Orthographic skills important to Chinese literacy development: the role of radical representation and orthographic memory of radicals
Abstract A 3-year longitudinal study among 239 Chinese students in Grades 2–4 was conducted to investigate the relationships between orthographic skills (including positional and functional knowledge of semantic radicals and phonetic radicals, and orthographic memory of radicals) and Chinese literacy skills (word reading, word spelling, reading comprehension and written composition). Phonetic radical knowledge was the only significant longitudinal predictor of word reading, whereas all orthographic skills examined were significant longitudinal predictors of word spelling. Reading comprehension was uniquely p...
Source: Reading and Writing - June 7, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Sublexical and lexical processing of the English orthography among native speakers of Chinese and Korean
Abstract Comparisons of the effects of typical and atypical typeface on reading performance among readers of different linguistic backgrounds may yield new insights into the psychology of word recognition. A total of 143 adults (i.e., 50 Chinese, 55 Koreans, 38 native English speakers) participated in the study that involved two computer-based naming tests. The tests presented words with letters that varied in size and shape in Experiment 1 and words containing scrambled letters in Experiment 2. Results from Experiment 1 showed that the interference effect of size and shape on word naming accuracy and latency was ...
Source: Reading and Writing - June 6, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The contribution of morphological awareness to reading comprehension in early stages of reading
Abstract The contribution of morphological awareness to reading comprehension in Hebrew was studied in 298 second grade students who practiced two types of inflections, plural and possessive. Reading tasks at the beginning and end of the school year indicated that all improved on all tests in that period. Orthographic word recognition and morphological awareness predicted reading comprehension at the end of year. Students with low (LPD) and high (HPD) phonological decoding skills clearly differed qualitatively in reading comprehension. In the HPD students it was predicted by awareness of possessive inflections; in...
Source: Reading and Writing - June 3, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Using peer assisted strategies to teach early writing: results of a pilot study to examine feasibility and promise
In this study 81,200 we present preliminary findings from Year 1 of a 3-year Institute of Education Sciences-funded Goal 2 project aimed at improving the writing performance of kindergarten children. We designed peer assisted writing strategies (PAWS) and tested its feasibility and promise. Participants for this study were 86 kindergartners ranging in age from 62 to 76 months, recruited from five classes in two different schools. It was feasible for research staff to deliver PAWS, which combined the need to focus early writing instruction on critical transcription skills with an effective learning pedagogy (i.e., peer...
Source: Reading and Writing - June 3, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Erratum to: Writing to the Common Core: teachers ’ responses to changes in standards and assessments for writing in elementary schools
(Source: Reading and Writing)
Source: Reading and Writing - June 1, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Low-skilled adult readers look like typically developing child readers: a comparison of reading skills and eye movement behavior
Abstract Adults enrolled in basic education exhibit poor academic performance, often reading at elementary and middle-school levels. The current study investigated the similarities and differences of reading skills and eye movement behavior between a sample of 25 low-skilled adult readers and 25 first grade students matched on word reading skill. t tests for matched pairs found no significant differences on language comprehension, reading comprehension, or eye movement variables. Regression analyses revealed that language comprehension made greater contributions to reading comprehension for adults (verses children...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 28, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Investigating profiles of lexical quality in preschool and their contribution to first grade reading
Abstract This longitudinal study investigated profiles of lexical quality domains in preschool children and the extent to which profile membership predicted reading comprehension in first grade. A latent profile analysis was conducted to classify 420 preschool children on lexical quality domains, including orthography, phonology, morphosyntax, and vocabulary. Regression analysis was used to determine whether profile membership was associated with first grade outcomes across reading comprehension and its components (i.e., listening comprehension and word recognition). Results revealed five profiles of lexical quali...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 21, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Multi-literate experience as a treasure chest for young learners of English as a foreign language
In this study we examined the impact of Arabic language and literacy as opposed to Hebrew language and literacy on the acquisition of English basic literacy skills amongst elementary school Arabic L1 speaking versus Hebrew L1 speaking children. All these children are considered emergent bi-, tri- or multi-lingual and literate. A total of 75 fifth grade children participated in the study: 30 Arabic L1 speaking children and 45 Hebrew L1 speaking children. Tests in decoding and spelling various English target conventions were conducted. Arabic L1 speaking children showed an advantage in both decoding and spelling for the shor...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 19, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Examining fourth-grade mathematics writing: features of organization, mathematics vocabulary, and mathematical representations
Abstract Increasingly, students are expected to write about mathematics. Mathematics writing may be informal (e.g., journals, exit slips) or formal (e.g., writing prompts on high-stakes mathematics assessments). In order to develop an effective mathematics-writing intervention, research needs to be conducted on how students organize mathematics writing and use writing features to convey mathematics knowledge. We collected mathematics-writing samples from 155 4th-grade students in 2 states. Each student wrote about a computation word problem and fraction representations. We compared mathematics-writing samples to a...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 19, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Using new vocabulary in writing: Exploring how word and learner characteristics relate to the likelihood that writers use newly taught vocabulary
Abstract Understanding academic vocabulary is essential to student success in school. Use of academic vocabulary words in writing is considered one of the strongest measures of how well a reader understands a given word. In theory, willingness to use academic vocabulary in writing indicates the complexity of acquiring representations of the word’s orthography, phonology, and semantics based on the word’s characteristics. In addition, a learner’s overall literacy skills should relate to whether they attempt to use words. In the present study, sixth graders (n = 66), seventh graders (n&nb...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 18, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Doing more with less: the impact of lexicon on dual-language learners’ writing
This study investigates how a reduced English lexicon impacts English writing in DLL children. Participants were 100 Spanish-speaking DLLs and 100 of their monolingual classmates in first through fourth grades. Children were administered standardized tests of decoding and vocabulary and a written narrative task. Narratives were analyzed for productivity, complexity, and accuracy. DLL children performed comparably to monolingual children on productivity and complexity measures. However, they differed in measures of orthographic, lexical, and morphological accuracy. They also differed in vocabulary scores. When controlling f...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 18, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Fathers’ and mothers’ home learning environments and children’s early academic outcomes
This study investigates the HLE provided by both mothers and fathers to their preschoolers (n = 767), with consideration for how parents’ practices relate to one another as well as how these practices predict children’s early academic outcomes. Using an SEM framework, results indicate that while, overall, mothers provide HLE activities more frequently than fathers do, both mothers (β = .18, p 
Source: Reading and Writing - May 17, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The anatomy of the RAN-reading relationship
Abstract The purpose of this study was to contrast three models of the RAN-reading relationship derived from the most prominent theoretical accounts of how RAN is related to reading: the phonological processing, the orthographic processing and the speed of processing accounts. Grade 4 Greek-speaking children (n = 208; 114 girls, 94 boys; mean age = 117.29 months) were administered measures of general cognitive ability, RAN, phonological processing, orthographic processing, speed of processing, and reading fluency. Phonological processing and orthographic processing were assessed with both ...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 6, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Associations between inattention, hyperactivity and pre-reading skills before and after formal reading instruction begins
Abstract Concurrent associations between teacher ratings of inattention, hyperactivity and pre-reading skills were examined in 64 pre-schoolers who had not commenced formal reading instruction and 136 school entrants who were in the first weeks of reading instruction. Both samples of children completed measures of pre-reading skills, namely phonological awareness, phonological memory, rapid naming, and letter name knowledge, as well as a measure of verbal ability. School entrants also completed measures of letter sound knowledge and beginning word identification skills. Teachers completed rating scales of inattent...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 5, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Erratum to: Preschool morphological training produces long-term improvements in reading comprehension
(Source: Reading and Writing)
Source: Reading and Writing - May 5, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Common core writing and language standards and aligned state assessments: a national survey of teacher beliefs and attitudes
Abstract A random sample of 482 teachers in grades 3 through 8 from across the United States were surveyed about (a) their perceptions of the version of the Common Core writing and language standards adopted by their state and their state’s writing assessment, (b) their preparation to teach writing, and (c) their self-efficacy beliefs for teaching writing. Regardless of grade, a majority of teachers believed that the adopted standards are more rigorous than prior standards, provide clear expectations for students that can be straightforwardly translated into activities and lessons, and have pushed them to ad...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 30, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Orthographic consistency and individual learner differences in second language literacy acquisition
This study investigated whether orthographic consistency and individual learner differences including working memory (WM), first language (L1) background, and second language (L2) proficiency affect Chinese L2 learners’ literacy acquisition. Seventy American college students in beginning or intermediate Chinese classes participated in a character learning-and-reading experiment, and completed WM tasks and an L2 proficiency test. In the learning phase of the experiment, participants were asked to master 18 unfamiliar Chinese characters of three levels of consistency—consistent, semi-consistent, and inconsistent....
Source: Reading and Writing - April 30, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Handwriting fluency and visuospatial generativity at primary school
Abstract Handwriting is a complex activity that involves continuous interaction between lowerlevel perceptual-motor and higher-level cognitive processes. All handwriting models describe involvement of executive functions (EF) in handwriting development. Particular EF domains associated with handwriting include maintenance of information in working memory, inhibition of prepotent responses, and shifting and sustaining of attention. Generativity, an EF domain that has not been extensively studied, may play a role in the acquisition and automation of handwriting. We hypothesized that neuropsychological performanc...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 30, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Immediate and delayed effects of invented writing intervention in preschool
In conclusion, we argue that invented writing appeared to smooth the progress of emergent literacy skills in preschool, including the subsequent reading development in school. Contextualized in a semi-consistent orthography and a preschool tradition that does not encourage the learning of written language skills, the findings add to our knowledge of how children learn to write and read. (Source: Reading and Writing)
Source: Reading and Writing - April 22, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Exploring relationships between oral reading fluency and reading comprehension amongst English second language readers in South Africa
Abstract Most analyses of oral reading fluency (ORF) are based on L1 reading, and the norms that have been developed in English are based on first language reading data. This is problematic for developing countries where many children are learning in English as a second language. The aim of the present study is to model the relationship between English reading fluency and comprehension among rural English-second-language learners (ESL) in South Africa. We use data collected in 2013 by the National Education and Evaluation Development Unit in South Africa. This survey tested 4697 Grade 5 students from 214 schools a...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 22, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The impact of visual-spatial attention on reading and spelling in Chinese children
Abstract The present study investigated the associations of visual-spatial attention with word reading fluency and spelling in 92 third grade Hong Kong Chinese children. Word reading fluency was measured with a timed reading task whereas spelling was measured with a dictation task. Results showed that visual-spatial attention was a unique predictor of speeded reading accuracy (i.e., the total number of words read correctly divided by the total number of words read in a timed reading task) but not reading speed (i.e., the number of words read correctly in the same task) after controlling for age, non-verbal intelli...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 18, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Online emotional inferences in written and auditory texts: a study with children and adults
In this study, we examined whether children and adults draw emotional inferences while reading short stories or listening to an aural presentation of short stories. We used an online method that assesses inferences during reading with a reaction time paradigm. Children aged 8 and 10 years and adults took part. We varied whether the short stories emphasized a certain goal of the protagonist in order to proof our assumption that protagonist-goals in stories help readers to build emotional inferences. Additionally, we assessed the updating capacity of our participants’ working memories assuming a positive influence. Res...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 15, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The role of orthography in oral vocabulary learning in Chinese children
Abstract Previous research has shown that the presence of English word spellings facilitates children’s oral vocabulary learning. Whether a similar orthographic facilitation effect may exist in Chinese is interesting but not intuitively obvious due to the character writing system representing morphosyllabic but not phoneme-size information, and the more direct semantic-orthography mapping but less consistent orthography and pronunciation correspondence in Chinese. The current study aims to examine whether semantic and phonological information provided by character radicals affects oral vocabulary learnin...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 15, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Writing education around the globe: introduction and call for a new global analysis
Abstract This paper presents a special issue on writing around the globe. Researchers from across the world describe writing practices in their country using a wide variety of methodology. The paper show that while there are many similarities in writing instruction from one country to the next, there are also many differences. As a result, the authors call for a new international study of writing, one that takes more descriptive rather than a comparative approach. (Source: Reading and Writing)
Source: Reading and Writing - April 9, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Socioeconomic differences in code-focused emergent literacy skills
Abstract In the present study, we examined patterns of code-focused emergent literacy skill growth for children from lower and higher socioeconomic (SES) families enrolled at a high-quality early childhood center. Measures of letter name knowledge, letter sound knowledge, alliteration, and rhyming were collected at three time points over the course of the year. Additionally, standardized measures of print knowledge and phonological awareness were collected at the end of the year. Growth curve analyses indicated SES-related differences in initial status, but no differences in rate of growth. Initial status predicte...
Source: Reading and Writing - March 24, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Eye movements reveal readers’ lexical quality and reading experience
Abstract Two experiments demonstrate that individual differences among normal adult readers, including lexical quality, are expressed in silent reading at the word level. In the first of two studies we identified major dimensions of variability among college readers and among words using factor analysis. We then examined the effects of these dimensions of variability on eye movements during paragraph reading. More experienced readers (who also were higher in reading speed) read words more quickly, especially less frequent words, while readers with higher lexical knowledge showed shorter early fixations, especi...
Source: Reading and Writing - March 24, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

How source information shapes lay interpretations of science conflicts: interplay between sourcing, conflict explanation, source evaluation, and claim evaluation
Abstract When laypeople read controversial scientific information in order to make a personally relevant decision, information on the source is a valuable resource with which to evaluate multiple, competing claims. Due to their bounded understanding, laypeople rely on the expertise of others and need to identify whether sources are credible. The present study examined under which conditions readers acknowledge and consider available source information. University students read two conflicting scientific claims put forward by sources whose credibility was varied in terms of either expertise or benevolence. They the...
Source: Reading and Writing - March 23, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Analysis of lexical quality and its relation to writing quality for 4th grade, primary school students in Chile
Abstract Few studies have addressed vocabulary quality in developing writing skill in Spanish. Even less addressed it within the Chilean educational system. The specific objective of this study was to characterize, using a comprehensive set of indicators, the quality of the vocabulary produced by Chilean 4th grade students. Based on a national writing survey, a sample of 2056 texts written by 685 students was collected (narrative, persuasive, and informative texts). Current literature defines lexical quality as a composite of diverse factors that, while distinct, are interrelated. To represent the properties of th...
Source: Reading and Writing - March 23, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Preschool morphological training produces long-term improvements in reading comprehension
Abstract We evaluated the effect of morphological awareness training delivered in preschool (8 months before school entry) on reading ability at the end of grade 1 and 5 years later (in Grade 6). In preschool, one group of children received morphological awareness training, while a second group received phonological awareness training. A control group followed the ordinary preschool curriculum. The comparison between each training condition and the control condition is quasi experimental, whereas the comparison between the morphological and phonological treatments is randomized at group level. In Gra...
Source: Reading and Writing - March 17, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Is instant messaging the same in every language? A basque perspective
This study focuses on computer mediated communication (CMC) in instant messaging using the Basque language in a context where exposure to English is very limited outside the classroom. This context provides an opportunity to analyze the universality of linguistic features identified in CMC in English. The corpus consists of 54 naturalistic dyadic conversations between Basque secondary school students, using the medium of instant messaging. Thirty-four of those students then took part in six focus group discussions so as to obtain information about their perception of the linguistic features used in instant messaging. The r...
Source: Reading and Writing - March 14, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Reading training by means of disappearing text: effects on reading performance and eye movements
Abstract The Reading Acceleration Program (RAP), which uses adaptively increasing text erasure rates to enforce reading rate improvements, has been positively evaluated in various languages, reader and age groups. The current study compared the established incremental increase of text erasure rate with a training using fixed erasure rates in two groups of young, non-impaired German adults. Eye-tracking measures prior and post training examined training-related changes of eye-movement patterns. Equal gains in reading performance in both training groups led to the conclusion that not the adaptive increase but al...
Source: Reading and Writing - March 10, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

How logical reasoning mediates the relation between lexical quality and reading comprehension
Abstract The present study aimed to examine the role of logical reasoning in the relation between lexical quality and reading comprehension in 146 fourth grade Dutch children. We assessed their standardized reading comprehension measure, along with their decoding efficiency and vocabulary as measures of lexical quality, syllogistic reasoning as measure of (verbal) logical reasoning, and nonverbal reasoning as a control measure. Syllogistic reasoning was divided into a measure tapping basic, coherence inferencing skill using logical syllogisms, and a measure tapping elaborative inferencing skill using indetermi...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 5, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Learning from texts: activation of information from previous texts during reading
Abstract Learning often involves integration of information from multiple texts. The aim of the current study was to determine whether relevant information from previously read texts is spontaneously activated during reading, allowing for integration between texts (experiment 1 and 2), and whether this process is related to the representation of the texts (experiment 2). In both experiments, texts with inconsistent target sentences were preceded by texts that either did or did not contain explanations that resolved the inconsistencies. In experiment 1, the reading times of the target sentences introducing inconsis...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 3, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Component skills affecting elementary students’ informational text comprehension
This study was conducted to examine the factors that influence informational text comprehension and to determine how these vary for students with higher and lower component skills. The sample included 177 students in grades 3–5. Regression analyses were used to predict informational text comprehension with decoding efficiency, vocabulary knowledge, prior knowledge, and intrinsic motivation. This model, that also included age and grade as control variables, explained 62.5 % of the variance in informational text comprehension. Each component skill explained unique variance, and vocabulary knowledge accounted for t...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 2, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Accuracy feedback improves word learning from context: evidence from a meaning-generation task
Abstract The present study asked whether accuracy feedback on a meaning generation task would lead to improved contextual word learning (CWL). Active generation can facilitate learning by increasing task engagement and memory retrieval, which strengthens new word representations. However, forced generation results in increased errors, which can be detrimental for learning if they are not corrected. The goal of this study was to determine whether immediate feedback on response accuracy would ameliorate this risk. The study was conducted using an intelligent tutoring system, which presents target words in multiple c...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 2, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Effectiveness of a group-based program for parents of children with dyslexia
Abstract Parents of children with dyslexia experience more parenting stress and depressive symptoms than other parents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a cognitive-behavioral group-based program for parents of dyslexic children on parenting stress levels, parent–child homework interactions and parental competencies. 39 children with dyslexia and their mothers were randomly assigned either to a cognitive-behavioral-therapy group or a waiting-list control group. The intervention lasted for 3 months. Mothers filled in the Parenting Stress Index and a paper–pencil questionnair...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 2, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

A comparison of inter-professional education programs in preparing prospective teachers and speech and language pathologists for collaborative language–literacy instruction
This study investigated the efficacy of a 3-h inter-professional education program focused on explicit instruction in the language skills that underpin early reading and spelling acquisition. The combined program incorporated student teachers and student speech and language pathologists (SLPs) working together on case-based instructional planning supplemented with structured opportunities for the groups to share their respective expertise in curriculum and linguistic knowledge. Student teachers (n = 18) and student SLPs (n = 27) were randomly assigned to this combined intervention or a comparison interv...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 1, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Illuminating growth and struggles using mixed methods: Practice-based professional development and coaching for differentiating SRSD instruction in writing
Abstract In this mixed methods study, qualitative, quantitative, and single-case methods were combined to provide a comprehensive investigation of teacher and student outcomes following practice-based professional development (PBPD) for self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) in writing. Qualitative observations were used to determine outcomes among the three-fourth grade teachers involved, a nested quantitative model was used to analyze classwide student writing outcomes across 53 students in the three classes, and single case design was used to determine differential outcomes among randomly selected strugglin...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 30, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Conceptual coherence, comprehension, and vocabulary acquisition: A knowledge effect?
Abstract Previous research has documented the role of readers’ existing topic knowledge in supporting students’ comprehension of text; yet, we know less about how to build students’ knowledge in order to support comprehension and vocabulary learning. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that knowledge can be built and leveraged simultaneously in the interest of students’ literacy development through the use of conceptually coherent text sets. Fourth grade students (N = 59) were randomly assigned to read either a set of six informational texts that cohered around a set of c...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 28, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The unique role of lexical accessibility in predicting kindergarten emergent literacy
Abstract The goal of this longitudinal study was to examine how lexical quality predicts the emergence of literacy abilities in 169 Dutch kindergarten children before formal reading instruction has started. At the beginning of the school year, a battery of precursor measures associated with lexical quality was related to the emergence of letter knowledge and word decoding. Confirmatory factor analysis evidenced five domains related to lexical quality, i.e., vocabulary, phonological coding, phonological awareness, lexical retrieval and phonological working memory. Structural equation modeling showed that the develo...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 27, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Whose story is this? Discrepancy triggers readers’ attention to source information in short narratives
Abstract Three experiments investigated the role of source information (i.e., who said what) in readers’ comprehension of short informational texts. Based on the Discrepancy-Induced Source Comprehension assumption (Braasch, Rouet, Vibert, & Britt, 2012), we hypothesized that readers would be more likely to make use of source information when summarizing stories that included discrepant statements. Readers would also memorize source information more accurately. Experiments 1 and 2 found that American and French college students were more likely to refer to source information when they summarized news repo...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 20, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Lexical characteristics of Spanish and English words and the development of phonological awareness skills in Spanish-speaking language-minority children
This study examined the relations between various lexical characteristics of Spanish and English words and the PA skills of Spanish-speaking language-minority children. Participants came from two independent samples of Spanish-speaking preschool children (Sample 1 N = 553, Sample 2 N = 600). For children in both samples, only phonotactic probability was related to children’s likelihood to respond correctly to Spanish PA items. Age of acquisition and word frequency were related to children’s likelihood to respond correctly to English PA items for children in both samples. Phonologic...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 20, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Does previewing answer choice options improve performance on reading tests?
We examined eye movement patterns of participants who completed online multiple-choice sentence completion tasks, and how previewing was related to reading performance and whether the relation varied as a function of English proficiency level. The results showed that, relative to no previewing, previewing was associated with a significantly lower probability of answering an item correctly but not with significantly longer response time. Importantly, these relations varied across English proficiency levels such that participants with higher proficiency performed better without previewing, but there was no difference for low...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 14, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Content integration across multiple documents reduces memory for sources
Abstract The current experiments systematically examined semantic content integration as a mechanism for explaining source inattention and forgetting when reading-to-remember multiple texts. For all 3 experiments, degree of semantic overlap was manipulated amongst messages provided by various information sources. In Experiment 1, readers’ source recognition was significantly poorer when the sources presented semantically-congruent compared to semantically-distinct messages. Experiment 2 replicated the findings, despite half of the participants receiving a pre-reading warning. Experiment 3 extended the examin...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 14, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Effects of induced orthographic and semantic knowledge on subsequent learning: a test of the partial knowledge hypothesis
We present two studies that took a different approach, controlling both familiarity and the nature of the familiarizing episode. We controlled familiarity with novel words through pre-exposure (“pre-familiarization”) in isolation, to induce form-based familiarity, or in sentences that provided few clues to meaning, to induce partial semantic knowledge. The number of pre-exposures varied (0, 1, or 4). After the pre-familiarization phase, we presented the words in several highly informative sentences to support meaning acquisition. Participants included both adults and typically developing children, ages 9–...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 13, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Improving vocational students’ consideration of source information when deciding about science controversies
We present an empirical investigation of a classroom training fostering vocational students’ consideration of source information when deciding about science-based controversies. The training was specifically aimed at raising students’ awareness of the division of cognitive labor and the resulting need to take a source’s competence into account when deciding whom to trust. Data were collected from a training group and a waiting list control group in a pretest–posttest design. The results show that students benefitted from the training in terms of their inclination to agree with pertinent expert sourc...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 12, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The link between text difficulty, reading speed and exploration of printed text during shared book reading
Abstract In the current study the reading speed of the narration and the difficulty of the text was manipulated and links were explored with children’s attention to the printed text in shared book reading. Thirty-nine children (24 grade 1 and 15 grade 2) were presented easy and difficult books at slow (syllable by syllable) or fast (adult reading speed) pace while their eye movements were monitored. Results revealed an interaction between speed and difficulty. For the easy and difficult books, children spent more time and made more fixations on the printed text when it was presented at slow speed than at fas...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 11, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

How students with intellectual disabilities evaluate recommendations from internet forums
Abstract Social networks enable people with intellectual disabilities (ID) to participate actively in society and to promote their self-determination. However, concerns have been raised regarding the potential limitations of people with ID to deal with untrustworthy information sources on the Internet. In an experiment, we assessed how adult students with ID evaluated recommendations in Internet forums authored by either self-reported experts or by users under pseudonyms who supported their claim either with documentary sources or their personal experience. We compared the performances of students with ID to that ...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 9, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Sourcing in professional education: Do text factors make any difference?
Abstract The present study investigated the extent to which the text factors of source salience and emphasis on risk might influence readers’ attention to and use of source information when reading single documents to make behavioral decisions on controversial health-related issues. Participants (n = 259), who were attending different bachelor-level professional programs at a university college, generally disregarded source information irrespective of textual manipulations, especially sources cited or embedded within other documents, and mainly relied on their own personal experiences and opinions ...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 8, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The spelling strategies of francophone dyslexic students
This study aims to describe the spelling strategies of 32 dyslexic students (DYS) aged from 8 to 12 years and to establish links between spelling strategies and spelling skill. Students had to spell 24 dictated words and provide comments on the strategy employed for each word. The performances of DYS were compared to 25 children of the same chronological age (CA) and of 24 children of the same reading age (RA). The results show that phonological strategies are the most commonly used by all groups of participants. If no particular strategy is related to the spelling skill of DYS, visuo-orthographic strategy generally a...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 5, 2016 Category: Child Development Source Type: research