An analysis of the ecological components within a text structure intervention
In this study, the authors examined the extent of teacher knowledge about text structure, the extent to which textbooks focused on text structure related skills and strategies as well as the percentage each skill and strategy was covered in lessons and teacher instructional practices. Such analysis shows that although text structure interventions may have positive effects on student reading comprehension, there are multiple elements of the ecological component that may be counteracting the benefits of the intervention. First, teachers have a limited knowledge of the five common text structures. Second, textbooks systematic...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 26, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Direct and indirect effects of textual and individual factors on source-content integration when reading about a socio-scientific issue
Abstract The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model that specified direct and indirect effects of textual and individual factors on readers ’ ability to integrate information about sources and content when reading multiple conflicting texts on a controversial socio-scientific issue. Using a path analytic approach with a sample of 140 Norwegian upper secondary school students, it was found that the textual factor of presentation format , specifically whether they read about the conflicting issue in multiple texts or in a single text, affected source-content integration directly as well as indirectly ...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 24, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Examining interest throughout multiple text use
This study examines two forms of interest, individual interest and situational interest, in the context of students’ completion of a multiple text task. Time on texts and the number of texts students accessed were examined in association with both forms of interest and as mediators of the relation between situational interest and task performance. Situational interest, but not individual interest, was found to be associated with time devoted to text use, a measure of pe rsistence or engagement during task completion. Prior knowledge, situational interest, number of texts used, and time on texts were found to predict ...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 22, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Academic vocabulary and reading comprehension: exploring the relationships across measures of vocabulary knowledge
This study examined the relationship between knowledge of academic vocabulary and reading comprehension in data contributed by 5855 middle school students. Each student completed an academic vocabulary assessment, a standardized reading comprehension test, and one of four types of novel vocabulary-depth measures.Multiword expressions examined students ’ abilities to complete formulaic phrases.Topical associates items required students to identify a target word that was topically related to three others. Thehypernyms task required students to identify the superordinate for each target word. Thedefinitions task asked s...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 17, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Oculomotor planning in RAN and reading: a strong test of the visual scanning hypothesis
AbstractThe current study investigates the validity of the visual scanning hypothesis, which posits that rapid automatized naming (RAN) predicts reading skill partly because both require the ability to perform rapid sequential eye-movements. Our data consist of eye-movements collected while 124 young English speaking adults of variable reading skill read passages and performed six modifications of RAN. These modifications isolated articulatory, lexical, oculomotor and attentional task components of RAN. A further requirement for participants was to perform each of the RAN tasks in two directions —the habitual directi...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 17, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Using critical questions to evaluate written and oral arguments in an undergraduate general education seminar: a quasi-experimental study
AbstractAlthough the Toulmin model (1958) has dominated argumentation research, it does not provide many tools for evaluating argument quality. Towards that end, we draw on work in philosophy on argument schemes, and critical questions for evaluating those schemes. In our approach, we integrate the teaching of critical questions with argumentation vee diagrams (AVDs) and with oral and written discourse. AVDs are graphic organizers that prompt students to write arguments and counterarguments on different sides of the vee, and at the bottom of the vee, an integrative paragraph supporting a final conclusion. The present study...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 14, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Assessment of early handwriting skill in kindergarten children using a Chinese name writing test
This study developed and validated a Chinese name writing scale (CNWS) for evaluating early handwriting skills of kindergarten children. We then used the validated CNWS to examine the developmental characteristics of Chinese name writing skills among kindergarten children in Hong Kong in a cross-sectional study. CNWS was developed based on English name writing scales. It was modified to match with the uniqueness of complex characters in Chinese names. CNWS was then reviewed by an expert panel, followed by a validation study. The results demonstrated good content validity and excellent test –retest and inter-rater rel...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 12, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Morphological effects in word identification: tracking the developmental trajectory of derivational suffixes in Spanish
AbstractThe role of morphological processing has been shown to be highly relevant in learning to read. However, there is little evidence on the processing of derivational suffixes from a developmental perspective. The aim of this study is to assess the developmental emergence of suffixes as meaningful processing units in word recognition. To that aim, 96 children from fourth, fifth and sixth grade, as well as adults, took part in a masked priming lexical decision task (go/no-go version). Complex and simple words were primed by other words sharing the suffix (as in lechero/milkman/-> jornalero/laborer/) and word ending (...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 12, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Exploring individual and gender differences in early writing performance
This study examined whether differences in cognitive skills such as handwriting and spelling or phonological processing abilities could explain gender differences in early writing. An opportunity sample of 116 children (52 male) ranging in age from 5:0 to 6:7 years were recruited from six UK schools. Tasks assessing vocabulary and letter knowledge, phonological awareness and phonological short-term memory skills wer e presented to children who were also asked to complete a number of transcription, spelling and writing tasks. Boys tended to produce shorter written compositions containing fewer correctly spelled words w...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 12, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Handwriting instruction: a commentary on five studies
This article examines the five investigations that were presented in this special issue on handwriting instruction, providing a summary of their collective contributions as well as the limitations of each paper. (Source: Reading and Writing)
Source: Reading and Writing - May 12, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Processing speed of dyslexia: the relationship between temporal processing and rapid naming in Chinese
AbstractWe consider auditory and visual temporal processing and alphanumeric and non-alphanumeric rapid naming to separately examine the associations of temporal processing and rapid naming with Chinese character reading in children with and without dyslexia. A total of 112 Chinese children in primary school from third grade to sixth grade were recruited from Taiwan. Half of them were identified as dyslexic, and the other half were typically developing children matched to the dyslexic group by age, gender, and IQ. The interaction of groups of participants and non-alphanumeric rapid naming contributed significantly to Chine...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 11, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Testing the effectiveness of handwriting interventions: introduction to the special issue
AbstractThis special issue was born within the COST Action IS1401ELN —Strengthening Europeans ’ Capabilities by Establishing the European Literacy Network, with the major goal of disseminating evidence-based practices to promote handwriting and motivate researchers to move this research field forward. This issue includes five articles testing a different range of interventions to promote handwriting in students with and without disabilities from kindergarten to middle grades, across multiple contexts (viz., United States, Switzerland, Belgium, and Portugal). A final commentary paper closes the special issue wit...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 11, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Which linguistic features predict quality of argumentative writing for college basic writers, and how do those features change with instruction?
AbstractThe study developed a model of linguistic constructs to predict writing quality for college basic writers and analyzed how those constructs changed following instruction. Analysis used a corpus of argumentative essays from a quasi-experimental, instructional study with 252 students (MacArthur, Philippakos,& Ianetta,2015) that found large effects (ES  = 1.22) on quality of argumentative writing. Coh-Metrix (McNamara, Graesser, McCarthy,& Cai,2014) was used to analyze the essays for lexical and syntactic complexity and cohesion. Structural equation modeling found that referential cohesion (p 
Source: Reading and Writing - May 11, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Metalinguistic awareness and literacy among semitic-bilingual learners: a cross-language perspective
AbstractIn the current study we examined three questions. First: How does emergent bilingualism affect the development of metalinguistic awareness in kindergarten and first grade? We compared the changes in scores of tests of phonological awareness and morphological awareness from kindergarten to first grade, in two bilingual groups (Hebrew –Arabic and Arabic–Hebrew) and two monolingual Hebrew and Arabic speaking groups. The results revealed a bilingual advantage in kindergarten in both languages, which persisted into first grade for the native Arabic speakers in both phonology and morphology, and in phonology ...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 10, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Are working memory and behavioral attention equally important for both reading and listening comprehension? A developmental comparison
AbstractWe investigated the extent to which working memory and behavioral attention predicted reading and listening comprehension in grades 1 through 3 and, whether their relative contributions differed by modality and grade. Separate grade samples (N = 370;ns  = 125, 123, and 122 for grades 1, 2, and 3 respectively) completed multiple measures of word reading, working memory, and parallel measures of reading and listening comprehension. Teachers and parents provided behavioral attention ratings. Concurrently, working memory was more important for lis tening than for reading comprehension and pr...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 7, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Understanding word learning mechanisms in beginning and proficient readers of Chinese: the roles of associative learning and linguistic knowledge
This study investigated the roles of associative learning and linguistic knowledge, in particular phonological and semantic knowledge, in word learning of Chinese readers using a cross-sectional design. Extending past research in associative learning using existing Chinese characters as word stimuli, this study resorted to pseudowords and invented words to control for participants ’ possible experience with the word stimuli. Fifty-three Chinese second graders and thirty Chinese undergraduates participated in the study. They were individually administered tasks of nonverbal reasoning, phonological memory, rapid automa...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 3, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Finger-writing intervention impacts the spelling and handwriting skills of children with developmental language disorder: a multiple single-case study
AbstractLearning to use grapheme to phoneme correspondences (GPCs) provides a powerful mechanism for the foundation of reading skills in children. However, for some children, such as those with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD), the GPC learning process takes time, is laborious, and impacts the entire reading and spelling processes. The present study aims to demonstrate the effectiveness of a finger-writing intervention on reading, spelling and handwriting performances. A visuomotor support was designed to help them to learn more efficiently GPCs since children with DLD appear to have altered phonological representatio...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 2, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Lecture note-taking in postsecondary students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
AbstractThe primary purpose of this investigation was to determine if there were differences in note-taking and test-taking in students with and without ADHD, and if there were, to examine the cognitive variables that might explain them. Participants included 22 postsecondary students with self-reported ADHD and 50 postsecondary student controls. Students took notes on a lecture, reviewed them, and took a written recall test. The independent variables were disability status, sustained attention, handwriting speed, verbal working memory, and listening comprehension. The dependent variables were quality of notes and written ...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 30, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

An exploratory study of middle-school learners ’ historical reading in an internet environment
AbstractWe investigated seventh-grade students ’ use of Internet sources as they engaged in an online inquiry about a historical event. The participating students read on the Internet individually in order to better understand the given historical event, navigating the Internet and examining different online texts they identified as useful sou rces for learning. The primary data sources were the think-aloud protocols that the students generated during the task. These verbal data were analyzed to reveal the students’ strategic processing of multiple Internet sources for the purpose of historical learning. The ...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 26, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Metalinguistic contribution to writing competence: a study of monolingual children in China and bilingual children in Singapore
This study investigated the concurrent contributions of three components of metalinguistic awareness (i.e., phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and syntactic awareness) to the writing competence of primary three English –Chinese bilingual children in Singapore (n = 390) and monolingual Chinese-speaking children in Mainland China (n = 190). Hierarchical regression analyses found that the three components of metalinguistic awareness differed in their contributions to writing competence across the languages and between the two groups of children, with morphological awareness and syntacti...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 21, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Young children ’s narrative skill: concurrent and predictive associations with emergent literacy and early word reading skills
AbstractNarrative skill is included in emergent literacy frameworks and believed to be important for children ’s early reading development. Yet, empirical evidence concerning associations with other emergent literacy skills and later word reading skills is limited. We comprehensively assessed the emergent literacy skills of 3- to 5.5-year old children (n = 243), along with their word identification and decoding skills 2 years later. Narrative skill was modestly associated with all measures of emergent literacy. Narrative skill predicted word reading skills in univariate models but not after account...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 19, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Developmental dynamics of early reading skill, literacy interest and readers ’ self-concept within the first year of formal schooling
Abstract Previous studies have documented robust relationships between emergent literacy and later reading performance. A growing body of research has also reported associations between motivational factors and reading in early phases of reading development. However, there is less research about cross-lagged relationships between motivational factors and reading skills in beginning readers. To examine relationships between early reading skills, literacy interest and reader self-concept, we tested 1141 children twice during their first year of formal reading instruction in school. Cross-lagged analysis showed strong stabi...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 17, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Source use and argumentation behavior in L1 and L2 writing: a within-writer comparison
Abstract The aim of this study was to test whether Cummins ’ Linguistic Interdependence Hypothesis (LIH) might also apply to writing, by determining to what extent writers’ text quality, source use and argumentation behavior are related in L1 and L2, how effective writers’ behavior is and whether their L2 proficiency influenced the relations between t hem. To answer these questions, twenty students wrote four short argumentative source based essays each in L1 (Dutch) and four in L2 (English). A within-writer cross-linguistic comparison of their texts revealed that their L1 and L2 writing competencies ap...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 12, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Writing informational text using provided information and text structures: an intervention for upper elementary struggling writers
Abstract Informational text writing is a complex task requiring multiple literacy skills, such as reading and comprehending source material, identifying important information, and transforming ideas to meet the goals for the new writing task. TheStructures Writing intervention was developed to improve the informational text writing skills of 4th and 5th grade struggling writers by reducing the cognitive load associated with reading source text and teaching students to organize information using text structures. In the current study, sixty-one 4th and 5th grade struggling writers were randomly assigned to receive theStruc...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 9, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Operationalizing and validating disciplinary literacy in secondary education
AbstractThe goal of this study was to define the construct and establish the validity of disciplinary literacy, which has recently gained attention from the implementation of the Common Core State Standards (National Governors Association Center for Best Practices& Council of Chief State School Officers in Common Core State Standards for English language arts& literacy in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects [PDF]. Authors, Washington, DC,2010). After defining disciplinary literacy in the four core disciplines of English language arts, science, history and social studies, and mathematics, scales ...
Source: Reading and Writing - March 21, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Dynamics of mirror writing compared to conventional writing in typical preliterate children
AbstractIn left-to-right writing cultures, spontaneous mirror writing of letters and digits in preliterate children appears more frequently on left-than right-facing characters. A compelling theory drawn on neuropsychological evidence of mirror generalization suggests that children resort to a right-orienting/writing rule when learning to write. The aim of the present study was to conceptually replicate and specify recent findings (Fischer,2017a) on the predominant contribution of writing directionality to mirror writing in preliterate children. A training study was designed to compare on-line production of conventional ve...
Source: Reading and Writing - March 19, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Identifying and discriminating expository text structures: An experiment with 4th and 5th grade struggling readers
In this study, we conducted a randomized control trial to assess the promise, usability, and feasibility of one component of the intervention designed to teach students to identify and discriminate the five text structures. Forty-five 4th and 5th grade struggling readers were randomly assigned to intervention or business-as-usual conditions. Students in theStructures condition were taught to identify and discriminate among the five text structures used by authors of expository text: description, sequence, cause/effect, compare/contrast, and problem/solution. At post-test, experimental students (n = 24) statistica...
Source: Reading and Writing - March 2, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The apple doesn ’t fall from the tree: parents’ reading-related knowledge and children’s reading outcomes
This study investigated parents ’ reading-related knowledge and its association with children’s reading outcomes. Forty-two parent–child dyads were assessed when children were in Kindergarten and 39 of the children were followed the subsequent year. Reading measures were administered in Kindergarten. In Grade 1, children rec eived reading and arithmetic measures. Parents completed a questionnaire involving (general) cultural knowledge, print exposure, and reading-related knowledge associated with the identification of regular and irregular word spellings. All parent variables accounted for unique variance...
Source: Reading and Writing - March 2, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The roles of writing knowledge, motivation, strategic behaviors, and skills in predicting elementary students ’ persuasive writing from source material
This study tested this proposition at two time points (Fall and Spring) with 179 fifth-grade students (52% were girls), examining if writing knowledge, motivation, strategic behavior, and skills each made a statistically significant and uni que contribution to predicting writing quality and output on social studies persuasive writing tasks, after variance due to the other catalysts and reading comprehension were first controlled. Three of the four catalysts (writing knowledge, strategic behaviors, and skills) each accounted for statist ically significant and unique variance in predicting writing quality, number of words, o...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 27, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Effects of lexical features, textual properties, and individual differences on word processing times during second language reading comprehension
This study examines whether lexical features and textual properties along with individual differences on the part of readers influence word processing times during second language (L2) reading comprehension. Forty-eight Spanish-speaking adolescent and adult learners of English read nine English passages in a self-paced word-by-word reading experiment. Linear mixed effects models revealed that for word-level effects, more frequent words facilitated L2 word processing times. In contrast, words with higher concreteness and words with higher orthographic distinctiveness inhibited L2 word processing times. For text-level effect...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 23, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Specifying the graphic characteristics of words that influence children ’s handwriting
AbstractResearch about the development of the graphomotor side of writing is very scarce. The goal of this study was to gain a better understanding of what constitutes graphic complexity of written material by determining the impact of graphic characteristics on handwriting production. In this end, the pen stroke of cursive handwriting was precisely described through an algorithm of detection of seven graphic characteristics: the number of angles, turn backs, curves in X and Y, pen-ups and modified links. Twenty typically developing children in grade 2 completed a single-word dictation task, composed of 48 items, on a digi...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 22, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The role of syllables in intermediate-depth stress-timed languages: masked priming evidence in European Portuguese
AbstractThe role of syllables as a sublexical unit in visual word recognition and reading is well established in deep and shallow syllable-timed languages such as French and Spanish, respectively. However, its role in intermediate stress-timed languages remains unclear. This paper aims to overcome this gap by studying for the first time the role of syllables at early stages of visual word recognition in Portuguese (European), a language where the spelling-sound correspondences are less transparent than Spanish but less opaque than French, and also with fuzzier syllabic boundaries than both languages. To that purpose, 36 na...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 22, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Categorical perception of Chinese characters by simplified and traditional Chinese readers
This study employed the categorical perception (CP) paradigm to examine adult Mainland China Chinese (MLC) simplified character readers and adult Hong Kong Chinese (HKC) traditional character readers ’ liminal perception of the following types of morphing continua of “line characters” (with font features removed): the Absolute-Differentiation (AD) type, which contains a topological change, and the Relative-Differentiation type, which does not contain any topological change in visual config urations. The results showed evidence of CP effects on the two types of stimuli among MLC and HKC readers. Moreover, ...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 21, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Visual –motor symbol production facilitates letter recognition in young children
Abstract Previous research has suggested that handwriting letters may be an important exerciser to facilitate early letter understanding. Experimental studies to date, however, have not investigated whether this effect is general to any visual –motor experience or specific to handwriting letters. In the present work, we addressed this issue by testing letter knowledge using three measures in preschool children before and after a school-based intervention. Participants were divided into four training groups (letter-writing, digit-writing , letter-viewing, digit-viewing) that either wrote letters or digits or viewed ...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 20, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Identifying the unique role of orthographic working memory in a componential model of Hong Kong kindergarteners ’ Chinese written spelling
AbstractWe sought to test a componential model of Chinese written spelling, including the role of orthographic working memory (OWM), among Hong Kong kindergartners. One hundred seventeen kindergartners were recruited. OWM was measured using a visual orthographic judgment and a delayed copying task. Orthographic knowledge, semantic knowledge, and visual –motor skills were assessed via a set of cognitive–linguistic measures. Model comparison yielded the best fitting measurement model, which consisted of four factors, namely, OWM, orthographic knowledge, semantic knowledge, and visual–motor skills. A structu...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 12, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Handwriting in signing deaf middle-school students and relationship with text composition and spelling
This study showed that handwriting difficulties, in terms of executing the letters of their firstname and surname, as well as retrieving the letters of the alphabet from memory, persist in 15-year-old signing deaf students, and represent a constraint during text production, impairing spelling a s well as text content richness and word fluency. (Source: Reading and Writing)
Source: Reading and Writing - February 7, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The challenge and the opportunity of lexical inferencing in language minority students
In this study, we examined whether Fifth-grade Russian-speaking language minority (LM) students might exhibit reduced lexical inferencing abilities in comparison to their native Hebrew-speaking (NH) peers, due to their reduced proficiency in the societal language. Participants completed a measure of lexical inferencing during text reading, and measures of underlying skills, including vocabulary, word reading accuracy, reading comprehension and non-verbal inferencing. As a group, LM students demonstrated comparable lexical inferencing abilities to those of their NH peers despite significantly lower vocabulary knowledge in v...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 5, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Differential identification of females and males with reading difficulties: A meta-analysis
AbstractMales are more likely than females to be identified as having reading difficulties, but it is unclear if this is a result of sample ascertainment or identification bias. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the magnitude of gender differences in reading difficulties using available studies in which researchers investigated this difference and an additional dataset with a representative U.S. sample. After conducting a literature search, sixteen studies and a restricted use dataset were included in the present analysis (N = 552,729). A random-effects odds ratio model indicated that males are 1...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 2, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The effect of orthographic complexity on Spanish spelling in Grades 1 –3
This study was designed to identify a continuum of orthographic features that characterize Spanish spelling development in Grades 1 –3. Two research questions guided this work: (1) Is there a hierarchy of orthographic features that affect students’ spelling accuracy in Spanish over and above other school-level, student-level, and word-level factors? and (2) If there is such a hierarchy, do students master these orthographic features in a knowledge-based continuum that supersedes grade placement? The authors used logistic regression modeling to demonstrate that the orthographic features tested in this study repr...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 2, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Impact of handwriting training on fluency, spelling and text quality among third graders
AbstractAs recent studies and theoretical assumptions suggest that the quality of texts composed by children and adolescents is affected by their transcription skills, this experimental field trial aims at investigating the impact of combined handwriting/spelling training on fluency, spelling and text quality among normally developing 3rd graders (N  = 175). In addition to the combined handwriting/spelling training group, the sample includes two other intervention groups, a handwriting training group and a spelling training group as well as a reading fluency training control group. The participating teachers (N&n...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 29, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

An investigation of grapheme parsing and grapheme-phoneme knowledge in two children with dyslexia
AbstractThe aim of this study was to understand the relationship between children ’s knowledge of letter-sound rules (“grapheme-phoneme knowledge”) and their ability to identify separate graphemes (e.g., SH, OI) that comprise words (“grapheme parsing”). We used a single-case study approach with children with phonological dyslexia who were able to read words accurately v ia whole-word processes (“lexical reading”), but were not able to read using grapheme-phoneme knowledge (“non-lexical reading”). These children were able to correctly parse some graphemes without graphem...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 23, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The moderating influence of instructional intensity and word type on the acquisition of academic vocabulary in young English language learners
This study used a within-subjects design to explore two instructional conditions for developing vocabulary in second-grade Spanish-speaking English learners (ELs) —extended instruction and embedded instruction implemented during shared interactive reading. Words assigned to the extended condition were directly taught using a multifaceted approach that included visuals, bilingual definitions, examples, spelling, and partner-talk about the words’ meaning. W ords assigned to the embedded condition were taught solely through brief definitions to embedded text, writing activities, and songs. In the control condition...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 20, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The impact of supplemental handwriting and spelling instruction with first grade students who do not acquire transcription skills as rapidly as peers: a randomized control trial
AbstractThe impact of supplemental handwriting and spelling instruction on learning to write was examined in an experimental study with first grade students who were not acquiring these skills as rapidly as their classmates. Thirty students (16 boys, 14 girls) were randomly assigned to a handwriting and spelling instructional condition or a phonological awareness instructional control condition. Students in each condition received 16  h of one-on-one instruction. The treatment condition was designed to improve children’s handwriting fluency, handwriting legibility, spelling accuracy, and knowledge of spelling pa...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 16, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Perception of the cursive handwriting movement in writers and pre-writers
The objective of this study was to confirm the existence of knowledge relating to the cursive writing movement for French pupils in 3rd year of kindergarten, 2nd grade and 5th grade of elementary school. 141 pupils were asked to watch a visual presentation of cursive handwriting to determine whether they were able to detect violations of two rules of handwriting: continuity and sequentiality of the cursive handwriting movement. Our results showed progressive development of the understanding of characteristics of the cursive handwriting movement, with different developmental trajectories of knowledge for the different rules...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 15, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Exploring the reading –writing relationship in young Chinese language learners’ sentence writing
This study explored the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between reading and writing in young Chinese-as-a-second-language (CSL) learners ’ sentence writing, using structural equation modeling. The participants comprised 126 Hong Kong senior primary ethnic minority students, whose literacy skills were assessed at two time points over the course of a year. In grade 5 (Time-1), they were assessed with Chinese character reading and rea ding comprehension measures to evaluate their reading ability. In grade 6 (Time-2), their sentence reading, sentence writing, and literacy component skills of Chinese character w...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 13, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Supporting first-grade writers who fail to learn: multiple single-case evaluation of a Response to Intervention approach
We report a multiple-baseline single-case study, based in the response to intervention framework, evaluating transcription-only and transcription-and-planning interventions for young, struggling writers. In a baseline phase, 8 classes of Spanish children at the start of their first year of primary (elementary) education completed short, probe writing tasks twice-weekly over the first 120  days of their school career. During this period, all students received researcher-developed classroom instruction in spelling, handwriting, and text-planning. Students then completed a battery of tests including measures of spellin...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 12, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Writing proficiency level and writing development of low-achieving adolescents: the roles of linguistic knowledge, fluency, and metacognitive knowledge
AbstractIn a longitudinal design, 51 low-achieving adolescents ’ development in writing proficiency from Grades 7 to 9 was measured. There were 25 native-Dutch and 26 language-minority students. In addition, the roles of (1) linguistic knowledge, (2) metacognitive knowledge, and (3) linguistic fluency in predicting both the level and development of writing pr oficiency were assessed. Low-achieving students improved in writing proficiency, the language-minority students more so than the native-Dutch students. Regarding the level of writing proficiency, individual differences between low achieving adolescents could be ...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 12, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Investigating the validity of two widely used quantitative text tools
This study used Bormuth’s (1969) rigorously developed criterion measure to investigate two of today ’s most widely used quantitative text tools—the Lexile Framework and the Flesch–Kincaid Grade-Level formula. Correlations between the two tools’ complexity scores and Bormuth’s measured difficulties of criterion passages were only moderately high in light of the literature and new high sta kes uses for such tools. These correlations declined a small amount when passages from the University grade band of use were removed. The ability of these tools to predict measured text difficulties with...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 6, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Promoting handwriting fluency in fifth graders with slow handwriting: a single-subject design study
This study used a multiple-probe design across three participants to test the effectiveness of a handwriting intervention for fifth graders (age 10 –11) displaying less handwriting fluency than their peers, but without spelling disorders. The 5-h handwriting intervention provided students with explicit instruction and intensive practice in writing cursive letters, words, and sentences, through fast-paced alphabet and copying activities. Inter vention effects were examined on handwriting fluency, written composition (i.e., text length, clause extension, and story elements), and self-efficacy beliefs. Results showed th...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 4, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Vocabulary knowledge and morphological awareness in Chinese as a heritage language (CHL) reading comprehension ability
This study explored the role of vocabulary knowledge and morphological awareness in reading comprehension ability of Chinese as a heritage language (CHL) learners. One hundred ninety five CHL students participated in this study and completed a series of measures including two sets of vocabulary knowledge (one consisting of items pertaining to early exposure to spoken Chinese and the other comprised of items selected from a pool of words in Chinese as a foreign language classrooms), morphological awareness (structural awareness and functional awareness), and reading comprehension ability (lexical inference and passage compr...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 1, 2018 Category: Child Development Source Type: research