Copying skills in children with and without dyslexia
AbstractWhile copying skills are used daily at school and involve spelling abilities, studies examining copying performance in children with dyslexia are very scarce. The present study aims to determine whether children with dyslexia present a specific deficit in their copying processes or if their difficulties in copying are a consequence of their spelling deficit. Nineteen children with dyslexia were compared to two groups of typically developing children: 19 chronological age matched children and 19 spelling age matched children. All children were asked to perform a copying task of 40 words, varying in orthographic comp...
Source: Reading and Writing - October 12, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Sandhi-tone words prolong fixation duration during silent sentence reading in Chinese
AbstractThe current study examined whether or not lexical access is influenced by detailed phonological features during the silent reading of Chinese sentences. We used two types of two-character target words (Mandarin sandhi-tone and base-tone). The first characters of the words in the sandhi-tone condition had a tonal alternation, but no tonal alternation was involved in the base-tone condition. Recordings of eye movements revealed that native Mandarin Chinese readers viewed the base-tone target words more briefly than the sandhi-tone target words when they were infrequent. Such articulation-specific effects on visual wo...
Source: Reading and Writing - October 6, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Comparing the effects of different book reading techniques on young children ’s language development
AbstractThe purpose of this research study is to compare the effects of digital, dialogic and traditional reading on children ’s language development aged 48–66 months. Fifty-six randomly selected children enrolled in three different classrooms in a public preschool in Turkey participated in the study. The three classrooms were again randomly assigned as digital, dialogic and traditional reading groups. During the rea ding activities, a total of 24 storybooks were read by each group every three times in 8 weeks. While the children’s language scores (the receptive and expressive language scores) ...
Source: Reading and Writing - September 24, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

IRT analyses of Arabic letter knowledge in Kindergarten
This study investigates the nature of Arabic letter knowledge, its dimensionality, and the relative difficulty of letter knowledge items, all within an item response theory (IRT) framework. Three letter knowledge tests were administered to 142 native Arabic-speaking kindergarteners (mean age  = 67 months). The letter recognition task was found to be multidimensional, containing two factors, whereas the allograph and syllable tasks were found to be unidimensional. Results showed that a two parameter model fit best for all three tasks, demonstrating that items varied in degree of dif ficulty and in discrim...
Source: Reading and Writing - September 15, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Kindergarten pre-reading skills predict Grade 9 reading comprehension (PISA Reading) but fail to explain gender difference
We examined the extent to which pre-reading skills assessed in Kindergarten (age 6) predict reading comprehension in Grade 9 (age 15) and, whether the gender difference in reading comprehension can be explained by gender differences in the Kindergarten pre- reading skills. A sample of 1010 Finnish children were assessed on letter knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid naming, vocabulary, and listening comprehension in Kindergarten and on reading comprehension using PISA Reading tasks in Grade 9. Path models showed that gender as well as Kindergarten pre-reading skills except for phonological awareness were significant pr...
Source: Reading and Writing - September 9, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Readers extract semantic information from parafoveal two-character synonyms in Chinese reading
AbstractIn Chinese reading, the possibility and mechanism of semantic parafoveal processing has been debated for a long time. To advance the topic, “semantic preview benefit” in Chinese reading was reexamined, with a specific focus on how it is affected by the semantic relatedness between preview and target words at the two-character word level. Eighty critical two-character words were selected as target words. Reading tasks with gaze-conti ngent boundary paradigms were used to study whether different semantic-relatedness preview conditions influenced parafoveal processing. The data showed that synonyms (the mo...
Source: Reading and Writing - September 9, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The immediate and delayed effects of text –diagram reading instruction on reading comprehension and learning processes: evidence from eye movements
This study used an eye-tracker to investigate the immediate and delayed effects of text –diagram reading instruction on reading comprehension and learning processes in illustrated text reading. Fourth-grade students with high (N = 66) and low reading ability (N = 66) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a text–diagram group who received text–diagram instruction which emphasized diagram decoding and integration of relevant textual and pictorial information, a placebo group who received instruction which emphasized comprehension monitoring , and a control group which re...
Source: Reading and Writing - September 4, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Interactions in EFL argumentative writing: effects of topic, L1 background, and L2 proficiency on interactional metadiscourse
This study examined how students of English as a foreign language (EFL) with different first language (L1) backgrounds use interactional metadiscourse markers in argumentative writing. Specifically, to explore unique patterns of metadiscourse features that reflect context and development, the essays written by Chinese, Japanese, and Korean EFL students at three proficiency levels were analyzed for topic, L1 background, and L2 proficiency. For a comprehensive analysis of 1986 essays, I used a natural language processing tool that generates quantity scores for Hyland ’s (2005) metadiscourse categories (i.e., hedges, bo...
Source: Reading and Writing - September 2, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The contribution of morphological awareness to vocabulary among L1 and L2 French-speaking 4th-graders
AbstractThe present study examines the concurrent relationship between morphological awareness and vocabulary breadth and depth after accounting for the effect of other potential contributors. A sample of French-speaking fourth-grade children who spoke either French at home (L1) (n  =  55) or another language (L2) (n  =  85) completed a number of tests assessing vocabulary breadth, vocabulary depth, morphological awareness, phonological awareness, word reading fluency, word spelling, and nonverbal intelligence. The results showed that morphological awareness was strongly correlated with vocabula...
Source: Reading and Writing - August 23, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Opening the black box: user-log analyses of children ’s e-Book reading and associations with word knowledge
AbstractThird to fifth graders read an interactive choose-your-own adventure e-Book. User logs recorded their reading behaviors and were used to investigate students ’ in-the-moment reading behaviors. Reader’s standards of coherence, motivation, and reading strategies were hypothesized to relate to children’s reading behaviors, such as time reading pages, answering embedded questions correctly, and making thoughtful decisions, and in turn to word knowledge gains. Structural equation models revealed that the more time students spent reading embedded questions, the more likely they were to answer the questi...
Source: Reading and Writing - August 17, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The origin of centrality deficit in text memory and comprehension by poor comprehenders: a think-aloud study
AbstractThe present study employed a think-aloud method to explore the origin of a centrality deficit (i.e., poor recall of central ideas) found in poor comprehenders (PC). Moreover, utilizing the diverse think-aloud responses, we examined the overall quality of text processing employed by PC during reading, in order to shed more light on the cognitive underpinnings underlying their poor comprehension and memory after reading. To address these goals, adolescents with good and poor comprehension, matched on reading (decoding) skills, were asked to state aloud whatever comes to their mind during the reading of two expository...
Source: Reading and Writing - August 13, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Handwriting production in Spanish children with dyslexia: spelling or motor difficulties?
AbstractSpelling and handwriting are different processes; however, they are learned simultaneously, and numerous studies have shown that they interact. Besides the commonly reported presence of a spelling deficit, previous studies have indicated that handwriting difficulties can also be detected in children with dyslexia. Despite this, this issue has not been sufficiently explored. The goal of the study was to investigate the potential handwriting difficulties met by children with dyslexia and how they might relate to spelling difficulties and to basic graphic skills. Twenty children with dyslexia were compared with a chro...
Source: Reading and Writing - August 8, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Teaching writing in the primary grades in Norway: a national survey
AbstractA sample of 1049 Norwegian teachers in grades 1 –3 were surveyed about how they taught writing as well as their preparation and efficacy to do so. Although there was moderate variability in their response to survey items, most teachers provided students with a multi-faceted writing program. Teachers indicated students typically spent 20 min a day writing, and they were assigned various types of writing over the course of the school year. The average teacher applied numerous instructional practices frequently to teach writing skills, support students’ writing, provide students with feedback, and con...
Source: Reading and Writing - August 8, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Initial validation of a measure of decoding difficulty as a unique predictor of miscues and passage reading fluency
AbstractQuantifying the decoding difficulty (i.e., ‘decodability’) of text is important for accurately matching young readers to appropriate text and scaffolding reading development. Since no easily accessible, quantitative, word-level metric of decodability exists, we developed a decoding measure (DM) that can be calculated via a web-based sco ring application that takes into account sub-lexical components (e.g. orthographic complexity), thus measuring decodability at the grapheme-phoneme level, which can be used to judge decodability of individual words or passages. Here we report three experiments using...
Source: Reading and Writing - August 5, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Does the availability of orthography support L2 word learning?
AbstractAvailability of orthography during word learning has been found to facilitate learning the word ’s spelling and pronunciation and has been proposed to facilitate learning its meaning. This has not been studied in second language (L2) learning yet, in which word learning often corresponds to translation learning. Therefore, an L2 word learning experiment was carried out. Grade 6 Dutch student s (n = 92) were taught English words, with orthography available or absent. Words were divided into those that are spelled entirely like they sound (consistent, e.g.,lilt) and those that are not (inconsisten...
Source: Reading and Writing - July 31, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Syntactic predictors for text quality in Dutch upper-secondary school students ’ L1 argumentative writing
AbstractAmong other things, learning to write entails learning how to use complex sentences effectively in discourse. Some research has therefore focused on relating measures of syntactic complexity to text quality. Apart from the fact that the existing research on this topic appears inconclusive, most of it has been conducted in English L1 contexts. This is potentially problematic, since relevant syntactic indices may not be the same across languages. The current study is the first to explore which syntactic features predict text quality in Dutch secondary school students ’ argumentative writing. In order to do so, ...
Source: Reading and Writing - July 26, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The effect of transcription skills, text generation, and self-regulation on Icelandic children ’s text writing
AbstractThe main purpose of this longitudinal research was to study the effects of transcription skills, text generation skills and self-regulation on Icelandic children ’s writing, compare their effects on two different text genres and see if it changes with age, from second to fourth grade. Eighty-seven Icelandic children were followed up from first through fourth grade. In first grade the children’s transcription skills, text generation skills and self-regula tion were evaluated. In second and fourth grade the children composed two written texts, a narrative and an information text. The dimensions of text qu...
Source: Reading and Writing - July 22, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

How educators use mathematics writing in the classroom: a national survey of mathematics educators
AbstractStudents in the elementary and secondary grades may use mathematics writing to express ideas and reasoning about mathematics. To understand current classroom practices related to the assessment and instruction of mathematics writing, we conducted a survey of kindergarten through Grade 12 educators across the United States who taught mathematics, with 324 respondents from 44 states. Educators expressed the primary purposes of mathematics writing included helping students learn mathematics and informing mathematics instruction. The majority of educators believed mathematics writing was important yet fewer than half r...
Source: Reading and Writing - July 22, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Chinese children benefit from alternating-color words in sentence reading
AbstractWord boundary information is not marked explicitly in Chinese sentences and word ambiguity happens in Chinese texts. This introduces difficulty to parse characters into  words when reading Chinese sentences, especially for beginning readers. In an eye-tracking study, we tested whether explicit word boundary information as provided by alternating text-colors affects reading performance of Chinese children and how such an effect is influenced by individual differen ces in word segmentation ability. Results showed that across a number of eye-movement measures, grade three children overall benefited from expl...
Source: Reading and Writing - July 20, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

A longitudinal investigation of prosodic sensitivity and emergent literacy
AbstractProsodic sensitivity —the rhythmic patterning of speech—is theorized to influence reading and spelling via vocabulary knowledge, phonological, and morphological awareness. Previously this conceptual model has been evidenced with children who can already read, however as orthographic knowledge can be used to complete phonological awareness tasks it cannot be said definitively that it is prosodic sensitivity influencing reading and spelling and not the reverse. Therefore, the present study sought to test the model in a longitudinal study conducted at the outset of reading development. A sample of 4- to 5-...
Source: Reading and Writing - July 20, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Mandarin-speaking preschoolers ’ pitch discrimination, prosodic and phonological awareness, and their relation to receptive vocabulary and reading abilities
This study examined preschoolers ’ pitch discrimination, prosodic and phonological awareness, and their connection to receptive vocabulary in preschool and reading abilities in first grade. Findings reveal (1) children improve their pitch discrimination and prosodic awareness from preschool to fourth grade; (2) pitch interval dis crimination (frequency separation between tones) contributes to receptive vocabulary whereas pitch contour discrimination (patterns of rising and falling pitch) predicts word reading; (3) phonological awareness accounts for more variability in receptive vocabulary than prosodic awareness; wh...
Source: Reading and Writing - July 19, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Investigating the longitudinal and concurrent relationships between polysemous word knowledge and reading comprehension among spanish-english bilingual middle school students
This study investigates the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between polysemous word knowledge and reading comprehension among bilingual students (n = 107) followed from seventh to eighth grade. Standardized tests were used to measure decoding skills, broad vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension. Data about students’ polysemous word knowledge were collected using the Polysemous Word Test, an assessment designed to investigate stu dents’ abilities to recognize the academic senses of words that also have casual, everyday meanings. The study provides longitudinal evidence that stude...
Source: Reading and Writing - July 15, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

What makes a good reader? Worldwide insights from PIRLS 2016
AbstractUsing hierarchical linear models, this study probes into student, family, teacher, and schools ’ variables that can explain the variation in Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2016 results. Students’ confidence in reading, early literacy tasks, and parents’ expectations are the strongest explanatory variables of reading literacy. Teachers’ perception of class ins truction being limited by students’ needs is the strongest explanatory variable of PIRLS achievement, although this was not consistently verified among all countries. No teaching strategies or other relat...
Source: Reading and Writing - July 14, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Variability and stability in parent –child discourse during and following repeated shared book reading
AbstractResearch on parent –child shared book reading (SBR) has focused primarily on a single reading of a book and on the reading of the text itself. Yet parents often repeatedly read the same book to their child and continue to converse after the book is finished. Using Bruner’s dual-landscape model as a theoretical bas is, this study explored the variability and stability of parent–child discourse during and following three repeated readings of the same book, controlling for mother’s education and child’s language level. Participants included 50 preschool children (24 girls, 26 boys), whose...
Source: Reading and Writing - July 14, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Correction to: Phonological awareness in Arabic: the role of phonological distance, phonological-unit size, and SES
This article should be considered to be part of the special issue but was accidentally published in a regular issue (Volume 33, Issue 6) of this journal. We apologize for the error. The article and their full references are listed below. (Source: Reading and Writing)
Source: Reading and Writing - July 14, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Synergistic effects of instruction and affect factors on high- and low-ability disparities in elementary students ’ reading literacy
This study examined the combined effects of teachers ’ instructional practices and students’ reading-related affective engagement on predicting the high and low levels of elementary reading literacy from a linguistically and culturally comparative perspective. Data were based on 9748 students from 4 English-speaking and 3 Chinese-speaking educatio n systems participating in the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study 2016. A mixed theory-based and data-driven approach was adopted. Four machine learning algorithms, specifically logistic regression, support vector machine, decision tree, and extreme grad...
Source: Reading and Writing - July 12, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Cognitive predictors of arithmetic, reading, and spelling in Brazilian Portuguese-speaking children
We examined the contribution of a major predictor of basic literacy ability —phoneme awareness—to individual differences in two arithmetic computation tasks: a speeded task consisting of simple computation problems (arithmetic fluency) and an untimed, more complex computation task involving multi-digit operands (numerical operations). The contribution of phoneme awarene ss to word-reading fluency, untimed word-reading accuracy, and untimed spelling accuracy also was evaluated. Participants were 134 Brazilian Portuguese-speaking 4th and 5th grade students aged 8.67 to 11.75 years (M = 10.13&nb...
Source: Reading and Writing - June 26, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Correction to: Phonological task comparability in Arabic and relation to reading: a longitudinal assessment in kindergarten and first grade
In the original publication of the article formatting of Arabic words was incorrectly published. (Source: Reading and Writing)
Source: Reading and Writing - June 25, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Beginning to read in Vietnamese: kindergarten precursors to first grade fluency and reading comprehension
This study is the first to examine predictors of early reading in Vietnamese, a transparent orthography of Romanized letters and diacritics. Eighty-two children in Hanoi, Vietnam, completed measures of decoding and oral language in kindergarten (phonological awareness, PA; rapid automatized naming, RAN; receptive and expressive vocabulary) and measures of decoding and reading comprehension in first grade. Average performance at the end of first grade, after just 1  year of formal instruction, was near ceiling on word reading but more variable on nonword and text reading. Kindergarten PA and RAN (but not vocabulary) pr...
Source: Reading and Writing - June 17, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Who writes what when?: Examining children ’s early composing
This study describes children’s composing skills in preschool and examines factors associated with children’s performance on a scaffolded writing task. Preschool-aged children (N  =  245) from a variety of early childhood settings were assessed on a number of early literacy, language, and writing measures in the spring of the school year. Children’s written compositions were coded for features that captured both transcription (spelling and letter formation) and composing sk ills (translation and task adherence). Findings reveal that children’s composing skills fall into four distinct c...
Source: Reading and Writing - June 17, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Introducing grapheme-phoneme correspondences (GPCs): exploring rate and complexity in phonics instruction for kindergarteners with limited literacy skills
AbstractTwo experiments explored rates for introducing grapheme-phoneme correspondences (GPCs) and the types of correspondences taught for optimal alphabet and early literacy skills learning. In both studies, children entered with minimal alphabet knowledge and were randomly assigned within classrooms to one of two treatments delivered individually over 5  weeks. In Study 1, children grades K-1 were assigned to instruction in a set of either 10 (Slow rate,n = 33) or 15 (Fast rate,n = 32) single- and two-letter GPCs. Study 1 findings indicated that children who learned five added GPCs did no...
Source: Reading and Writing - June 17, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Secondary school students ’ discourse synthesis performance on Chinese (L1) and English (L2) integrated writing assessments
This study investigates the relationship between three discourse synthesis skills (i.e., quotation, summarization, and connection) and students ’ overall integrated writing performance in Chinese, students’ first language, and English, their second language. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that 63.6% of the variance in students’ overall Chinese integrated writing performance was accounted for by the three discourse synthesis skills, with connection and summarization contributed almost equally to the overall scores. In the English test, the three skills explained 47.9% of the variance. Cross-ling...
Source: Reading and Writing - June 11, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Parsing written language with non-standard grammar
In this study we test the hypothesis that readers of Arabic do not parse sentences for case and that orthographically marked case can therefore be removed with no effect on reading. Twenty-nine participants read sentences in which one of the two most frequent types of orthographically marked case was either retained or omitted, while their eye-movements were monitored. The removal of case marking from subjects in the sound masculine plural declension (changing the suffix ‑ūnـون to ‑īnـين) had no negative effect on gaze duration, regressions out, or go-past time. The removal of case marking form direct objects i...
Source: Reading and Writing - June 7, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Judging Hebrew adjective agreement across development: syntactic and morpho-syntactic awareness
AbstractGrammatical awareness of syntax and morphology is important in children ’s literacy development for both reading and writing. Hebrew, a language with rich inflectional morphology, marks nouns for plural number in conjunction with gender. Hebrew attributive adjectives agree with noun number and gender in the same noun phrase, while predicative adjectives are in agreeme nt with the grammatical subject in the same clause. Since adjectives are dependent on nouns, regularity or irregularity of plural marking on nouns directly affects plural agreement marking on adjectives. Given the importance of word order to Heb...
Source: Reading and Writing - June 5, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Effects of a read aloud intervention on first grade student vocabulary, listening comprehension, and language proficiency
AbstractWe examine the effects of a read aloud replication intervention designed to improve the vocabulary, comprehension, and expository and narrative language outcomes of first grade students. Thirty-nine first-grade classrooms from 12 schools were randomly assigned to a treatment (n  = 19) or comparison condition (n = 20). Teachers in the treatment condition implemented a 19-week set of read aloud lessons during whole-class read aloud time. Read alouds included the systematic use of narrative and expository texts, before-, during-, and after-reading components, the use of teacher-facilitated ...
Source: Reading and Writing - June 5, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Teaching writing in grades 4 –6 in urban schools in Chile: a national survey
AbstractThe purpose of this mainly descriptive study was to investigate teachers ’ perceptions about how they teach writing as well as their beliefs about preparation and efficacy to teach this skill. It also examined if preparation and efficacy beliefs along with teaching experience (years teaching the language arts) predicted teachers’ reported writing practices. The parti cipants were 254 grade four to six language arts teachers in urban schools in Chile. Twenty-five percent of the teachers surveyed reported they taught writing for five or more hours a week. Most teachers, however, reported devoting much les...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 31, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Word-meaning inference in L2 Chinese: an interactive effect of learners ’ linguistic knowledge and words’ semantic transparency
This study explores how L2 linguistic knowledge as an individual learner factor and semantic transparency as a word-specific property interact to affect L2 learners’ wor d-meaning inference in Chinese. Two hundred and twelve adult L2 learners of Chinese in China completed six paper–pencil tasks, which measured participants’ short-term memory, linguistic knowledge, and meaning inference of compound Chinese words that varied in their semantic transparency. The res ults showed that linguistic knowledge interacted with semantic transparency in word-meaning inference: morpheme knowledge and grammatical knowled...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 19, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Syntactic complexity measures: variation by genre, grade-level, students ’ writing abilities, and writing quality
AbstractSyntactic complexity has been recognized as an important construct in writing research, and for the past five decades, many syntactic complexity measures (SCMs) have been examined in numerous studies. This systematic review is the first study of its kind to synthesize 36 studies spanning from 1970 to 2019 by identifying and cataloging all SCMs examined during this period. An analysis was performed on how the use of SCMs varied by genre, grade level, students ’ writing ability, and writing quality. Five online databases (Academic Search Premier,ERIC,PsycINFO,Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, andPsycARTICLES)...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 18, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Instructional patterns for the teaching and learning of argumentative writing in high school English language arts classrooms
AbstractArgumentative writing has long been considered an essential skill for disciplinary learning. For researchers and curriculum developers to develop ecologically valid instructional approaches to argumentative writing, a pivotal prerequisite is the understanding of how teachers use various instructional methods in tandem to teach different argumentative components. This exploratory study identified instructional patterns for the teaching and learning of argumentative writing by observing 187 English language arts class sessions taught by 31 highly regarded high school English language arts teachers (529 students; 40% ...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 17, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Introduction to ARWA special issue
(Source: Reading and Writing)
Source: Reading and Writing - May 11, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Teachers ’ practices and beliefs about teaching writing: a comprehensive survey of grades 1 to 3 teachers
AbstractA random sample of 782 grades 1 through 3 Chinese language arts teachers in Taiwan were surveyed about how they taught writing and their beliefs about writing. The underlying dimensions of teachers ’ reported writing practices and beliefs were established through factor analyses. Thirty-seven percent of the teachers reported they taught writing every day (average writing lesson across all teachers was 52 min). However, most teachers indicated they offered writing classes infrequently, as 60 % of teachers reported teaching writing just once a week or less often. Teachers applied many different instruction...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 8, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Exploring the dimensionality of kindergarten written composition
This study indic ated that the measurement and components of composition in kindergarten may be qualitatively different from the compositions of older children. (Source: Reading and Writing)
Source: Reading and Writing - May 4, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Lexical and sublexical orthographic knowledge: relationships in an orthography of intermediate depth
In this study, we examined how they are related at an early stage of literacy development in European Portuguese, an orthography of intermediate depth. Children followed from Grade 2 –3 performed two of the most common tasks of orthographic knowledge—the Orthographic Choice Task and the Orthographic Awareness Task. Crossed-lagged structural equation modeling showed significant mutual contributions between the two components of orthographic knowledge, providing thus prelimina ry evidence of bidirectional relations over time. Results are discussed in the context of theories of reading development taking into acco...
Source: Reading and Writing - May 3, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The relationship between motivation to read and reading comprehension in chilean elementary students
This study examined the role of reading motivation in reading comprehension achievement of 1070 Chilean third, fourth, and fifth-grade students enrolled in public and private schools. Students were assessed in Spanish reading comprehension and were administered the Motivation to Read Profile from Gambrell, Palmer, Codling and Mazzoni (1996), at the beginning and end of the school year. Results showed that motivation to read at the beginning of the school year was significantly associated with gains in reading comprehension skills. When disaggregating motivation into self-concept and value of reading, only self-concept of r...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 26, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Lexical properties influencing visual word recognition  in Hangul
This study examined how lexical properties, such as word frequency, word length, and morphological features, affect the word recognition of Korean Hangul among adult readers. Ninety-four native Korean students performed a lexical decision task on disyllabic and trisyllabic words and nonwords. Results of cross-classified and hierarchical linear modeling showed a significant frequency effect but null effects of word length and their interactions on word recognition. The null syllable effect might be contributable to the block structure of syllables, which does not require syllabic decomposition in recognition. Given that Chi...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 21, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The contribution of morphological awareness to reading comprehension in Arabic-speaking second graders
We examined the longitudinal contribution of awareness of inflections and derivations to reading comprehension in Arabic, a morphologically rich language, among 734 second graders. Morphological awareness, phonological awareness, word decoding and reading comprehension tasks were delivered at the beginning and at the end of the school year. Results indicated that readers improved in morphological awareness and reading comprehension over the course of the year. More importantly, in general, morphological awareness at the beginning of the year predicted reading comprehension at the end of the year. Moreover, inflectional awa...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 21, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Contributions of executive functioning to Chinese and English reading comprehension in Chinese adolescent readers with dyslexia
AbstractThe present study investigated the executive functioning of working memory, inhibition, shifting, and planning in Chinese adolescent readers with dyslexia and how they related to Chinese (L1) and English (L2) reading comprehension. Fifty-seven Hong Kong Chinese students at Grade 7 were compared with 57 typically developing readers of chronological-age-matched controls on their performance  on working memory, inhibition, shifting, planning, vocabulary knowledge, rapid naming, and reading comprehension in Chinese and English. Results from the multivariate analysis of variance showed that readers w...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 19, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Writing motivational incentives of middle school emergent bilingual students
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to compare the motivational incentives for writing of middle school emergent bilingual students with their peers whose first language was English. The study included 285 emergent bilingual students (146 girls, 139 boys) who were matched with 285 native English speakers (NE) on race, gender, and grade. The emergent bilingual students included two groups: students receiving English language services (EL) and students who had been reclassified as English proficient (REP). All students completed the school district ’s standardized informative writing test and a survey assessing the f...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 17, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Factors that influence reading acquisition in L2 english for students in Bangalore, India
This study explores the possibility of adapting specific progress-monitoring tools developed in the US for use in English-medium private schools in Bangalore. In the US, many teachers adopt progress-monitoring tools like the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills  (DIBELS) and Curriculum Based Measurement (easyCBM) to keep track of their students’ reading abilities. We report on Phase 1 of a longitudinal study that included three phases of data collection. Participants included 1003 students in Grades 1, 3 and 5, and 50 teachers. Both quantitative and qua litative data were collected. Results indicate...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 14, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Profiles of warm engagement and cold evaluation in multiple-document comprehension
AbstractWe explored potential profiles of interest, attitudes, and source evaluation by performing cluster analysis in a sample of Norwegian upper-secondary students. Differences among the profile groups with regard to multiple-document use were examined. The profile groups were partly consistent with the default stances described by the cognitive-affective engagement model of multiple-source use (List& Alexander, 2017), resulting in critical analytic, evaluative, and disengaged profiles. However, the model ’s assumption that interest and attitude constitute one affective engagement dimension was not confirmed. T...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 10, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research