An eye tracking study of digital text reading: a comparison between poor and typical readers
AbstractThe inclusion of technology in schools, coupled with the importance of promoting reading for students with difficulties in particular, has increased the need for investigating processes that support reading and reading comprehension. The present study therefore focuses on the characteristics of reading from an educational digital book containing an expository text and illustrations, conducted by means of an eye tracking methodology enabling online reflection of the reading process. The effect on reading a highlighted text with illustrations was compared to that of reading a static text with illustrations. Participa...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 13, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Phonological awareness in Arabic: the role of phonological distance, phonological-unit size, and SES
AbstractThe study tested phonological awareness in a cross-sectional sample of 200 Arabic-speaking 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, and 10th graders from low and mid-high Socio-Economic Status (SES). Participants were native speakers of a local dialect of Palestinian Arabic spoken in the north of Israel. Twelve phonological awareness tasks were administered: six of them included stimuli that have an identical form in Standard Arabic and in the spoken dialect (hereafter, SpA words; e.g., /s ɑʒɑd/‘knelt’) and six used StA words with a unique form different from the one used in the dialect (hereafter, StA words; e.g., /ʔɑ...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 12, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Executive functions and components of oral reading fluency through the lens of text complexity
AbstractAs readers struggle to coordinate various reading- and language-related skills during oral reading fluency (ORF), miscues can emerge, especially when processing complex texts. Following a miscue, students often self-correct as a strategy to potentially restore ORF and online linguistic comprehension. Executive functions (EF) are hypothesized to play an interactive role during ORF. Yet, the role of EF in self-corrections while reading complex texts remains elusive. To this end, we evaluated the relation between students ’ probability of self-correcting miscues—or P(SC)—and their EF profile in a coh...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 11, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Prior knowledge and its activation in elementary classroom discourse
AbstractThe purpose of the current study was to: (a) examine the frequency of prior knowledge (PK) activation in elementary classrooms while students were engaged with text, (b) investigate the relevance of students ’ responses to teacher prompts, (c) explore the nature of teachers’ and students’ prior knowledge activation utterances, and (d) investigate whether there were discernible routines in the interactions between teachers and students when activating PK. Participants were 6 teachers and 99 student s from a private elementary school in the mid-Atlantic. An analysis of classroom discourse suggested ...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 10, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

A longitudinal analysis of the alignment between children ’s early word-level reading trajectories, teachers’ reported concerns and supports provided
AbstractIn this longitudinal study, the word-level reading trajectories of 118 children were tracked alongside teachers ’ reported concerns and types of support provided through Grades 1, 2 and 3. Results show a significant decline in composite scores relative to age norms over time, with children achieving significantly lower in phonemic decoding than word recognition at the subtest level. Five group trajectories were identified: children who achieved average or above average scores across all 3 years (n = 64), children who consistently bordered on average (n = 11), children who achi...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 8, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Word and sentence level tests of morphological awareness in reading
We report the results of a study testing a new word level task. College students viewed transparent words (without phonological or orthographic shifts) and used a keyboard to indicate whether the items contained 1, 2, 3, or 4 morphemes. Morpheme counting accuracy was strongly and significantly correlated with sentence level tests of morphological awareness, also grouping with them in a factor analysis, suggesting that the tasks measure a similar construct. Morpheme counting accuracy was also strongly and significantly correlated with the word identification and passage comprehension measures from the WJ-IV. Crossed random-...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 3, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Visual statistical learning in children with and without DLD and its relation to literacy in children with DLD
AbstractVisual statistical learning (VSL) has been proposed to underlie literacy development in typically developing (TD) children. A deficit in VSL may thus contribute to the observed problems with written language in children with dyslexia. Interestingly, although many children with developmental language disorder (DLD) exhibit problems with written language similar to those seen in children with dyslexia, few studies investigated the presence of a VSL deficit in DLD, and we know very little about the relation between VSL and literacy in this group of children. After testing 36 primary-school-aged  children (ages 7;...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 29, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Relationships between reading profiles and narrative writing abilities in school-age children with autism spectrum disorder
This study adopted a reading-to-writing framework to examine if school-age children differ in their narrative writing performance based on their categorically heterogeneous, empirically derived latent reading profiles. Sixty-four school-age (10 –18 years old) children with ASD without co-occurring intellectual or severe communication difficulties completed a battery of reading and writing assessments, and reading profiles were examined using latent profile analysis with narrative writing skills, ASD symptom severity, and age included as auxiliary outcome variables.Average readers demonstrated significantly highe...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 16, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Teaching writing in Brazilian public high schools
AbstractWriting skills are crucial for high school students ’ academic, social, and professional success in Brazil. Developing the ability to write, however, is a demanding process that requires considerable support from teachers. The purpose of this study was to survey the population of high school language arts teachers in two Brazilian states about thei r writing instructional practices, including the use of instructional practices supported by scientifically based research (evidence-based practices), perceptions of their preparation, and perceived self-efficacy in teaching writing. A second aim of this study was ...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 14, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Print exposure across the reading life span
AbstractLeisure reading is a main contributor to print exposure, which is in turn related to individual differences in reading and language skills. The Author Recognition Test (ART) is a brief and objective measure of print exposure that has been used in reading research since the 1990s. Life span studies have reported contradicting results concerning age differences in print exposure, possibly due to the use of ART versions that differed regarding authors ’ mean publication year. We investigated effects of participant age and authors’ mean publication year, literary level, and circulation frequency on author r...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 13, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Concreteness and imageability and their influences on Chinese two-character word recognition
AbstractTo compare the influences of concreteness and imageability on Chinese two-character (2C) word recognition, two experiments were conducted in a primed task on a cohort of skilled readers. In addition to PRIME (2C words or their transposed constituent characters) and DIRECTION (forward or backward collocations between prime words and targets), CONCRETENESS (prime words of high or low level of concreteness) and IMAGEABILITY (prime words of high or low imageability) were manipulated in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. The results consistently confirmed that 2C words can be perceived both as whole entities and accordi...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 13, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Decisions about consonant doubling among non-native speakers of English: graphotactic and phonological influences
This study examined the extent to which such influences apply to non-native speakers of English, who presumably have less knowledge of English graphotactics and phonology and less opportunity to be explicitly instructed, and whether such influences vary as a function of first language (L1) background. Eighty-five university students in Beijing who study English as a second language (ESL) with contrasting L1 backgrounds (46 Chinese and 39 Korean,Mage = 20.51 years,SD = 1.95) completed a nonword spelling task and a standardized English spelling ability test. In the nonword spelling task, part...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 13, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Exploring the nature of associations between educators ’ knowledge and their emergent literacy classroom practices
In this study, we examine the nature of associations between early childhood educators’ literacy content knowledge and their classroom emergent literacy practices. Specifically, we apply ge neralized additive modeling to consider three hypotheses regarding the functional form of these associations: (1) educators’ content knowledge must reach a threshold before demonstrating associations with practice, (2) educators’ knowledge is associated with practice until reaching a plateau, or (3) educators’ knowledge is linearly associated with practice. We measured educators’ (n = 437) con...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 11, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Proofreading by students: implications of executive and non-executive components of working memory in the detection of phonological, orthographical, and grammatical errors
AbstractThe present research studied the role of the non-executive and executive components of working memory in the detection of phonological, orthographical, and grammatical spelling errors. Before performing error detection tasks, undergraduate participants completed a battery of tasks to evaluate their non-executive (verbal and visuospatial storage) and executive (coordination of verbal and visuospatial storage, and processing; strategic retrieval from long-term memory; effortful shifting) functions supporting working memory. The analyses found that phonological errors were better detected than grammatical errors, foll...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 8, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Morphological awareness and orthographic awareness link Chinese writing to reading comprehension
AbstractResearchers have investigated the association between word writing and word reading in both alphabetic languages and Chinese. The present study extended prior research to investigate the relationship between Chinese word writing (dictation) and reading comprehension in a group of 209 Hong Kong primary school students. Morphological awareness, orthographic awareness, speeded word reading, Chinese word writing and reading comprehension were measured in the present study. The results showed that both morphological awareness and orthographic awareness were significant mediators linking Chinese writing and reading compr...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 8, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Matthew effects in writing productivity during second grade
AbstractThe primary aims of this study were twofold: (a) to describe average change in the written narrative performance of second grade students from the fall and spring of the school year and (b) examine patterns of individual growth to test for Matthew effects. Participants included 299 children in second grade. Microstructural measures were derived from students ’ written narratives including: number of different words (NDW), total number of words (TNW), and accuracy of spelling and grammar. Significant increases in NDW, TNW, and spelling accuracy were evidenced from fall to spring. Students averaged 55 total wor...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 3, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Vocabulary, metacognitive knowledge and task orientation as predictors of narrative picture book comprehension: from preschool to grade 3
AbstractThis is a study of early picture book comprehension, its determinants and later development through primary school. More specifically, picture book comprehension was analyzed longitudinally from age 5 to age 9, delineating the unique contributions of vocabulary, metacognitive knowledge and task orientation to the initial level as well as to the growth of comprehension. A total of 90 Finnish-speaking children participated in the study. The children ’s narrative picture book comprehension was assessed at age 5, age 6 and age 9. Vocabulary, metacognitive knowledge and task orientation were evaluated at age 5. La...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 3, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Portuguese spelling in primary grades: complexity, length and lexicality effects
This study investigates spelling abilities of 189 second, third, and fourth graders using a word and pseudoword dictation task in European Portuguese. We analyzed the effect of orthographic complexity on spelling accuracy and the moderating role of length (two vs. three syllables), lexicality (words vs. pseudowords), and grade (second, third, and fourth). Each item represented one of the following orthographic complexity categories: digraph, contextual consistency, position consistency, consonant cluster, stress mark, inconsistency, and silent letter ‹h›. Digraphs and position consistencies reached high level...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 2, 2020 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Understanding prosody and morphology in school-age children ’s reading
We examined the unique contributions of prosodic awareness and morphological awareness to school-aged children ’s word reading and reading comprehension. A total of 110 elementary-age children from Grades 4 and 5 participated in the current study. To measure prosodic awareness, children were asked to listen to and reflect on the stress patterns of multisyllabic words and identify the syllable of the word t hat contained the primary stress. Two measures of morphological awareness were administered including morphological production and the nonword suffix choice task. Prosodic awareness and morphological awareness were...
Source: Reading and Writing - December 19, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Correction to: Assessing the direct and indirect effects of metalinguistic awareness to the reading comprehension skills of struggling adult readers
In the original publication of the article. (Source: Reading and Writing)
Source: Reading and Writing - December 18, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Correction to: Feedback-seeking behavior in second language writing: motivational mechanisms
The original publication of the article contained errors in the tables. (Source: Reading and Writing)
Source: Reading and Writing - December 17, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Untangling Chinese preschoolers ’ early writing development: associations among early reading, executive functioning, and early writing skills
AbstractDespite a growing body of literature in English-speaking contexts documenting associations among children ’s early reading, executive function (EF), and early writing development, relatively few studies investigate the development of these skills in young Chinese children. Utilizing a longitudinal research design, this study followed 84 Chinese children (M = 4.16 years,SD  =  0.67) over the preschool year and investigated concurrent and longitudinal associations among young children’s early reading (i.e. vocabulary, phonological awareness, and Pinyin knowledge), early wr...
Source: Reading and Writing - December 16, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Effects of linguistic and affective variables on middle school students ’ writing performance in the context of English as a foreign language: an approach using structural equation modeling
This study examines the relative contributions of linguistic and affective variables to writing performance among students learning English as a foreign language (EFL) in South Korea. In total, 270 middle school students completed four language tests assessing their reading comprehension, grammar knowledge, and descriptive and argumentative writing skills, as well as a questionnaire on their previous writing instruction, motivation (intrinsic value, utility value, and cognitive/linguistic value), writing apprehension, and self-efficacy. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were performed to examine...
Source: Reading and Writing - December 13, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Writing across the academic languages: introduction
(Source: Reading and Writing)
Source: Reading and Writing - December 12, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Reading comprehension and strategy use in fourth- and fifth-grade French immersion students
AbstractReading comprehension performance is predicted by decoding skill and linguistic comprehension (e.g., Hoover& Gough, 1990; Joshi& Aaron, 2012; Scarborough, 2001). However, the type of strategies that readers recruit to build a discourse should also contribute to success in first and second language reading comprehension. Sixty-six French immersion elementary students were assessed in English and French on (1) language proficiency measures, and (2) reported strategy selection during a reading comprehension task. Although students reported different strategy use in each language, similar strategies (e.g., infe...
Source: Reading and Writing - December 10, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Cross-lag analysis of early reading and spelling development for bilinguals learning English and Asian scripts
In this study, we contrast bilingual children who are learning English plus an Asian script (Chinese, Malay, or Tamil) to shed some light on language-general and -specific aspects of the interrelations of literacy skills. In a longitudinal design using cross-lag analysis, 620 bilingual children were administered reading and writing (spelling) tasks for English and their other script across 3  years (kindergarten into primary school entry). Models of English reading and writing were different for the three bilingual groups: Chinese and Tamil speakers showed relational patterns similar to monolingual results, but Malay ...
Source: Reading and Writing - December 6, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The summer learning effect in writing in New Zealand
AbstractThe summer learning effect has been identified as a major barrier in creating equitable outcomes in the United States, especially in reading and mathematics. Less is known about the effect in other education systems and subject domains. This research draws on a large sample (N = 4390) to examine the summer learning effect in the comparatively under-researched domain of writing in New Zealand. Results indicate a considerable loss among students despite the relatively short summer break. The drop is substantially larger than the overall summer drop found previously acr oss subjects, and for reading and ...
Source: Reading and Writing - December 6, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The relationship of teacher ratings of executive functions to emergent literacy in Head Start
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate the concurrent relationships between selected teacher-rated executive function (EF) and a comprehensive array of emergent literacy skills in preschool children after adjusting for targeted covariates including at-risk status. The sample comprised 114 three-year-olds who were attending Head Start preschool. The teacher-completed Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool was used to generate three predictor variables: Inhibitory Self-Control, Flexibility, and Emergent Metacognition. The emergent literacy outcomes included the Teacher Ratings of Oral Languag...
Source: Reading and Writing - November 16, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Visual search and reading comprehension in Chinese children: the mediation of word detection skill
AbstractThe present study explored the mediating effect of word detection on the relationship between visual-spatial attention and reading comprehension in Chinese. The participants included 287 Hong Kong Chinese children (167 third graders, 84 girls,mean age  =  8.73,SD = .49, and 120 fourth graders, 45 girls,mean age  =  9.93,SD = .51). Using structural equation modelling, we found a significant direct effect of visual search on reading comprehension, after age, non-verbal IQ, and Chinese character reading were included in the model. The relationship between visual ...
Source: Reading and Writing - November 15, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Easy-to-read German put to the test: Do adults with intellectual disability or functional illiteracy benefit from compound segmentation?
AbstractEasy-to-read (ETR) German is the subject of public debate. Even though it is heavily promoted by officials, its status is controversial. Moreover, the comprehensibility of ETR German texts awaits systematic testing. The aim of the present study was to test a controversial rule concerning word segmentation. Hypotheses derived from psycholinguistic studies with skilled readers predict an interaction of segmentation and semantic transparency. A sample of individuals, some with intellectual disability and others functionally illiterate, performed a timed lexical decision task on unsegmented and segmented noun compounds...
Source: Reading and Writing - November 15, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Phonological decoding enhances orthographic facilitation of vocabulary learning in first graders
AbstractAn experiment examined orthographic facilitation of vocabulary learning, that is, whether showing students spellings of novel words during learning helps them remember the words when spellings are no longer present. The purpose was to determine whether having students decode the spellings of vocabulary words improves word learning over passive exposure to spellings, and whether both treatments boost word memory compared to no spelling exposure. Low SES, urban first graders (N = 55) were randomly assigned to one of two word learning conditions: a decoding condition (printed words sounded out and blende...
Source: Reading and Writing - November 15, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Writing and reading performance in Year 1 Australian classrooms: associations with handwriting automaticity and writing instruction
AbstractTheories of writing development and accumulating evidence indicate that handwriting automaticity is related to the development of effective writing skills, and that writing and reading skills are also associated with each other. However, less is known about the nature of these associations and the role of instructional factors in the early years. The present study examines: (1) the influence of handwriting automaticity in the writing and reading performance of Year 1 students, both concurrently and across time; (2) associations between students ’ writing and reading performance and writing instruction. The cu...
Source: Reading and Writing - November 13, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Longitudinal associations of phonological processing skills, Chinese word reading, and arithmetic
AbstractThis 13-month longitudinal study investigated whether different phonological processing components independently predicted individual differences in Chinese word reading and arithmetic. Three phonological processing skills [phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid automatized naming (RAN)], word reading, and arithmetic were assessed among eighty-eight Hong Kong Chinese first graders (Mean age  = 79.88 months, SD = 4.71), along with vocabulary and nonverbal intelligence. These abilities were measured again at second grade (Mean age = 92.89 months, SD&...
Source: Reading and Writing - November 12, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

How does home literacy environment influence reading comprehension in Chinese? Evidence from a 3-year longitudinal study
AbstractAlthough several studies have examined the role of home literacy environment (HLE) in learning to read in Western societies, little is known about the role of HLE in Chinese reading. In addition, the few studies in Chinese have not tested the possible effects of HLE on reading comprehension. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of different aspects of HLE (formal literacy experiences, informal literacy experiences, and access to literacy resources) on reading comprehension in Chinese. One hundred fifty-nine third year kindergarten children (70 girls and 89 boys;Mage ...
Source: Reading and Writing - November 11, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Writing with imagination: the influence of hot and cold executive functions in children with autism characteristics and typically developing peers
AbstractThe current study investigated the extent cognitive and emotion regulation deficits (i.e., executive functions) associated with autism impact on the development of imagination in writing. Sixty-one children participated in the study (M age  = 9 years 7 months, SD = 14 months, 18 female, 43 male), comprising a selected group with autism characteristics (N = 26, M age = 9 years 5 months, SD = 17 months, 4 female, 22 male) and an age-matched group of typically developing children (N = 35, M age =&th...
Source: Reading and Writing - October 29, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Effectiveness of volunteer-led strategy instruction on the story writing of third grade students experiencing difficulties learning to write
This study examined if supp lemental SRSD instruction in writing can be delivered effectively by adult volunteers. Adult volunteers can potentially provide teachers with assistance in making sure struggling writers receive the supplementary instruction needed to be successful. Three adult volunteers delivered SRSD instruction for story writing to six third-grade students’ experiencing difficulty learning to write. A multiple-probe design was used to assess the effectiveness of SRSD instruction. Volunteers were able to deliver instruction with high levels of treatment fidelity. Even more importantly, students’ w...
Source: Reading and Writing - October 25, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Time to read Young Adult fiction: print exposure and linguistic correlates in adolescents
This study examined print exposure within Adult fiction, and Children ’s and Young Adult fiction in 90 adolescents (Mage = 16.3). Results showed that scores on an Author Recognition Test (ART) containing the names of Children’s and Young Adult fiction authors were positively correlated with adolescents’ general reading and spelling abilities and single-word reading speed. The same pattern was either weaker, o r absent, with scores on an ART containing Adult authors names. Furthermore, recognizing Children’s and Young Adult authors predicted performance on the adolescents’ standar...
Source: Reading and Writing - October 17, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

What explains reading and dictation in Persian among Iranian second grade students?
This study aimed to determine the contributions of cognitive linguistic variables to Persian word reading and word dictation. We tested 79 second graders in Iran on different cognitive-linguistic skills, including rapid letter naming, phonological awareness, morphological awareness, orthographic skills, vocabulary knowledge, nonverbal reasoning, word reading, and word dictation. Information on socio-economic status was collected via questionnaire. Regression analyses showed that rapid letter naming and phonological awareness were uniquely associated with reading in Persian, while rapid letter naming, phonological awareness...
Source: Reading and Writing - October 10, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Children with dyslexia show an inhibition domain-specific deficit in reading
AbstractChildren with dyslexia face persistent difficulties in acquiring reading skills, often making guessing errors characterized by the replacement of a word by an orthographic neighbour. These reading errors could be related to inhibition problems within the reading task. Previous studies examining inhibition skills in dyslexic children led to unclear results when inhibition in cognitive and non-reading tasks was evaluated. The present study aims to demonstrate whether dyslexic children have a specific reading inhibition deficit or if they have a general inhibition deficit. Eighteen dyslexic children (age range: 106 &n...
Source: Reading and Writing - October 5, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Effective teaching instructions for Hangul learning among Korean kindergartners
This study assessed the effects of four types of teaching instruction for Hangul learning in Korean kindergartners. Forty-five four-year-old children participated in a Hangul learning experiment where they were taught 6 new Korean Guljas (Korean written syllable) in each of four conditions –whole Gulja, alphabet letter, CV (consonant + vowel) body and coda subsyllabic units, and copying. Participants were separated across three reading levels, namely, emergent readers, novice readers who could read regular Hangul words, and good readers who could read regular and irregular words . Effective training met...
Source: Reading and Writing - September 29, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Dynamic assessment as a screening tool for early identification of reading disabilities: a latent change score approach
We examined whether dynamic decoding assessment (DDA) predicts growth in word reading skill during first grade using latent change score models. In addition, we compared classification accuracy of the DDA to static measures for identifying students at risk for reading disabilities (RD) designated using the dual discrepancy criteria. At the beginning of first grade, students (N  =  104) were assessed on the DDA and static measures of word reading, arithmetic, and domain-general and domain-specific skills. They were assessed again at the end of first grade on static measures of word reading and arithmetic. In D...
Source: Reading and Writing - September 28, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Learning vocabulary from e-book reading and recorded word explanation for low-income elementary students with and without reading difficulties
AbstractChildren from economically disadvantaged families have few opportunities to engage in shared storybook reading activities, and thus are disadvantaged in the area of vocabulary development. In today ’s classroom, many children’s e-books provide audio narration support to facilitate comprehension for children with no adult support. Yet, in this digital age, we still know little about how to effectively use e-books to support these children. To rectify this gap, this study investigates the ef fects of e-book reading with audio narration and some recorded word explanation on the novel vocabulary learning of...
Source: Reading and Writing - September 20, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Effects of explicit L2 vocabulary instruction on developing kindergarten children ’s target and general vocabulary and phonological awareness
AbstractThe introduction of second language (L2) education in kindergartens is ubiquitous in many places globally; nevertheless, research in these settings is scarce compared with that on older learners. L2 vocabulary development is especially germane to these very young learners, rendering this a research-worthy topic. The present study examined the effects of researcher-designed explicit vocabulary instruction compared with implicit instruction on English-as-a-second-language participants ’ (N = 157) gains in not only the target vocabulary items, but also general vocabulary as well as phonological awa...
Source: Reading and Writing - September 18, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The association between children ’s common Chinese stroke errors and spelling ability
AbstractThe present study adopted an error analysis approach to examine the stroke errors committed by 43 Hong Kong Chinese children of Grades 1 and 3 from a Chinese Character Copying Task. It aimed to determine the common stroke error patterns, developmental changes and the cognitive problems implied. The different types of stroke errors and total number of correct stroke sequence were further linked to Chinese word spelling ability and associated cognitive-linguistic skills. Results revealed that wrong stroke sequence and wrong character configuration were the common stroke errors in both grades and Grade 3 students made...
Source: Reading and Writing - September 17, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The role of executive functions and transcription skills in writing: a cross-sectional study across 7  years of schooling
AbstractFindings around the cognitive resources needed to compose text have helped shape current models of writing. Some of these models predict that text generation is constrained by two groups of skills: transcription (i.e., spelling and handwriting) and executive functions (EFs). While the constraining role of transcription on text generation is robust, the relationship between writing and EFs is more scarce. Some studies suggest that the impact of EFs on writing development is not only direct, but also indirect, through transcription skills. However, few studies have analyzed these effects over a sufficiently wide deve...
Source: Reading and Writing - September 14, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Spelling error analysis of written summaries in an academic register by students with specific learning disabilities: phonological, orthographic, and morphological influences
AbstractStudents in grades 5 –9 (N  =  29) with specific learning disabilities (SLDs) (dysgraphia, dyslexia, or oral and written language learning disability, OWL LD) were asked to take notes and handwrite or type summaries of social studies texts about world geography and cultures that they read or heard. This activity required activ ating knowledge of academic language for the disciplinary content. Fine-grained analyses of their spelling errors focused on the phonological, orthographic and morphological aspects of word spelling affected while writing in an academic register. Nonparametric statistical ...
Source: Reading and Writing - August 30, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Performance variations across reading comprehension assessments: Examining the unique contributions of text, activity, and reader
AbstractThese studies examined the contribution of text, activity, and reader to variance in reading comprehension test scores. Study 1 focused on multiple-choice and open-ended item responses, whereas Study 2 examined retell. Both studies included 79 fourth-grade students (ageM = 9.72;SD = .34). Each student read six passages from theQualitative Reading Inventory-Fifth Edition (QRI-5) and completed comprehension assessments of varying response format (open-ended questions, multiple choice, and retell). Measures of cognitive capacity, language knowledge, learning motivation, and word reading flu...
Source: Reading and Writing - August 29, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Written verb use and diversity in children with Developmental Language Disorder: stepping stones to academic writing
AbstractVerb use and the production of verb argument structure in the written texts of children in elementary school is a key stepping stone towards academic writing success that has remained relatively unexplored and is a notable gap in our understanding of writing development. To evaluate the role of verbs in the written narrative texts of children, we compared verb use in 10  year old children that had specific weaknesses in oral language, those with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD), and samples of children of the same age (CA) and the same raw scores on an oral language task (language ability or LAb). Standar...
Source: Reading and Writing - August 24, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Measurement of spelling ability: construction and validation of a phonological, orthographic and morphological pseudo-word instrument for students in Grades 3 –6
AbstractBuilding on current theoretical understandings of how children learn to spell, this paper reports the design and validation of a new pseudo-word dictation test (labelled theComponents of Spelling Test: Pseudo-word version) to measure three spelling components underpinning Standard English: phonology, orthography and morphology. For the first phase of the study, the instrument was tested on a calibration sample of 381 students from Grades 3 to 6, aged between 8 and 12  years. Two versions of the test were recursively developed for Grades 3 and 4 (Pseudo-word-G-3-4) and Grades 5 and 6 (Pseudo-word-G-5-6). In the...
Source: Reading and Writing - August 12, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Does audio-visual binding as an integrative function of working memory influence the early stages of learning to write?
AbstractWorking memory has been proposed to account for the differential rates in progress young children make in writing. One crucial aspect of learning to write is the encoding (i.e., integration) and retrieval of the correct phoneme –grapheme pairings, known as binding. In addition to executive functions, binding is regarded as central to the concept of working memory. To test the developmental increase in binding ability and its comparative influence on writing, an experimental study assessed 5- and 6-year-olds’ accuracy i n retaining and retrieving bound audio-visual information alongside measures of verba...
Source: Reading and Writing - August 8, 2019 Category: Child Development Source Type: research