphasia recovery, and show that the degree of inter- and intra- hemispheric balance between the language-specific regions is necessary for optimal recovery of naming, at least in participants with PCA stroke. PMID: 27176918 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - May 17, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Anatomical and functional effects of lateral cervical hemicontusion in adult rats.
Authors: Walker CL, Zhang YP, Liu Y, Li Y, Walker MJ, Liu NK, Shields CB, Xu XM Abstract PURPOSE: Cervical injuries are the most common form of spinal cord injury (SCI), and are often complicated by pathological secondary damage. Therefore, cervical SCI is of great clinical importance for understanding pathology and potential therapies. Here we utilize a weight drop cervical hemi-contusion injury model using a NYU/MASCIS impactor that produced graded anatomical and functional deficits. METHODS: Three groups of rats were established: 1) Sham (laminectomy only) (n = 6), 12.5 mm weight drop (n = 10), and...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - May 12, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Fields or flows? A comparative metaanalysis of transcranial magnetic and direct current stimulation to treat post-stroke aphasia.
Authors: Shah-Basak PP, Wurzman R, Purcell JB, Gervits F, Hamilton R Abstract PURPOSE: Aphasia-acquired loss of the ability to understand or express language-is a common and debilitating neurological consequence of stroke. Evidence suggests that transcranial magnetic (TMS) or direct current stimulation (tDCS) can significantly improve language outcomes in patients with aphasia (PWA). However, the relative efficacy between TMS and tDCS has not yet been explored. Mechanistic and methodological differences, patient inclusion/exclusion criteria and experimental designs may influence observed treatment benefits. MET...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - May 12, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Mobile game-based virtual reality rehabilitation program for upper limb dysfunction after ischemic stroke.
CONCLUSION: This mobile game-based VR rehabilitation program appears to be feasible and effective for promoting upper limb recovery after ischemic stroke. PMID: 27163250 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - May 12, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Abnormal increase of neuronal precursor cells and exacerbated neuroinflammation in the corpus callosum in murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus.
CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing an increase of neuronal precursor cells in the corpus callosum of the female NZB/W F1 mice. The present study suggests a coincidence but not a causal relationship between neurogenesis and neuroinflammation. The present results have also provided new insight showing that the altered neurogenesis and neuroinflammation may be a potential neurological mechanism for the cognitive and mood disturbance found in the SLE patients. PMID: 27163251 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - May 12, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Neurorestorative effects of epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on cognitive function in a chronic cerebral hypoperfusion rat model.
This study investigated whether (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) can enhance cognition by a neurorestorative effect in a rat model of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO). METHODS: Forty-eight male, 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to four groups 6 weeks after BCCAO or sham operation: EGCG-single intravenous injection (25 mg/kg/day; SIV group), EGCG-multiple intraperitoneal injection (50 mg/kg/day for 5 days; MIP group), untreated BCCAO group (untreated group), and sham-operated group (sham group). RESULTS: Escape latency was significantly shorter in the SIV and MIP group...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - April 18, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

The sensory side of post-stroke motor rehabilitation.
Authors: Bolognini N, Russo C, Edwards DJ Abstract Contemporary strategies to promote motor recovery following stroke focus on repetitive voluntary movements. Although successful movement relies on efficient sensorimotor integration, functional outcomes often bias motor therapy toward motor-related impairments such as weakness, spasticity and synergies; sensory therapy and reintegration is implied, but seldom targeted. However, the planning and execution of voluntary movement requires that the brain extracts sensory information regarding body position and predicts future positions, by integrating a variety of senso...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - April 18, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Pain and somatic sensation are transiently normalized by illusory body ownership in a patient with spinal cord injury.
CONCLUSIONS: The sensations of touch and pain are mutually influenced and inextricably linked to a coherent representation of one's own body. Multisensory manipulations affecting the perception and representation of the body might thus offer a powerful opportunity to mitigate nociceptive and somatic abnormalities. PMID: 27080071 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - April 18, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Non-invasive brain stimulation to promote alertness and awareness in chronic patients with disorders of consciousness: Low-level, near-infrared laser stimulation vs. focused shock wave therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Both options might be an option to increase alertness and awareness of chronic DOC patients. An akinetic mutism seems to be a positive and severe cerebral hypoxia a negative predictor. Epileptic seizures are a potential unwanted side effect. More clinical studies are warranted. PMID: 27080072 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - April 18, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Use of human mesenchymal stem cell treatment to prevent anhedonia in a rat model of traumatic brain injury.
CONCLUSIONS: This work has identified a possible role for hMSC in the treatment of TBI-induced depression and other behaviors and suggests a mechanistic role for proliferative cells of the SVZ proliferation in hMSC efficacy. PMID: 27080073 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - April 18, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Imaging effects related to language improvements by rTMS.
Authors: Heiss WD Abstract The functional deficit after a focal brain lesion is determined by the localization and the extent of the tissue damage. Since destroyed tissue usually cannot be replaced in the adult human brain, improvement or recovery of neurological deficits can be achieved only by reactivation of functionally disturbed but morphologically preserved areas or by recruitment of alternative pathways within the functional network. The visualization of disturbed interaction in functional networks and of their reorganization in the recovery after focal brain damage is the domain of functional imaging modali...
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - April 18, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Effect of using fluoxetine at different time windows on neurological functional prognosis after ischemic stroke.
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ischemic stroke, early administration of fluoxetine may improve the neurological functional prognosis. PMID: 26923613 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - March 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Transplantation of choroid plexus epithelial cells into contusion-injured spinal cord of rats.
CONCLUSION: The transplantation of CPECs enhanced locomotor improvement and tissue recovery, including axonal regeneration, in rats with SCI. PMID: 26923614 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - March 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Effects of inhibitory theta burst TMS to different brain sites involved in visuospatial attention - a combined neuronavigated cTBS and behavioural study.
CONCLUSIONS: The evidence supports the notion of an involvement of the right TPJ (and pMFG) in spatial visual attention. The observations further indicate that inhibitory non-invasive brain stimulation (cTBS) to the left TPJ has a potential for reversing a rightward bias of spatial attention when the right TPJ is dysfunctional. Accordingly, the findings could have implications for therapeutic rTMS development for right brain damaged patients with visual neglect. PMID: 26923615 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - March 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

The role of auditory feedback in music-supported stroke rehabilitation:A single-blinded randomised controlled intervention.
CONCLUSIONS: Auditory feedback-based motor learning is not the beneficial mechanism of music-supported therapy. Immediate auditory feedback therapy may be suboptimal. Jittered delay may increase efficacy of the proposed therapy and allow patients to fully benefit from motivational factors of music training. Our study shows a novel way to test hypotheses concerning music training in a single-blinded way, which is an important improvement over existing unblinded tests of music interventions. PMID: 26923616 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - March 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Day/night difference in extradural cortical stimulation for motor relearningin a subacute stroke rat model.
CONCLUSION: ECS during the active period might be more effective for motor relearning in the subacute stroke rat model. PMID: 26923617 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - March 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Post-stroke gaseous hypothermia increases vascular density but not neurogenesisin the ischemic penumbra of aged rats.
CONCLUSION: Long-term hypothermia may be a viable clinical approach by simultaneously targeting multiple processes including better tissue preservation, enhanced vascular density and improved behavioral performance. PMID: 26923618 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - March 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research

Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor promotes brain repair following traumatic brain injury by recruitment of microglia and increasing neurotrophic factor expression.
CONCLUSIONS: G-CSF serves as a neurotrophic factor that increases hippocampal neurogenesis (or enhances survival of new-born neurons), and activates astrocytes and microglia. In turn, these activated glia release a plethora of cytokines and neurotrophic factors that contribute, in a poorly understood cascade, to the brain's repair response. G-CSF also acts directly on bone marrow-derived cells to enhance recruitment of microglia to the site of CCI from circulating monocytes to the site of CCI. PMID: 26923619 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience)
Source: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience - March 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Tags: Restor Neurol Neurosci Source Type: research