The contribution of vocabulary knowledge and spelling to the reading comprehension of adolescents who are and are not English language learners
This study examined the contributions of vocabulary and spelling to the reading comprehension of students in grades 6–10 who were and were not classified as English language learners. Results indicate that vocabulary accounted for greater between-grade differences and unique variance (ΔR 2 = .11–.31) in comprehension as compared to spelling (ΔR 2 = .01–.09). However, the contribution of spelling to comprehension was higher in the upper grade levels included in this cross-sectional analysis and functioned as a mediator of the impact of vocabulary ...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 4, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The effect of language specific factors on early written composition: the role of spelling, oral language and text generation skills in a shallow orthography
Abstract Spelling skills have been identified as one of the major barriers to written text production in young English writers. By contrast oral language skills and text generation have been found to be less influential in the texts produced by beginning writers. To date, our understanding of the role of spelling skills in transparent orthographies is limited. The current study addressed this gap by examining the contribution of spelling, oral language and text generation skills in written text production in Italian beginner writers. Eighty-three children aged 7–8 years participated in the study. Spelli...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 2, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The dynamics of narrative writing in primary grade children: writing process factors predict story quality
In this study of third grade school children, we investigated the association between writing process measures recorded with key stroke logging and the final written product. Moreover, we examined the cognitive predictors of writing process and product measures. Analyses of key strokes showed that while most children spontaneously made local online revisions while writing, few revised previously written text. Children with good reading and spelling abilities made more online revisions than their peers. Two process factors, transcription fluency and online revision activity, contributed to explaining variance in narrative m...
Source: Reading and Writing - December 31, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Double consonants in English: graphemic, morphological, prosodic and etymological determinants
Abstract What determines consonant doubling in English? This question is pursued by using a large lexical database to establish systematic correlations between spelling, phonology and morphology. The main insights are: Consonant doubling is most regular at morpheme boundaries. It can be described in graphemic terms alone, i.e. without reference to phonology. In monomorphemic words, consonant doubling depends mostly on the word ending. Certain endings correlate with double consonants (e.g. as in ), while others correlate with single consonants (e.g. as in ). What is more, it is the graphemic form of the word ending...
Source: Reading and Writing - December 28, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Vocabulary does not complicate the simple view of reading
Abstract Gough and Tunmer’s (1986) simple view of reading (SVR) proposed that reading comprehension (RC) is a function of language comprehension (LC) and word recognition/decoding. Braze et al. (2007) presented data suggesting an extension of the SVR in which knowledge of vocabulary (V) affected RC over and above the effects of LC. Tunmer and Chapman (2012) found a similar independent contribution of V to RC when the data were analyzed by hierarchical regression. However, additional analysis by factor analysis and structural equation modeling indicated that the effect of V on RC was, in fact, completely ...
Source: Reading and Writing - December 17, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Writing in the content areas: a Norwegian case study
Abstract Since 2006, literacy skills have been mandated as an integral part of all subject areas at all levels (grades 1–13) in Norwegian schools. With the exception of reading, evaluation reports show that teaching in general seems to be little affected by this reform. During the last few years, however, there has been a noticeable growth in interest in writing in the content areas. The article presents quantitative and qualitative data from a network of secondary schools that have established cross-curricular school-based writing projects. Teachers in these schools meet regularly, sharing experiences about...
Source: Reading and Writing - November 25, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Teaching writing to middle school students in Portugal and in Brazil: an exploratory study
Abstract Learning how to write is a challenging process, typically developed in schools. Teachers’ practices in teaching writing, however, have been under researched. The aim of this study was to survey a sample of teachers from Portugal (n = 96) and Brazil (n = 99) about their practices for and perceptions about writing instruction. Teachers reported on time devoted to student writing and the teaching of writing, on their practices to promote students’ self-regulated writing, adaptations for less skilled writers, and their perceptions about writing and the teaching of writing. Find...
Source: Reading and Writing - November 24, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Teachers’ reported practices for teaching writing in England
Abstract To date there have been no systematic studies examining the ways in which teachers in England focus and adapt their teaching of writing. The current study addresses this gap by investigating the nature and frequency of teachers’ approaches to the teaching of writing in a sample of English primary schools, using the ‘simple view of writing’ as a framework to examine the extent to which different aspects of the writing process are addressed. One hundred and eighty-eight staff from ten different schools responded to an online questionnaire. Only the data from class teachers (n = 8...
Source: Reading and Writing - November 21, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Teachers use of writing to support students’ learning in middle school: A national survey in the United States
Abstract A random sample of middle school teachers (grades 6–9) from across the United States was surveyed about their use of writing to support students’ learning. The selection process was stratified so there were an equal number of English language arts, social studies, and science teachers. More than one-half of the teachers reported applying 15 or more writing to learn strategies at least once a month or more often. The most commonly used writing to learn strategies were writing short answers to questions, note taking for reading, note taking while listening, and completing worksheets. While teach...
Source: Reading and Writing - November 16, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Third and fourth grade teacher’s classroom practices in writing: a national survey
Abstract A random sample of teachers in grades 3 and 4 (N = 157) from across the United States were surveyed about their use of evidence-based writing practices, preparation to teach writing, and beliefs about writing. Teachers’ beliefs included their efficacy to teach writing, their orientations to teach writing, their attitude about teaching writing, and their attitudes about their own writing. The teachers’ responses raised some concerns about the quality of writing instruction third- and fourth-grade students receive, as teachers reported spending only 15 min a day teaching writing a...
Source: Reading and Writing - November 16, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The use of source-related strategies in evaluating multiple psychology texts: a student–scientist comparison
Abstract Multiple text comprehension can greatly benefit from paying attention to sources and from using this information for evaluating text information. Previous research based on texts from the domain of history suggests that source-related strategies are acquired as part of the discipline expertise as opposed to the spontaneous use of these strategies by students just entering a field. In the present study, we compared the performance of students and scientists in the domain of psychology with regard to (a) their knowledge of publication types, (b) relevant source characteristics, (c) their use of sources for ...
Source: Reading and Writing - November 7, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Morphological awareness and bilingual word learning: a longitudinal structural equation modeling study
Abstract This longitudinal study examined the contribution of morphological awareness to bilingual word learning of Malay–English bilingual children in Singapore where English is the medium of instruction. Participants took morphological awareness and lexical inference tasks in both English and Malay twice with an interval of about half a year, the first time at the end of Grade 3 (Time 1) and the second time at the end of the first semester of Grade 4 (Time 2). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses revealed that within both languages, morphological awareness significantly predicted lexical inference a...
Source: Reading and Writing - November 6, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Toward a better understanding of student perceptions of writing feedback: a mixed methods study
Abstract This explanatory sequential mixed methods study investigated the writing feedback perceptions of middle and high school students (N = 598). The predictive and mediational roles of writing self-efficacy and perceptions of writing feedback on student writing self-regulation aptitude were examined using mediation regression analysis. To augment the quantitative findings, the explanations students provided for either liking or disliking writing feedback were explored using open-ended questions. Quantitative findings revealed that students’ perceptions of the feedback they receive about their w...
Source: Reading and Writing - October 30, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Measuring teachers’ knowledge of vocabulary development and instruction
This article describes the development of an instrument to measure teachers’ knowledge of vocabulary development and instruction, the Teacher Knowledge of Vocabulary Survey (TKVS). This type of knowledge has become increasingly important as all classroom teachers are expected to help students meet language and literacy standards that include vocabulary acquisition. While a few studies have measured teacher knowledge of reading, there are no known instruments for measuring teachers’ knowledge of vocabulary development and instruction. However, vocabulary is a crucial determinant of reading comprehension and cont...
Source: Reading and Writing - October 29, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Prosodic and phonemic awareness in children’s reading of long and short words
In this study we examine how these processes are differentially related to reading monosyllabic and multisyllabic words. Participants were 110 children in grades four and five who were asked to read monosyllabic and three- and four-syllable words matched for frequency. Phonemic awareness was assessed via a phoneme elision task; prosodic awareness was assessed by a task asking participants to identify the syllable bearing primary stress in a spoken word. Results showed that phonemic and prosodic awareness were independent predictors of short word reading, and both phonological factors made independent contributions to multi...
Source: Reading and Writing - October 27, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Teaching writing in grades 4–6 in urban schools in the Greater China Region
Abstract A random sample of 1102 grade 4–6 Chinese language arts teachers in Beijing, Macao, and Taipei City were surveyed about their instructional writing practices. Seventy-eight percent (n = 857) of the teachers completed the survey. Teachers were generally positive about the usefulness of their college teacher preparation program. They slightly agreed that they liked to write, teach writing, and were effective writing teachers. Their beliefs about writing were related to the instructional practices they reportedly applied, and textbooks along with school guidelines played a prominent role in s...
Source: Reading and Writing - October 26, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Writing instruction in first grade: an observational study
This study was designed to provide a comprehensive analysis of first-grade writing instruction across 13 schools in one state in the US. Daylong observations were conducted four times during the year in 50 first-grade classrooms. Using a time-sampled, observational protocol, observers coded multiple dimensions of instruction, including grouping, instructional focus, teacher instructional activity, and student writing activity. Results revealed that writing was taught for less than 30 min a day on average, and instruction in skills or process writing was common. Most instruction was organized in whole-class settings wi...
Source: Reading and Writing - October 13, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Dialect variation, dialect-shifting, and reading comprehension in second grade
Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine second graders’ (n = 680) changing spoken nonmainstream American English (NMAE) use in relation to their oral language and reading comprehension achievement. Fall NMAE production was negatively associated with fall achievement scores. NMAE production generally decreased from fall to spring. Students who qualified for the US Free and Reduced Lunch program (FARL) and who had stronger language skills were more likely to decrease their NMAE use (i.e., dialect shifting) than their peers who did not qualify for FARL or their peers with weaker language ski...
Source: Reading and Writing - October 12, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Chinese writing curriculum reforms in Hong Kong in recent years and their impact on teaching and learning
Abstract An account is presented of how schools in Hong Kong have responded to major changes to the official writing curriculum, from the highly structured, whole-class approach which predominantly involved all students in the class painstakingly learning written script and modeling their writing on carefully chosen examples of traditional writing, to an approach which sees students regarding writing as a vehicle for learning and a means of describing and relating personal ideas, impressions and phenomena pertinent to the learner’s own learning and intentions. Various sources of objective evidence are used t...
Source: Reading and Writing - October 6, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Relations between early reading and writing skills among Spanish-speaking language minority children
This study evaluated whether children’s Spanish early reading skills (i.e., print knowledge, phonological awareness, oral language) were related to their Spanish and English early writing skills using a sample of 554 children whose home language was Spanish. Multivariate regression analyses with simultaneous outcomes (Spanish and English invented spelling skills) were conducted to evaluate whether children’s early reading and writing skills were related across languages. Results indicated that children’s print knowledge and phonological awareness skills, but not oral language skills, were significantly re...
Source: Reading and Writing - October 3, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Erratum to: Writing to the Common Core: teachers’ responses to changes in standards and assessments for writing in elementary schools
(Source: Reading and Writing)
Source: Reading and Writing - September 28, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Predictors of early versus later spelling development in Danish
Abstract The present study examined phoneme awareness, phonological short term memory, letter knowledge, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and visual–verbal paired associate learning (PAL) as longitudinal predictors of spelling skills in an early phase (Grade 2) and a later phase (Grade 5) of development in a sample of 140 children learning to spell in the opaque Danish orthography. Important features of the study were the inclusion of PAL measures and the fact that the children were followed up to Grade 5. Findings from other orthographies were replicated, in that phonological processing (awareness and memory...
Source: Reading and Writing - September 25, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Mapping the landscape of writing instruction in New Zealand primary school classrooms
Abstract Writing instruction in New Zealand occurs in a context with potential for variability in curriculum and delivery. The national curriculum is broad; self governing schools are to interpret and apply as appropriate to their local context. There are no mandated tests, nor external examinations until the last three years of school. Schools report to the Ministry about achievement in Years 1–8 against national standards in writing, based on overall teacher judgements. The nature of this context supports the notion of drawing on several sources to describe the current landscape of writing instruction: pol...
Source: Reading and Writing - September 19, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Student, teacher and class-level correlates of Flemish late elementary school children’s writing performance
In conclusion, this study represents an important starting point in unraveling the black box of writing instruction in Flanders. However, more research is needed to further investigate correlates on student, teacher, and class levels. (Source: Reading and Writing)
Source: Reading and Writing - September 18, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Morphological awareness and reading in second and fifth grade: evidence from Hebrew
Abstract Research suggests that morphological awareness facilitates word decoding, improves lexical knowledge, and helps reading comprehension (Carlisle, 2010; Nagy et al., 2014; Verhoeven & Perfetti, 2011). The present study examined the relationship among morphological awareness, word recognition and reading comprehension in 153 second- and fifth-grade Hebrew speakers at an elementary school in Israel. Students were given morphological awareness tests and tests for word recognition and reading comprehension. Three types of morphological awareness were analyzed: inflection, derivation and construct formation....
Source: Reading and Writing - September 16, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The contribution of morphological awareness to the spelling of morphemes and morphologically complex words in French
Abstract The goal of this study was to explore the relationship between morphological awareness and the spelling of morphemes and morphologically complex words among 75 third- and fourth-grade Francophone students of low socio-economic status. To reach this objective, we administered a dictation comprised of morphologically complex words with prefixes, bases, morphogrammes and suffixes. The target items had inconsistent or infrequent spellings, so their spelling required children to apply morphological knowledge. The children also completed three tests that measured morphological awareness. Correlational analy...
Source: Reading and Writing - September 5, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Writing to the Common Core: teachers’ responses to changes in standards and assessments for writing in elementary schools
Abstract This multiple case study investigated how the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for writing and teacher evaluation system based in part on CCSS assessments might be influencing writing instruction in elementary schools. The sample included nine schools: Six achieved above-predicted performance on English Language Arts (ELA) as well as prior ELA assessments (called “odds-beating”), and three demographically similar schools that achieved predicted outcomes on the same assessments (called “typically performing”). Interview and focus group transcripts (N = 30), classroom...
Source: Reading and Writing - September 5, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Effectiveness of word solving: Integrating morphological problem-solving within comprehension instruction for middle school students
This study explores the effectiveness of integrating morphological instruction within comprehension strategy instruction. Participants were 203 students (N = 117 fifth-grade; 86 sixth-grade) from four urban schools who were randomly assigned to the intervention (N = 110; morphological problem-solving within comprehension strategy instruction) or comparison condition (N = 90; comprehension strategy instruction). All students received four thirty-minute small-group guided reading sessions involving comprehension strategy instruction with students in the intervention also learning about morpholog...
Source: Reading and Writing - September 3, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The influence of visual word form in reading: single case study of an Arabic patient with deep dyslexia
Abstract Deep dyslexia is a written language disorder characterized by poor reading of non-words, and advantage for concrete over abstract words with production of semantic, visual and morphological errors. In this single case study of an Arabic patient with input deep dyslexia, we investigated the impact of graphic features of Arabic on manifestations of reading impairments through experimental tasks. Semitic languages like Arabic have particular graphic features allowing the assessment of the influence of global word form on manifestations of deep dyslexia. Our results suggest that reading Arabic relies on the g...
Source: Reading and Writing - September 1, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

A school-based phonological awareness intervention for struggling readers in early French immersion
Abstract The current intervention study investigated the sustained effectiveness of phonological awareness training on the reading development of 16 children in French immersion who were identified as at-risk readers based on grade 1 English measures. The intervention program provided children from three cohorts with supplemental reading in small groups on a withdrawal basis. Children in the experimental group (n = 5) received English phonological awareness training in combination with letter-sound correspondence instruction twice per week for 18 consecutive weeks, while those in the control condition (n...
Source: Reading and Writing - August 24, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The hyphen as a syllabification cue in reading bisyllabic and multisyllabic words among Finnish 1st and 2nd graders
Abstract Finnish ABC books present words with hyphens inserted at syllable boundaries. Syllabification by hyphens is abandoned in the 2nd grade for bisyllabic words, but continues for words with three or more syllables. The current eye movement study investigated how and to what extent syllable hyphens in bisyllabic (kah-vi ‘cof-fee’) and multisyllabic words (haa-ruk-ka ‘fork’, ap-pel-sii-ni ‘orange’) affect eye movement behavior and reading speed of Finnish 1st and 2nd graders. Experiment 1 showed that 2nd graders had longer gaze durations, needed more fixations and had longer ...
Source: Reading and Writing - August 22, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Predictors of spelling and writing skills in first- and second-language learners
Abstract Cognitive and linguistic components related to spelling and writing in English as a second language (ESL) and native-English speaking (EL1) third graders were examined. ESL and EL1 children performed similarly on rapid naming, phonological awareness (PA), verbal short-term and working memory, reading fluency, single-word spelling, text spelling, handwriting fluency, and paragraph writing fluency tasks, and on writing quality indices. ESL children scored lower on vocabulary, syntactic awareness and decoding fluency measures. PA predicted single-word spelling for EL1 and PA and rapid naming predicted single...
Source: Reading and Writing - August 21, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Contributions of morphological skill to children’s essay writing
Abstract Morphological skills have previously been found to reliably predict reading skill, including word reading, vocabulary, and comprehension. However, less is known about how morphological skills might contribute to writing skill, aside from its well-documented role in the development of spelling. This correlational study examines whether morphological skill, as measured by a sentence generation task tapping both derivational morphology and meta-syntactic skills, predicts performance on a standardized essay writing task for fifth- and eighth-grade U.S. students (N = 233), after controlling for grade...
Source: Reading and Writing - August 15, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Reading comprehension in children with Down syndrome
Abstract Two studies aimed to investigate the reading comprehension abilities of 14 readers with Down syndrome aged 6 years 8 months to 13 years relative to those of typically developing children matched on word reading ability, and to investigate how these abilities were associated with reading accuracy, listening comprehension, phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge. Study 1 confirmed significantly poorer passage-reading comprehension than the typically developing group. In an experimental task, readers with Down syndrome understood fewer written sentences than the typical group and, cont...
Source: Reading and Writing - August 13, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The role of RAN and reading rate in predicting reading self-concept
Abstract Social identity theory states that a person’s self-concept is created from comparison with others (Walsh & Gordon, 2008). In the case of reading, oral reading is a salient feature young children have to compare themselves on to their classroom peer group. The current study was set to explore the ability of oral reading tasks such as rapid naming and reading rate as well as measures of accuracy and reading comprehension to independently predict reading self-concept among young developing Hebrew readers. Data from 138 s to third grade students was analyzed using a structural equation mode...
Source: Reading and Writing - August 11, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Order short-term memory capacity predicts nonword reading and spelling in first and second grade
Abstract Recent theories of short-term memory (STM) distinguish between item information, which reflects the temporary activation of long-term representations stored in the language system, and serial-order information, which is encoded in a specific representational system that is independent of the language network. Some studies examining the relationship between reading acquisition and verbal STM for order and item information separately in beginning readers have found that order STM capacity is independently predictive of nonword decoding abilities in first grade, but item STM is not. In this longitudinal stud...
Source: Reading and Writing - August 2, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Early prediction of reading comprehension within the simple view framework
In this study, we used the simple view framework to examine the early prediction of reading comprehension abilities. Using multiple measures for all constructs, we assessed word reading precursors (i.e., letter knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid naming) and oral language at the beginning of kindergarten and reading comprehension at the end of third grade. Word reading was also assessed at the end of second grade and served as a mediator. Structural equation modeling showed that precursors of word reading and language comprehension accurately predicted reading comprehension in both mediated and non-mediated models. Th...
Source: Reading and Writing - July 30, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Language skills and reading comprehension in English monolingual and Spanish–English bilingual children in grades 2–5
Abstract The present study investigated language skills and reading comprehension with English monolingual and Spanish–English bilingual children in grades 2–5. Of the 377 children in the sample, 207 were English monolingual and 170 were Spanish–English bilingual. Data were collected within a cohort-sequential design for two academic years in the fall and spring of each year. Growth modeling was used to estimate initial status on measures of vocabulary breadth, vocabulary depth, morphological awareness, and syntactic skill. A latent variable was created to capture the construct of reading compreh...
Source: Reading and Writing - July 29, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The relationship between early elementary teachers’ instructional practices and theoretical orientations and students’ growth in writing
Abstract We investigated the relationship between 28 teachers’ theoretical orientations to writing instruction and self-reported instructional practices and student writing performance. First-, second-, and third-grade teachers completed the Teacher Writing Orientation Scale developed by Graham, Harris, MacArthur, and Fink (2002) and reported the frequency of common instructional practices in writing. Student writing samples included a curriculum-based measurement writing assessment administered three times across the spring of a single school year and a subtest of a norm-referenced writing assessment. The c...
Source: Reading and Writing - July 15, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Teachers’ implicit theories of learning to read: A cross-cultural study in Ibero-American countries
Abstract The main goal of this study was to explore the nature and structure of implicit theories of Spanish-speaking in-service teachers on learning to read. The study sample consisted of 591 in-service teachers from various Ibero-American countries (Spain, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, and Ecuador). The study analyzed attributional structure or teacher beliefs on learning to read based on principal component analysis. Findings revealed that many of the implicit theories on learning to read held by the teachers correspond to the historiography analysis and representational structure identified in previous studies....
Source: Reading and Writing - July 7, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

A comparison of orthographic processing in children with and without reading and spelling disorder in a regular orthography
Abstract Orthographic processing is a construct that encompasses the skills of recognizing, storing, accessing, and applying the print conventions of a writing system. Few studies have investigated orthographic processing in dyslexic children and it is not yet clear whether lexical and sublexical orthographic processing are both impaired in these children. The present study examined orthographic processing in dyslexic children (N = 19, below-average word reading as well as below average spelling skills, T-values
Source: Reading and Writing - June 26, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

“If I point, do they look?”: The impact of attention–orientation strategies on text exploration during shared book reading
Abstract The current study examined the effect of pointing to the words and using highlighted text by examining eye movements when children in preschool, Grade 1 and 2 were read storybooks of two levels of difficulty. For all children, pointing to and highlighting the text was observed to increase the amount of time and number of fixations on the printed text than when there was no intervention. Furthermore, with difficult text, an increased amount of time and number of fixations was observed when the text was pointed to than when it was highlighted. For preschoolers, even with the increased attention on the text ...
Source: Reading and Writing - June 18, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The efficacy of Collaborative Strategic Reading in middle school science and social studies classes
This study investigated the efficacy of a multi-component reading comprehension instructional approach, Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR), compared to business-as-usual instructional methods with 19 teachers and 1074 students in middle school social studies and science classrooms in a large urban district. Researchers collaborated with school personnel to provide teachers with ongoing professional development and classroom support. Using an experimental design, teachers’ classrooms were assigned either to CSR or to a business-as-usual comparison condition. Multi-level analyses showed that students receiving C...
Source: Reading and Writing - June 12, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Cross-lag analysis of longitudinal associations between primary school students’ writing and reading skills
Abstract The present study examined the relationship between reading (i.e., rapidity and accuracy) and writing competences (i.e., fluency, accuracy, and composition skills) of Italian children in the first and second grade. The performance of seventy-five children was longitudinally assessed over a 2-year period. Results demonstrated that reading and spelling were stable across the first two grades of primary school. Cross-lagged analyses suggested that spelling plays a pivotal role in the acquisition of formal literacy, especially within a transparent writing system like that of our Italian participants. Early pr...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 30, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Children’s comprehension monitoring of multiple situational dimensions of a narrative
Abstract Narratives typically consist of information on multiple aspects of a situation. In order to successfully create a coherent representation of the described situation, readers are required to monitor all these situational dimensions during reading. However, little is known about whether these dimensions differ in the ease with which they can be monitored. In the present study, we examined whether children in Grades 4 and 6 monitor four different dimensions (i.e., emotion, causation, time, and space) during reading, using a self-paced reading task containing inconsistencies. Furthermore, to explore what caus...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 22, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Lexical classification and spelling: Do people use atypical spellings for atypical pseudowords?
Abstract Many English phonemes have more than one possible spelling. People’s choices among the options may be influenced by sublexical patterns, such as the identity of neighboring sounds within the word. However, little research has explored the possible role of lexical conditioning. Three experiments examined the potential effects of one such factor: whether an item is typical of English or atypical. In Experiment 1, we asked whether presenting pseudowords as made-up words or the names of monsters would cause participants to classify them as atypical and spell phonemes within these pseudowords using less ...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 29, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

An examination of some of the cognitive and motivation variables related to gender differences in lecture note-taking
Abstract The primary purpose of this investigation was to explore if gender is related to note-taking in a large undergraduate sample (divided relatively evenly between males and females), and if it is, to examine the cognitive (handwriting speed, working memory, language comprehension) and motivation variables (conscientiousness and goal orientation) that might explain the relationship. A second purpose was to determine if there might be gender related differences in test performance (written recall). Results indicated that females recorded significantly more information in notes and written recall than males and...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 25, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Differential diagnosis of dysgraphia, dyslexia, and OWL LD: behavioral and neuroimaging evidence
Abstract In Study 1, children in grades 4–9 (N = 88, 29 females and 59 males) with persisting reading and/or writing disabilities, despite considerable prior specialized instruction in and out of school, were given an evidence-based comprehensive assessment battery at the university while parents completed questionnaires regarding past and current history of language learning and other difficulties. Profiles (patterns) of normed measures for different levels of oral and written language used to categorize participants into diagnostic groups for dysgraphia (impaired subword handwriting) (n =&nb...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 21, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The effects of working possible selves on second language performance
This study investigated how possible selves affect L2 learners’ motivational behaviors of persistence and effort as shown in essay revision and proofreading. One hundred and twelve ESL students were assigned to one of four conditions: successful future selves, unsuccessful future selves, successful past selves, or successful future of others. Participants were asked to imagine and freewrite about their assigned condition and to revise their essay until they were satisfied with the writing. Following this, participants proofread a reading text containing spelling errors. The time spent on revision was considered as an...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 3, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Erratum to: Writing quality predicts Chinese learning
(Source: Reading and Writing)
Source: Reading and Writing - April 3, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research