Morphosyntax in poor comprehenders
Abstract Children described as poor comprehenders (PCs) have reading comprehension difficulties in spite of adequate word reading abilities. PCs are known to display weakness with semantics and higher-level aspects of oral language, but less is known about their grammatical skills, especially with regard to morphosyntax. The purpose of this study was to examine morphosyntax in fourth grade PCs and typically developing readers (TDs), using three experimental tasks involving finiteness marking. Participants also completed standardized, norm-referenced assessments of phonological memory, vocabulary, and broader l...
Source: Reading and Writing - April 1, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

To tell a morphologically complex tale: investigating the story-telling abilities of children and adults with low literacy skills
This study examined differences between adults with low literacy skills and typically achieving children, who were matched on decoding ability, on their production of morphologically complex words (MC) in oral and written stories. In addition, we collected data on their morphological awareness, spelling, and vocabulary skills. Both adults and children were more likely to produce MC words in their oral stories compared to their written stories. While children were much more skilled at using –ed forms to produce past tense verbs than adults, adults were more likely to add –s to a verb and to produce contractions ...
Source: Reading and Writing - March 31, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The contribution of executive functions to narrative writing in fourth grade children
Abstract The present study investigated the contribution of executive functions to narrative writing in fourth grade children, and evaluated to what extent executive functions contribute differentially to different levels of narrative composition. The written skills of 102 Dutch children in fourth grade were assessed using a narrative picture-elicitation task. In addition, a large test battery assessing transcription skills, language skills and executive functions, was administered. The results showed that executive functions contributed both directly and indirectly to narrative composition. More specifically, ana...
Source: Reading and Writing - March 28, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Processing and memory of central versus peripheral information as a function of reading goals: evidence from eye-movements
Abstract The present study examined the effect of reading goals on the processing and memory of central and peripheral textual information. Using eye-tracking methodology, we compared the effect of four common reading goals—entertainment, presentation, studying for a close-ended (multiple-choice) questions test, and studying for an open-ended questions test—on the specific reading time of central and peripheral information and the overall reading time of expository texts. Text memory was tested using multiple-choice questions. Results showed that readers devoted more time to central information than pe...
Source: Reading and Writing - March 24, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Spelling in African American children: the case of final consonant devoicing
This study examined the effect of dialect variation on children’s spelling by using devoicing of final /d/ in African American Vernacular English (AAVE) as a test case. In line with the linguistic interference hypothesis, African American 6-year-olds were significantly poorer at spelling the final d of words such as salad than non-African American students after their spelling performance on other parts of the words was statistically taken into account. Specifically, African American students were more likely than non-African American students to produce spelling errors such as salat for salad. Such misspellings were...
Source: Reading and Writing - March 21, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Modeling the relationship between lexico-grammatical and discourse organization skills in middle grade writers: insights into later productive language skills that support academic writing
In this study, we investigated later language development in the writing of a cross-sectional sample of 235 upper elementary and middle school students (grades 4–8) by examining the use of (1) lexico-grammatical forms that support precise and concise academic writing and (2) paragraph-level structures for organizing written discourse, known as micro-genres. Writing studies typically elicit and analyze long compositions, instead the present study employed two brief writing tasks that allowed for the evaluation of language skills while minimizing the influence of topic knowledge and other non-linguistic factors. Result...
Source: Reading and Writing - March 10, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Examining the underlying dimensions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge
We report results from two studies on the underlying dimensions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge in elementary-aged children. In Study 1, 99 fourth-grade students were given multiple measures of morphological awareness and vocabulary. A single factor accounted for individual differences in all morphology and vocabulary assessments. Study 2 extended these results by giving 90 eighth-grade students expanded measures of vocabulary and morphology that assessed (a) definitional knowledge, (b) usage, (c) relational knowledge, and (d) knowledge of morphological variants, with each potential aspect of knowledge ...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 27, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Large grain instruction and phonological awareness skill influence rime sensitivity, processing speed, and early decoding skill in adult L2 learners
We examined how initial instruction influenced processing speed (i.e., reaction time (RT)) and sensitivity to different orthographic grain sizes (i.e., rimes and letters). Directing attention to large grain size units during initial instruction resulted in higher accuracy for rimes, whereas directing attention to smaller grain size units resulted in slower RTs across all measures. Additionally, phonological awareness skill modulated early learning effects, compensating for the limitations of the initial instruction provided. Collectively, these findings suggest that when adults are learning to read a second orthography, co...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 25, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The simple view of reading in a transparent orthography: the stronger role of oral comprehension
Abstract Comprehension is the ultimate goal of reading, but it is a very complex task consisting of multiple component skills. A number of studies have tested the simple view of reading (SVR; Gough & Tunmer, 1986) in opaque languages, but few investigations of the SVR components have been conducted on transparent languages. In the present study, we tested the SVR model in a sample of 1895 Italian children attending primary school, from first to fifth grade. An assessment battery was used, which included five different tasks: word and non-word reading, passage reading, reading comprehension, and oral comprehens...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 25, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Components of reading comprehension in adolescent first-language and second-language students from low-track schools
Abstract Based on the Simple View of Reading, the present study investigates whether component skills of reading differ between adolescents from low-track schools speaking German as a first (L1) versus as a second language (L2). In our study, 479 9th-grade students completed the Programme for International Student Assessment reading test as well as measures of working memory, reading fluency, reading vocabulary, morpho-syntactic skills, phonological awareness, and listening comprehension. Results indicate that L2 students lagged behind their L1 peers on most measures. After controlling for students’ soci...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 21, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Writing quality predicts Chinese learning
Abstract To examine the importance of manual character writing to reading in a new writing system, 48 adult Chinese-as-a-foreign-language students were taught characters in either a character writing-to-read or an alphabet typing-to-read condition, and engaged in corresponding handwriting or typing training for five consecutive days. Prior knowledge of orthography and phonology was assessed before training. At the end of each training day, improved orthographic quality was assessed via increased skill in producing Chinese characters at both the component and global levels. In addition, pretests and posttests were ...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 20, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Integrative processing of verbal and graphical information during re-reading predicts learning from illustrated text: an eye-movement study
This study investigates the time course of processing an illustrated text through eye-tracking methodology in the school context. The aims were to identify patterns of first- and second-pass reading and to examine whether the integrative processing of text and picture during the less automatic and more purposeful second-pass reading predicts learning, after controlling for reading comprehension, prior knowledge, and self-concept. Forty-three 7th graders read an illustrated science text while their eye movements were recorded. A cluster analysis revealed two processing patterns during the first-pass reading, which differed ...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 19, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

What can measures of text comprehension tell us about creative text production?
This study investigated whether these factors involved in text comprehension also serve a functional role in writing a narrative. Direct influences of situatedness and sensory richness as well as indirect influences via the number of sensory and situational words on the creativity (i.e., originality/novelty) of a written narrative were examined in 165 primary school children through path analyses. Results showed that sensory richness and situatedness explained 35 % of the variance in creativity scores. Sensory richness influenced the originality/novelty of children’s narrative writing directly, whereas situatedn...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 15, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The relationship between morphological awareness and morphological decomposition among English language learners
Abstract Morphological awareness facilitates many reading processes. For this reason, L1 and L2 learners of English are often directly taught to use their knowledge of English morphology as a useful reading strategy for determining parts of speech and meaning of novel words. Over time, use of morphological awareness skills while reading develops into an automatic process for L1 readers called morphological decomposition. While the practice of explicitly teaching morphological awareness skills is prevalent in ESL classes, more research is needed to establish what is known about gains in L2 morphological awareness, ...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 14, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Successful written subject–verb agreement: an online analysis of the procedure used by students in Grades 3, 5 and 12
This study was designed to (1) investigate the procedure responsible for successful written subject–verb agreement, and (2) describe how it develops across grades. Students in Grades 3, 5 and 12 were asked to read noun–noun–verb sentences aloud (e.g., Le chien des voisins mange [The dog of the neighbors eats]) and write out the verb inflections. Some of the nouns differed in number, thus inducing attraction errors. Results showed that third graders were successful because they implemented a declarative procedure requiring regressive fixations on the subject noun while writing out the inflection. A dual-st...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 7, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

How character complexity modulates eye movement control in Chinese reading
Abstract This empirical study examined whether the visual complexities of the first and second characters in two-character words play similar roles in modulating the fixation time and saccade target selection during un-spaced Chinese reading. Consistent with prior research, words with low-complexity characters were fixated for shorter times than words with high-complexity characters. Critically, saccade target selection was primarily influenced by the visual complexity of the first character of a two-character word: words with low-complexity first characters were skipped more frequently, and fixation was localized...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 6, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

(Dis)connections between specific language impairment and dyslexia in Chinese
Abstract Specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia are found to co-occur in school-aged children learning Chinese, a non-alphabetic language (Wong, Kidd, Ho, & Au in Sci Stud Read 14:30–57, 2010). This paper examined the ‘Distinct’ hypothesis—that SLI and dyslexia have different cognitive deficits and behavioural manifestations (e.g., Catts, Adolf, Hogan, & Weismer in J Speech Lang Hear Res 48:1378–1396, 2005) in Chinese children in Primary 1. Ninety-four six- to seven-year-old Chinese children completed a norm-referenced test for oral language and for literacy, as w...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 6, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Flexible self-regulated reading as a cue for deep comprehension: evidence from online and offline measures
Abstract Being a skilled reader means being able to process a text both superficially and deeply. However, international assessments show that 15 year-old students continue to have difficulty in understanding a text deeply. The aim of this study was to examine the differentiated contribution of several facets of self-regulation in the understanding of a text at different levels among skilled and less-skilled readers. To this end, we collected both online (reading traces) and offline (metacognitive judgments) data. The reading processes of 55 final-year secondary school students (15–16 years old) we...
Source: Reading and Writing - February 4, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The ortho-syllable as a processing unit in handwriting: the mute e effect
Abstract Some research on written production has focused on the role of the syllable as a processing unit. However, the precise nature of this syllable unit has yet to be elucidated. The present study examined whether the nature of this processing unit is orthographic (i.e., an ortho-syllable) or phonological. We asked French adults to copy three-syllable and two-syllable words with or without a mute e. In French, a silent e may affect the orthographic syllabification of a word and increase the number of ortho-syllables. In Experiment 1, the mute e was in final position. The presence of the mute e increased writin...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 31, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The structure of oral language and reading and their relation to comprehension in Kindergarten through Grade 2
This study examined the structure of oral language and reading and their relation to comprehension from a latent variable modeling perspective in Kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2. Participants were students in Kindergarten (n = 218), Grade 1 (n = 372), and Grade 2 (n = 273), attending Title 1 schools. Students were administered phonological awareness, syntax, vocabulary, listening comprehension, and decoding fluency measures in mid-year. Outcome measures included a listening comprehension measure in Kindergarten and a reading comprehension test in Grades 1 and 2. In Kindergarten, oral langua...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 28, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Erratum to: Exploring the relationship between adolescents’ reading skills, reading motivation and reading habits
(Source: Reading and Writing)
Source: Reading and Writing - January 23, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Dimensions of discourse level oral language skills and their relation to reading comprehension and written composition: an exploratory study
We examined the relations of discourse-level oral language skills [i.e., listening comprehension, and oral retell and production of narrative texts (oral retell and production hereafter)] to reading comprehension and written composition. Korean-speaking first grade students (N = 97) were assessed on listening comprehension, oral retell and production, word reading, spelling, handwriting fluency as well as reading comprehension and written composition. Listening comprehension, and oral retell and production tasks were best described as having a bi-factor structure, capturing a general discourse-level oral language...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 18, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Levels of phonology related to reading and writing in middle childhood
Abstract The relationships of different levels of phonological processing (sounds in heard and spoken words for whole words, syllables, phonemes, and rimes) to multi-leveled functional reading or writing systems were studied. Participants in this cross-sectional study were students in fourth-grade (n = 119, mean age 116.5 months) and sixth-grade (n = 105, mean age 139.7 months). Multiple Indicators and Multiple Causes modeling was used to analyze whether different levels of sound processing in heard and spoken words were correlated with each other and with multi-leveled reading or wr...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 12, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Word and nonword processing without meaning support in Korean-speaking children with and without hyperlexia
Abstract Hyperlexia is a syndrome of reading without meaning in individuals who otherwise have pronounced cognitive and language deficits. The present study investigated the quality of word representation and the effects of deficient semantic processing on word and nonword reading of Korean children with hyperlexia; their performances were compared to those of typical children matched for their word-recognition abilities. In Study 1, both groups of children were tested on their ability to read word-like nonwords (nonsense words that are generated from real words). Typical children showed slower read-aloud times w...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 12, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Morphological awareness and children’s writing: accuracy, error, and invention
This study examined the relationship between children’s morphological awareness and their ability to produce accurate morphological derivations in writing. Fifth-grade US students (n = 175) completed two writing tasks that invited or required morphological manipulation of words. We examined both accuracy and error, specifically errors in spelling and errors of the sort we termed morphological inventions, which entailed inappropriate, novel pairings of stems and suffixes. Regressions were used to determine the relationship between morphological awareness, morphological accuracy, and spelling accuracy, as wel...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 12, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Additive effects of stimulus quality and word frequency on eye movements during Chinese reading
Abstract Eye movements of Chinese readers were recorded for sentences in which high- and low-frequency target words were presented normally or with reduced stimulus quality in two experiments. We found stimulus quality and word frequency produced strong additive effects on fixation durations for target words. The results demonstrate that stimulus quality and word frequency affect different stages of processing (e.g., visual processing and lexical processing). These results are consistent with the findings of previous single-word lexical decision studies, which showed that stimulus quality manipulation primarily a...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 12, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Cracking the Chinese character: radical sensitivity in learners of Chinese as a foreign language and its relationship to Chinese word reading
This study investigated whether adult non-native learners of Mandarin Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) were aware of the positional (orthographic), phonological and semantic information of radicals, and whether such radical sensitivity was predictive to their Chinese word reading abilities. Eighty-four CFL learners were administered a picture-character mapping task in the no cue, phonetic cue and semantic cue conditions, along with two character reading aloud tasks. CFL learners tended to choose the options of correct radicals in correct positions more than the ones containing correct radicals in incorrect positions whe...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 12, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Comparing relations of motivation, engagement, and achievement among struggling and advanced adolescent readers
Abstract This longitudinal study examined the development of reading motivation, engagement, and achievement in early adolescence by comparing interrelations of these variables in struggling and advanced readers. Participants were 183 pairs of seventh grade students matched in gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and school attended. They completed measures of reading motivations, engagement and comprehension for information text as well as measures of general reading comprehension and reading fluency twice during the school year. Advanced readers showed stronger relations of motivation and engagement with ac...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 12, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Inferential processing among adequate and struggling adolescent comprehenders and relations to reading comprehension
Abstract Separate mixed model analyses of variance were conducted to examine the effect of textual distance on the accuracy and speed of text consistency judgments among adequate and struggling comprehenders across grades 6–12 (n = 1,203). Multiple regressions examined whether accuracy in text consistency judgments uniquely accounted for variance in comprehension. Results suggest that there is considerable growth across the middle and high school years, particularly for adequate comprehenders in those text integration processes that maintain local coherence. Accuracy in text consistency judgments a...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 10, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

‘Organizing the mess in my mind’: EFL teachers’ perceptions and knowledge of English orthography
Abstract English foreign language (EFL) literacy achievement is a major challenge for EFL pupils in Israel. To better understand this challenge, this study used a quantitative approach to examine differences between experienced and preservice EFL teachers’ content knowledge of the English orthography and the impact of a semester course on this knowledge. A qualitative analysis examined perceptions of the English orthography, effective teaching methods for word recognition and spelling as well as effectiveness of the course. Results supported English first language teacher knowledge research showing relativel...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 8, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Improving the reliability of student scores from speeded assessments: an illustration of conditional item response theory using a computer-administered measure of vocabulary
Abstract A growing body of literature suggests that response latency, the amount of time it takes an individual to respond to an item, may be an important factor to consider when using assessment data to estimate the ability of an individual. Considering that tests of passage and list fluency are being adapted to a computer administration format, it is possible that accounting for individual differences in response times may be an increasingly feasible option to strengthen the precision of individual scores. The present research evaluated the differential reliability of scores when using classical test theory and...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 1, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Reading fluency skill and the prosodic marking of linguistic focus
Abstract The purposes of the study were to determine whether third grade children mark linguistic focus features in their reading prosody and whether strong marking of these linguistic focus features might comprise an aspect of expressive reading typical of skilled, fluent reading. Children read a passage targeting information focusing aspects of prosody (direct quote, contrastive words, and exclamations). They also read a grade-level passage from the Qualitative Reading Inventory (Leslie & Caldwell, 2011) and completed the sight word subtest of Test of Word Reading Efficiency-2 (Torgesen, Wagner, & Rasho...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 1, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Using school-level student achievement to engage in formative evaluation: comparative school-level rates of oral reading fluency growth conditioned by initial skill for second grade students
We present a method for data-based decision making at the school level using student achievement data. We demonstrate the potential of a national assessment database [i.e., the University of Oregon DIBELS Data System (DDS)] to provide comparative levels of school-level data on average student achievement gains. Through the DDS as a data source, and the analytic methods we outline, we illustrate one way that schools can engage in system-level formative evaluation by examining their students’ gains across an academic year conditional on initial skill level relative to the performance of a large sample of other schools....
Source: Reading and Writing - January 1, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Validity of CBM measures of oral reading fluency and reading comprehension on high-stakes reading assessments in Grades 7 and 8
We examined the criterion validity and diagnostic efficiency of oral reading fluency (ORF), word reading accuracy, and reading comprehension (RC) for students in Grades 7 and 8 taking into account form effects of ORF, time of assessment, and individual differences, including student designations of limited English proficiency and special education status. Participants were 1,481 students in Grade 7 and 1,462 in Grade 8 attending four middle schools in the Pacific Northwest. Results indicated that (a) the majority of variance in ORF is between individuals, (b) a single ORF passage appears to be equally predictive of the sta...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 1, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The unique relation of silent reading fluency to end-of-year reading comprehension: understanding individual differences at the student, classroom, school, and district levels
Abstract Despite many previous studies on reading fluency (measured by a maze task) as a screening measure, our understanding is limited about the utility of silent reading fluency in predicting later reading comprehension and contextual influences (e.g., schools and districts) on reading comprehension achievement. In the present study we examined: (1) How much variance in reading comprehension scores exist between students, classes, schools, and districts for children in grades 3–10; and (2) whether silent reading fluency measured by a maze task adds a unique contribution to the prediction of spring readin...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 1, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Commentary on new metrics, measures, and uses for fluency data
Abstract Fluency and rate-based assessments, such as curriculum-based measurement, are frequently used to screen and evaluate student progress. The application of such measures are especially prevalent within special education and response to intervention models of prevention and early intervention. Although there is an extensive research and professional literature on the development and evaluation of such measures, there is much left to learn with ongoing and future research. This special series presents a series of papers that explore newer topics and plant the seeds for future innovations. (Source: Reading and Writing)
Source: Reading and Writing - January 1, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

New metrics, measures, and uses for fluency data: an introduction to a special issue on the assessment of reading fluency
Abstract The primary objective of this special issue is to synthesize results from recent reading fluency research endeavors, and to link these findings to practical uses of reading curriculum-based measurement (R-CBM) tools. Taken together, the manuscripts presented in this issue discuss measurement work related to new metrics of indexing student reading progress, the application of R-CBM tasks to traditionally underrepresented groups in the literature, specifically students in Grades 7–8 disaggregated by first-language and special education status, and new uses of aggregate reading fluency data to assist ...
Source: Reading and Writing - January 1, 2015 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The relations between word reading, oral language, and reading comprehension in children who speak English as a first (L1) and second language (L2): a multigroup structural analysis
This study compared the reading and oral language skills of children who speak English as a first (L1) and second language (L2), and examined whether the strength of the relationship between word reading, oral language, and reading comprehension was invariant (equivalent) across the two groups. The participants included 183 L1 and L2 children (M = 9; 7 years, SD = 3.64 months) in England. As anticipated, there was a significant L1 advantage for oral language (i.e., vocabulary, verbal working memory, sentence repetition) and reading comprehension but not for word reading. Findings from the mult...
Source: Reading and Writing - December 23, 2014 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Erratum to: Ambiguity resolution in lateralized Arabic
(Source: Reading and Writing)
Source: Reading and Writing - December 17, 2014 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The developmental trend of orthographic awareness in Chinese preschoolers
Abstract The present study explored the developmental trend of orthographic awareness in Chinese-speaking preschoolers. A total of 184 children between 3 and 5 years of age participated in the study. Two developmental patterns of orthographic awareness were obtained. One pattern was dependent on a traditional Chinese orthographic hierarchy, with a sequence of writing system specificity, radical, whole character, radical combination rules, and stroke. Three-year-olds fully understood the writing-system-specific features of Chinese characters, and could distinguish characters from alphabetic scripts and drawing...
Source: Reading and Writing - December 13, 2014 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Exploring the relationship between adolescent’s reading skills, reading motivation and reading habits
Abstract The present study examines the extent to which adolescents’ reading affect (reading motivation) and behaviour (reading habits) predict different components of reading (word reading, comprehension, summarisation and text reading speed) and also adds to the limited research examining group differences (gender, age, ability) in adolescents’ reading motivation and reading habits. A representative sample of three hundred and twelve students (aged 11–16) from the UK participated. Adolescents’ reading motivation predicted significant variance in their reading comprehension and summari...
Source: Reading and Writing - December 10, 2014 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Statistical learning is related to early literacy-related skills
Abstract It has been demonstrated that statistical learning, or the ability to use statistical information to learn the structure of one’s environment, plays a role in young children’s acquisition of linguistic knowledge. Although most research on statistical learning has focused on language acquisition processes, such as the segmentation of words from fluent speech and the learning of syntactic structure, some recent studies have explored the extent to which individual differences in statistical learning are related to literacy-relevant knowledge and skills. The present study extends on this literatur...
Source: Reading and Writing - December 7, 2014 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Acquisition of the alphabetic principle in deaf and hard-of-hearing preschoolers: the role of phonology in letter-sound learning
In this study, we found evidence of the importance of spoken phonology in the letter–sound learning of 89 deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH) preschoolers. Only DHH children with at least some ability to perceive speech were included in the study. DHH children were more likely to know letter sounds for which the corresponding letter name contains a phonological cue (e.g., d as opposed to h), a phenomenon robustly observed in hearing children (e.g., Treiman, Weatherston, & Berch, 1994). However, unlike the pattern observed in hearing children, DHH children benefited more from phonological cues that are at the end of let...
Source: Reading and Writing - December 4, 2014 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

With a little help: improving kindergarten children’s vocabulary by enhancing the home literacy environment
In this study a nonintensive intervention procedure was developed to improve both, HLE and linguistic competencies. The sample consisted of 125 German children in their last year of kindergarten (mean child age at the beginning of the study: 5 years, 5 months) and their families who showed an above average socio-economic status. All parents were offered to participate in the intervention, consisting of providing them with relevant information on HLE at one evening meeting and providing an additional individual reading session that introduced them to the concept of dialogic reading. HLE and children’s linguistic compe...
Source: Reading and Writing - December 3, 2014 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Applying a multiple group causal indicator modeling framework to the reading comprehension skills of third, seventh, and tenth grade students
This study demonstrates the utility of applying a causal indicator modeling framework to investigate important predictors of reading comprehension in third, seventh, and tenth grade students. The results indicated that a 4-factor multiple indicator multiple indicator cause (MIMIC) model of reading comprehension provided adequate fit at each grade level. This model included latent predictor constructs of decoding, verbal reasoning, nonverbal reasoning, and working memory and accounted for a large portion of the reading comprehension variance (73–87 %) across grade levels. Verbal reasoning contributed the most uni...
Source: Reading and Writing - November 27, 2014 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Visual attention to print-salient and picture-salient environmental print in young children
Abstract Environmental print is composed of words and contextual cues such as logos and pictures. The salience of the contextual cues may influence attention to words and thus the potential of environmental print in promoting early reading development. The present study explored this by presenting pre-readers (n = 20) and beginning readers (n = 16) with environmental print that was print-salient or picture-salient. Children’s visual attention to environmental print was measured using an eye tracker. Pre-readers were found to attend more to words in print-salient rather than picture-salien...
Source: Reading and Writing - November 15, 2014 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Ambiguity resolution in lateralized Arabic
We examined ambiguity resolution in reading in Arabic. Arabic is an abjad orthography and is morphologically similar to Hebrew. However, Arabic literacy occurs in a diglossic context, and its orthography is more visually complex than Hebrew. We therefore tested to see whether hemispheric differences will be similar or different from previous findings in Hebrew. We also tested whether phonological recoding is a mandatory stage in reading Arabic. We used a divided visual field paradigm, where 32 participants performed semantic decisions on pairs of words in which the first word (presented centrally) was either a homophone (b...
Source: Reading and Writing - November 12, 2014 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Reliability and validity of the CTOPP Elision and Blending Words subtests for struggling adult readers
This study examined the psychometric and descriptive attributes of the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP) Elision and Blending Words subtests with struggling adult readers. The sample included 207 native English speaking adults reading between the third- and fifth-grade levels. Analyses included comparisons of struggling adult readers to the CTOPP norm group. Results revealed lower overall performance and reliability and validity for struggling adult readers compared to the norm group. In addition, analyses included comparisons of performance, reliability, and validity within the group of struggling adul...
Source: Reading and Writing - October 1, 2014 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The role of teacher behavior in adolescents’ intrinsic reading motivation
Abstract Given the weak intrinsic reading motivation of many adolescents on the one hand and the importance of this type of motivation for reading competence on the other hand, the aim of the present study is to identify the related role of teacher behavior. To pursue this aim, a secondary analysis was carried out on PISA 2009 data. More particularly, data of a subsample of 4,269 Flemish 15-year olds were examined by means of multilevel modeling. In line with self-determination theory, the results provide evidence for the significance of perceived autonomy-supportive, structured, and involved teacher behavior. Te...
Source: Reading and Writing - October 1, 2014 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

Effective practices to enhance immigrant kindergarteners’ second language vocabulary learning through storybook reading
This study examined the impact of direct instruction and interactive instruction on immigrant kindergarten children’s vocabulary learning during storybook reading. (In the present study the terms “immigrants” and “second language learners” are used alternatively meaning kindergarteners from immigrant families who are in the process of acquiring a second language besides their mother tongue.) Eighty seven immigrant kindergarten children, aged 4–6 years old (mean = 61.68 months, standard deviations = .51) were recruited from 12 public kindergarten classrooms l...
Source: Reading and Writing - October 1, 2014 Category: Child Development Source Type: research