Reading argumentative texts: comprehension and evaluation goals and outcomes
AbstractThe study is situated at the interface between reading comprehension and critical thinking research. Its purpose was to examine the influence of reading goals and argument quality on the comprehension and critical evaluation of argumentative texts. Young adult readers read to comprehend or evaluate texts on two different controversial issues. Argument quality was varied across text versions on the basis of the hasty generalization fallacy. Text versions varied with respect to the quality of the arguments included, but not in terms of argument content. Measures of comprehension included main claim recall, overall re...
Source: Reading and Writing - June 24, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Investigating self-regulated study strategies among postsecondary students with and without dyslexia: a diary method study
AbstractWe investigated the use of self-regulated study strategies among undergraduates with dyslexia by means of extensive web-based diary data, comparing their strategy use to that of matched students without dyslexia who completed the diary in the same period. Additionally, we examined the perceived benefits of using the recorded strategies in both groups, as well as relationships between the recorded strategies and perceived self-efficacy and academic performance. Results indicated that across lecture, individual study, and social study contexts, students with and without dyslexia recorded a comparable, broad range of ...
Source: Reading and Writing - June 23, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Differential relationships between language skills and working memory in Turkish –Dutch and native-Dutch first-graders from low-income families
AbstractIn the Netherlands, Turkish –Dutch children constitute a substantial group of children who learn to speak Dutch at the age of four after they learned to speak Turkish. These children are generally academically less successful. Academic success appears to be affected by both language proficiency and working memory skill. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between language skills and working memory in Turkish–Dutch and native-Dutch children from low-income families. The findings revealed reduced Dutch language and Dutch working-memory skills for Turkish–Dutch children compare...
Source: Reading and Writing - June 23, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Letter coding affects movement production in word writing: an English –Italian cross-linguistic study
AbstractThe present research is a cross-linguistic study indicating that the timing of motor production not only depends on the shape of a letter and the activation of its motor program but also on the way the orthographic representations encode the letters for spelling retrieval. English and Italian-speaking participants wrote cognate words (e.g., DISSIPATE –DISSIPARE) on a digitizer. The words contained a doublet. They were matched to words that shared the initial letters and differed on the presence of a double letter (e.g., DISSIPATE/DISGRACE in English and DISSIPARE/DISGRAZIA in Italian). The results revealed th...
Source: Reading and Writing - June 17, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

How do different cognitive and linguistic variables contribute to reading in Arabic? A cross-sectional study from first to sixth grade
Abstract The contribution of linguistic and cognitive variables to reading processes might vary depending on the particularities of the languages studied. This view is thought to be particularly true for Arabic which is a diglossic language and has particular orthographic and morpho-syntactic systems. This cross-sectional study examined the contribution of phonological, orthographic, morphological, semantic, syntactic, visual perception, rapid automatic naming and phonological working memory abilities to decoding and fluency (the two components of reading). The results, obtained from 1305 native Arabic-speaking children ...
Source: Reading and Writing - June 16, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Handwriting automaticity and writing instruction in Australian kindergarten: an exploratory study
AbstractAccumulating evidence indicates handwriting automaticity is related to the development of effective writing skills. The present study examined the levels of handwriting automaticity of Australian children at the end of kindergarten and the amount and type of writing instruction they experienced before entering first grade. The current study involved 177 kindergarten children enrolled in 23 classrooms from seven government-funded primary schools in Western Australia. Individual child level data (e.g., handwriting automaticity and word-reading skills) were collected and teachers were asked to complete a survey assess...
Source: Reading and Writing - June 6, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The influence of morphological structure information on the memorization of Chinese compound words
AbstractThe present study investigated the influence of morphological structure information on the memorization of Chinese subordinate and coordinative compound words using the memory conjunction error paradigm. During the Study Phase, Hong Kong Chinese college students were asked to either judge the word class (Exp. 1,N = 25) or the orthographic structure (Exp. 2,N = 26) of a set of Chinese compound words (Old words). During the Test Phase, the participants were presented with half of the Old words that they had previously seen during the Study Phase and a set of New words, which shared or did not shar...
Source: Reading and Writing - June 5, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

From words to text: inference making mediates the role of vocabulary in children ’s reading comprehension
We examined the relationship between inference making, vocabulary knowledge, and verbal working memory on children ’s reading comprehension in 62 6th graders (aged 12). The effect of vocabulary knowledge on reading comprehension was predicted to be partly mediated by inference making for two reasons: Inference making often taps the semantic relations among words, and the precise word meanings in texts are sele cted by readers on the basis of context. All independent variables were significantly and moderately correlated with reading comprehension. In support of our prediction, the link between vocabulary knowledge an...
Source: Reading and Writing - June 3, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Cognitive predictors of shallow-orthography spelling speed and accuracy in 6th grade children
AbstarctSpelling accuracy and time course was investigated in a sample of 100 Norwegian 6th grade students completing a standardized spelling-to-dictation task. Students responded by keyboard with accurate recordings of response-onset latency (RT) and inter-keypress interval (IKI). We determined effects of a number of child-level cognitive ability factors, and of word-level factors —particularly the location within the word of a spelling challenge (e.g., letter doubling), if present. Spelling accuracy was predicted by word reading (word split) performance, non-word spelling accuracy, keyboard key-finding speed and sh...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 31, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Content not form predicts oral language comprehension: the influence of the medium on preschoolers ’ story understanding
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of digital and non-digital storybooks on low-income preschoolers ’ oral language comprehension. Employing a within-subject design on 38 four-year-olds from a Head Start program, we compared the effect of medium on preschoolers’ target words and comprehension of stories. Four digital storybooks were adapted and printed for read-alouds. Children were randomly r ead two stories on the digital platform, and two by the assessors. Following the story, children completed vocabulary and comprehension tasks, and a brief motivation checklist. We found no ...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 23, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The roles of handwriting and keyboarding in writing: a meta-analytic review
AbstractAccording to the simple view of writing (Berninger, Abbott, Abbott, Graham,& Richards,2002), the two important components of transcription in writing are handwriting and keyboarding, the third one being spelling. The purpose of this paper is to review the contribution of two writing modes —handwriting and keyboarding to writing performance. In the first section, the contribution of handwriting fluency to writing performance was explored through moderator analyses. We found that handwriting fluency contributes to writing significantly and consistently, and significantly contributes to specific writing meas...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 20, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Exploring the role of logographemes in Chinese handwritten word production
AbstractRecent research has demonstrated that abstract orthographic representations such as morphemes, syllables, and graphemes, influence handwritten production in languages with alphabetic scripts. The orthographic representations involved in the written production of non-alphabetic languages such as Chinese are less well understood. Chinese words consist of one or more characters which typically contain embedded radicals, with radicals themselves composed of strokes. A logographemic representational level, in between radical and strokes, has also been postulated. Here we report four experiments using a form preparation ...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 11, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The associations among preschool children ’s growth in early reading, executive function, and invented spelling skills
AbstractThe purpose of the present study was to examine associations among children ’s emergent literacy (early reading), language, executive function (EF), and invented spelling skills across prekindergarten. Participants included 123, primarily African American, 4-year-old children enrolled in a variety of prekindergarten settings. In addition to describing the concurrent and l ongitudinal relations between children’s emergent literacy, EF, and invented spelling skills, this study investigated associations among children’s growth in these targeted skills and explored potential indirect effects from chil...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 9, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Evaluating the role of polysemous word knowledge in reading comprehension among bilingual adolescents
This study reports on the development of an assessment to measure bilingual adolescents ’ knowledge of polysemous vocabulary and explores the contribution of polysemous word knowledge to reading comprehension among those students. Spanish–English bilingual students in seventh grade (n = 107) completed a battery of standardized reading and language measures along with a researcher-designed measure of their knowledge of the academic senses of words that also have casual, everyday meanings. Item-response theory analyses and correlational analyses provided validity evidence for th e assessment. Regression...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 4, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The impact of tier 1 reading instruction on reading outcomes for students in Grades 4 –12: A meta-analysis
AbstractUnderstanding the efficacy of evidence-based reading practices delivered in the Tier 1 (i.e. general classroom) setting is critical to successful implementation of multi-tiered systems, meeting a diverse range of student learning needs, and providing high quality reading instruction across content areas. This meta-analysis presents evidence on the effects of Tier 1 reading instruction on the reading outcomes of students in Grades 4 –12, and a synthesis of effects for students identified as struggling readers. Results from this meta-analysis of 37 publications conducted between 2000 and 2015 reveal significant...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 29, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Erratum to: Effects of spell checkers on English as a second language students ’ incidental spelling learning: a cognitive load perspective
(Source: Reading and Writing)
Source: Reading and Writing - April 27, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

How fast can we read in the mind? Developmental trajectories of silent reading fluency
This study highlights the importance of including both silent and oral reading modes in the assessment of the older students and young adults, s ince silent reading is the main reading mode for proficient readers. (Source: Reading and Writing)
Source: Reading and Writing - April 19, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Learning vocabulary through e-book reading of young children with various reading abilities
AbstractPrevious studies revealed that young children learn novel word meanings by simply reading and listening to a printed book. In today ’s classroom, many children’s e-books provide audio narration support so young readers can simply listen to the e-books. The focus of the present study is to examine the effect of e-book reading with audio narration support on the novel vocabulary learning of first grade students with advanced, average, and poor reading abilities. The effect of adding teacher’s word explanation on novel word learning was also examined. By employing a within-subject design, students re...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 17, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Measuring orthographic transparency and morphological-syllabic complexity in alphabetic orthographies: a narrative review
AbstractThis narrative review discusses quantitative indices measuring differences between alphabetic languages that are related to the process of word recognition. The specific orthography that a child is acquiring has been identified as a central element influencing reading acquisition and dyslexia. However, the development of reliable metrics to measure differences between language scripts hasn ’t received much attention so far. This paper therefore reviews metrics proposed in the literature for quantifying orthographic transparency, syllabic complexity, and morphological complexity of alphabetic languages. The re...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 17, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Investigating the mechanisms of written word production: insights from the written blocked cyclic naming paradigm
AbstractIn three experiments, we examined whether similar principles apply to written and spoken production. Using a blocked cyclic written picture naming paradigm, we replicated the semantic interference effects previously reported in spoken production (Experiment 1). Using a written spelling-to-dictation blocked cyclic naming task, we also demonstrated that these interference effects disappear when the task does not require semantically-mediated lexical selection (Experiment 2). Results are parallel to those reported for the analogous spoken production task of reading aloud. Similar results were observed in written spell...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 12, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Phonemic awareness development in 2.5- and 3.5-year-old children: an examination of emergent, receptive, knowledge and skills
AbstractThe National Institutes of Health has deemed illiteracy a national health crisis based on reading proficiency rates among American children. In 2002, the National Early Literacy Panel identified six pre-reading skills that are most crucial precursors to reading mastery and predict future reading outcomes. Of those skills, phonological awareness, and in particular phonemic awareness, is the strongest independent predictor of early reading outcomes. However, limited research has addressed the development of these component skills due in part to the fact that many of the measures used to assess sub-skills such as phon...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 5, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Practices of effective writing teachers
This study analyses the practices of nine New Zealand teachers of upper primary and middle-school students (N = 210) whose classes had consistently shown gains in writing far greater than normative expectations. Data from observations of three writing lessons and related interviews with each teacher, plus interviews with three focus students after each lesson, were considered in relation to learner gains in writing. To analyse these data, a content analysis matrix was constructed from selected writing research literature, yielding eight dimensions of effective practice: expectations; learning goals; learning task...
Source: Reading and Writing - March 20, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Unpacking listening comprehension: the role of vocabulary, morphological awareness, and syntactic knowledge in reading comprehension
AbstractAs posited by the simple view of reading, listening comprehension and decoding are necessary for reading comprehension. Thus, the present study examined subcomponents of listening comprehension (i.e., vocabulary, morphology, and syntax) and their contributions to reading comprehension. The novel aspect of this study is that rather than examining listening comprehension as a global variable, the unique and shared variance of subcomponents of listening comprehension were examined in relation to English reading comprehension. Second language learners of English from Spanish-speaking backgrounds between the ages of 9 a...
Source: Reading and Writing - March 17, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Peer selection and influence on children ’s reading skills in early primary grades: a social network approach
AbstractThis longitudinal study from Grades 1 to 4 investigated (a) the extent to which children select peers based on similarity in reading skills and (b) the extent to which children are influenced by the level of their peers ’ reading skills. The sample consisted of 1003 Finnish children in Grades 1–4, for whom reading fluency and comprehension were assessed. The same children were interviewed about their self-concept of reading ability at the end of kindergarten. The results of social network analysis showed that c hildren had a tendency to choose new friends based on earlier similarity in reading fluency b...
Source: Reading and Writing - March 10, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Effects of spell checkers on English as a second language students ’ incidental spelling learning: a cognitive load perspective
In conclusion, effort spent on searching for the correct words relates to better incidental spelling learning. Convenience and effort should be considered as factors influen cing incidental spelling learning in the design of computer-based spell checkers. (Source: Reading and Writing)
Source: Reading and Writing - March 8, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Word decoding development in incremental phonics instruction in a transparent orthography
AbstractThe present longitudinal study aimed to investigate the development of word decoding skills during incremental phonics instruction in Dutch as a transparent orthography. A representative sample of 973 Dutch children in the first grade (Mage = 6;1,SD = 0;5) was exposed to incremental subsets of Dutch grapheme–phoneme correspondences during 6 consecutive blocks of 3 weeks of phonics instruction. Children’s accuracy and efficiency of curriculum embedded word decoding were assessed after each incremental block, followed by a standardized wo rd decoding measurement. Precursor measure...
Source: Reading and Writing - March 7, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Eye-movement patterns and reader characteristics of students with good and poor performance when reading scientific text with diagrams
This study investigated the cognitive processes and reader characteristics of sixth graders who had good and poor performance when reading scientific text with diagrams. We first measured the reading ability and reading self-efficacy of sixth-grade participants, and then recorded their eye movements while they were reading an illustrated scientific text and scored their answers to content-related questions. Finally, the participants evaluated the difficulty of the article, the attractiveness of the content and diagram, and their learning performance. The participants were then classified into groups based on how many corre...
Source: Reading and Writing - March 3, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Auditory processing, linguistic prosody awareness, and word reading in Mandarin-speaking children learning English
This study examined language-specific links among auditory processing, linguistic prosody awareness, and Mandarin (L1) and English (L2) word reading in 61 Mandarin-speaking, English-learning children. Three auditory discrimination abilities were measured: pitch contour, pitch interval, and rise time (rate of intensity change at tone onset). Linguistic prosody awareness was measured three ways: Mandarin tone perception, English stress perception, and English stress production. A Chinese character recognition task was the Mandarin L1 reading metric. English L2 word reading was assessed by English real word reading and nonwor...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 24, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Passage independence within standardized reading comprehension tests
AbstractIn tests used to measure reading comprehension, validity is important in obtaining accurate results. Unfortunately, studies have shown that people can correctly answer some questions of these tests without reading the related passage. These findings bring forth the need to address whether this phenomenon is observed in multiple-choice only tests or in those that employ open-ended questions. Three common standardized reading comprehension tests were examined: the WIAT-III, the CAAT, and the Nelson –Denny. The WIAT-III is composed of open-ended questions, while the other two tests utilize multiple-choice questi...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 22, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Continuity in literacy achievements from kindergarten to first grade: a longitudinal study of Arabic-speaking children
We examined (1) how age and family socio-economic status (SES) predict children ’s literacy skills in kindergarten and (2) how age, SES, and early literacy skills in kindergarten predict literacy achievements in first grade. This examination is interesting due to the diglossic nature of the Arabic language and the low SES level of Israeli Arab families on one hand, and the tr ansparent pointed Arabic script on the other hand. Literacy skills of 109 children were assessed in kindergarten and 1 year later in first grade. Path analysis showed that children’s age and family SES had a direct significant effect on ch...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 22, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Reading fluency from grade 2 –6: a longitudinal examination
AbstractThe goal of this study was to examine oral word reading fluency from a developmental perspective in a longitudinal study of students from second grade to sixth grade. The sample was consisted of native English speaking students that took part in a large longitudinal study. Participants were assessed on cognitive and literacy measures such as working memory, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming and syntactic awareness —oral cloze. Two main research questions were examined: first, what relationships will be found between the cognitive, literacy and linguistic measures, and which of them simultaneous...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 18, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Predictors of reading and comprehension abilities in bilingual and monolingual children: a longitudinal study on a transparent language
AbstractMany studies have shown that learning to read in a second language (L2) is similar, in many ways, to learning to read in a first language (L1). Nevertheless, reading development also relies upon oral language proficiency and is greatly influenced by orthographic consistency. This longitudinal study aimed to analyze the role of linguistic predictors (phonological awareness, letter knowledge, pseudoword repetition, morphosyntactic comprehension, lexical knowledge and rapid naming) in reading outcomes (fluency, accuracy and comprehension) in a group of bilingual children (n = 30) reading Italian as an L2, co...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 8, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The impact of image characteristics on written naming in adults
AbstractThe present study was aimed at investigating whether and how image characteristics influence written naming performance in adults. In three different sessions, participants had to quickly write down the names of pictured objects on a graphic tablet. Across sessions, the picture format was different, but the to-be-named objects were the same: There were black-and-white pictures (Snodgrass& Vanderwart ’s [SV]1980 drawings), grayscale and colored pictures of the SV drawings as provided by Rossion and Pourtois (2004). Linear-mixed models (LMM) were used to analyze written latencies. The main findings were the...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 8, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Models of English and Chinese word reading for adolescent Chinese –English bilinguals
Abstract These two studies examined the processes underlying English and Chinese word reading in Chinese –English bilinguals in relation to their experiences with their second language (L2), as determined by length of time in an English-speaking environment. Phonological awareness, morphological awareness and vocabulary measures were administered in English and Chinese to adolescents and young adults living in Canada. The results show that similar word reading processes were used to read English and Chinese for the bilinguals who were recent immigrants and had less exposure to English. Specifically, vocabulary know...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 7, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Writing evaluation: rater and task effects on the reliability of writing scores for children in Grades 3 and 4
We examined how raters and tasks influence measurement error in writing evaluation and how many raters and tasks are needed to reach a desirable level of .90 and .80 reliabilities for children in Grades 3 and 4. A total of 211 children (102 boys) were administered three tasks in narrative and expository genres, respectively, and their written compositions were evaluated in widely used evaluation methods for developing writers: holistic scoring, productivity, and curriculum-based writing scores. Results showed that 54 and 52% of variance in narrative and expository compositions were attributable to true individual differenc...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 6, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Cognitive predictors of literacy acquisition in syllabic Hiragana and morphographic Kanji
We examined the role of different cognitive skills in word reading (accuracy and fluency) and spelling accuracy in syllabic Hiragana and morphographic Kanji. Japanese Hiragana and Kanji are strikingly contrastive orthographies: Hiragana has consistent character-sound correspondences with a limited symbol set, whereas Kanji has inconsistent character-sound correspondences with a large symbol set. One hundred sixty-nine Japanese children were assessed at the beginning of grade 1 on reading accuracy and fluency, spelling, phonological awareness, phonological memory, rapid automatized naming (RAN), orthographic knowledge, and ...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 4, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Pauses in written composition: on the importance of where writers pause
AbstractMuch previous research has conceptualized pauses during writing as indicators of the engagement of higher-level cognitive processes. In the present study 101 university students composed narrative or argumentative essays, while their key logging was recorded. We investigated the relation between pauses within three time intervals (300 –999, 1000–1999, and>2000  ms), at different text boundaries (i.e., between words, sentences, and paragraphs), genre (i.e., narrative vs. argumentative), and transcription fluency (i.e., typing speed). Moreover, we investigated the relation between pauses and vario...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 3, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Erratum to: Writing week-journals to improve the writing quality of fourth-graders ’ compositions
(Source: Reading and Writing)
Source: Reading and Writing - February 2, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Radical sensitivity is the key to understanding Chinese character acquisition in children
This study investigated Chinese children ’s development of sensitivity to positional (orthographic), phonological, and semantic cues of radicals in encoding novel Chinese characters. A newly designed picture-novel character mapping task, along with nonverbal reasoning ability, vocabulary, and Chinese character recognition were administer ed to 198 kindergartners, 172 second graders and 165 fifth graders. Children’s strategies in using positional, phonological, and semantic cues of radicals varied across grades. The higher the children’s grade level, the more commonly children used semantic and positional ...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 30, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Does teachers ’ pedagogical content knowledge affect their fluency instruction?
AbstractThe relation is studied between teachers ’ pedagogical content knowledge of reading and the quality of their subsequent classroom behaviour in teaching fluent reading. A confirmatory factor analysis model with two latent variables is tested and shows adequate goodness-of-fit indices. Contrary to our expectations, the results of structura l equation modelling reveal a small but significant γ-value of .29, indicating that only 8% of the variance in teachers’ classroom behaviour in teaching fluent reading is accounted for by teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge of reading. Presumably teacher...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 25, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Foreign language reading and spelling in gifted students with dyslexia in secondary education
AbstractA few studies suggest that gifted children with dyslexia have better literacy skills than averagely intelligent children with dyslexia. This finding aligns with the hypothesis that giftedness-related factors provide compensation for poor reading. The present study investigated whether, as in the native language (NL), the level of foreign language (FL) literacy of gifted students with dyslexia is higher than the literacy level of averagely intelligent students with dyslexia and whether this difference can be accounted for by the difference in their NL literacy level. The sample consisted of 148 Dutch native speaking...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 9, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Social perspective taking: a benefit of bilingualism in academic writing
In this study we examine the incidence of social perspective-taking acts in the argumentative essays of language-minority and English-only students in Grades 4–6 and find that language-minority students match or surpass the English-only students on two critical measures of persp ective taking (perspective acknowledgment and perspective articulation). We also explore possible links between students’ use of perspective taking in their argumentative essays and a validated formal measure of the same skill, uncovering different relationships between them in the two language gr oups. Links to previously attested bili...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 9, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The effects of graphic similarity on Japanese recognition of simplified Chinese characters
AbstractThe pedagogical and theoretical questions addressed in this study relate to the extent to which native Japanese readers with little or no knowledge of Chinese characters recognize Chinese characters that are viewed as abbreviations of the kanji they already know. Three graphic similarity functions (i.e., an orthographically acceptable similarity, a physical similarity, and an extended physical similarity function) were formulated to predict the Japanese learners ’ target kanji production. Results showed that the learners’ performance was poor, with only approximately 30% correct, and that the extended p...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 9, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Orthographic facilitation of first graders ’ vocabulary learning: does directing attention to print enhance the effect?
AbstractOrthographic facilitation refers to the boost in vocabulary learning that is provided when spellings are shown during study periods, but not during testing. The current study examined orthographic facilitation in beginning readers and whether directing their attention to print enhances the effect. In an experiment, first graders (N = 45) were randomly assigned to either an attention or no attention condition. They studied two sets of novel spoken words paired with pictures and spoken definitions, one set displaying spellings of the words beneath pictures, and one set with no spellings. Tests with no spell...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 5, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Recoding strategies of German learners of English as a foreign language
This study investigated whether German learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) acquire additional recoding strategies that they do not need for recoding in the consistent German orthography. Based on the psycholinguistic grain size theory (Ziegler& Goswami,2005) we expected students with little experience in EFL to use the same small-grain recoding strategy as in German, while more advanced students were expected to switch flexibly between small and large grain size recoding strategies when reading English nonwords. German students in Grades 5, 7, and 9, as well as university students were presented with an exp...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 5, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Students ’ genre expectations and the effects of text cohesion on reading comprehension
This study raises the question what makes school texts comprehensible by analyzing whether students ’ genre expectations about literary or expository texts moderate the impact of different forms of text cohesion on reading comprehension, even when the texts are similar regarding their genre. 754 students (Grade 9) from comprehensive schools read one of four text versions with similar content, bu t different degrees of local and global text cohesion. The four more or less cohesive texts were introduced as literary texts (part of a story) or as expository texts (newspaper article), although the different genres were on...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 4, 2017 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

When diglossia meets dyslexia: The effect of diglossia on voweled and unvoweled word reading among native Arabic-speaking dyslexic children
Abstract Native Arabic speakers read in a language variety that is different from the one they use for everyday speech. The aim of the present study was: (1) to examine Spoken Arabic (SpA) and Standard Arabic (StA) voweled and unvoweled word reading among native-speaking sixth graders with developmental dyslexia; and (2) to determine whether SpA reading ability among children with dyslexia predicts StA reading fluency in the two orthographies: voweled and unvoweled. A comparison was made to three age groups of typically developing children: a group matched by chronological age, a group of children who are two years young...
Source: Reading and Writing - December 23, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Reading development in upper elementary language minority readers of Hebrew: the specific challenge of fluency
We examined reading proficiency, focusing on fluency, in 56 Russian-speaking language minority (LM) students and 56 native Hebrew-speaking (NH) peers. Fifth-grade students completed measures of Hebrew reading accuracy and fluency from word to text level as well as phonological awareness (PA), RAN and vocabulary. LM students read single words less accurately than NH students, in contrast to previous findings. This result can be understood in the context of Hebrew reading development, the transition to unvowelized reading at this age and the reduced vocabulary knowledge of the LM group. LM students also had lower accuracy an...
Source: Reading and Writing - December 22, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Morpho-lexical development in language impaired and typically developing Hebrew-speaking children from two SES backgrounds
AbstractThe study investigated the impact of language impairment and environmental deprivation on Hebrew morpho-lexical development across the school years. Participants were 659 grade school and middle school Hebrew-speaking students —typically developing and language impaired, from mid-high and from low socio-economic status (SES). They were all administered three derivational morphology tasks designed to elicit verbs, adjectives and derived abstract nouns. Each response was scored in three different ways: as a whole word, an d according to its base (root or stem) and affixal (pattern or suffix) morphemes. Findings...
Source: Reading and Writing - December 16, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Writing week-journals to improve the writing quality of fourth-graders ’ compositions
This study aims to examine the impact of providing extra writing opportunities (i.e., writing journals) on the quality of writing compositions. A longitudinal cluster-randomized controlled design using a mu ltilevel modeling analysis with 182 fourth grade students was conducted. We examined whether students’ writing quality differed when writing journals on a weekly basis for 12 weeks, compared with a control group. Three covariates were analyzed, namely: (i) the students’ attitudes towards writin g; (ii) their self-efficacy in writing; (iii) and their use of self-regulation (SRL) strategies while writing....
Source: Reading and Writing - November 28, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research