Natural dead sea salt and retrospective dosimetry.
Abstract Accidents resulting in widespread dispersal of radioactive materials have given rise to a need for materials that are convenient in allowing individual dose assessment. The present study examines natural Dead Sea salt adopted as a model thermoluminescence dosimetry system. Samples were prepared in two different forms, loose-raw and loose-ground, subsequently exposed to 60Co gamma-rays, delivering doses in the range 2-10 Gy. Key thermoluminescence (TL) properties were examined, including glow curves, dose response, sensitivity, reproducibility and fading. Glow curves shapes were found to be independen...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - May 27, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Wahib NB, Abdul Sani SF, Ramli A, Ismail SS, Abdul Jabar MH, Khandaker MU, Daar E, Almugren KS, Alkallas FH, Bradley DA Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Thyroid uptake test with portable device (COTI) after 131I tracer administration: proof of concept.
Abstract COTI (collar therapy indicator) has been recently introduced for the detection of gamma rays with emphasis on thyroid investigations. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of a prototype version of COTI including activity detectors with low sensitivity in performing thyroid uptake measurements for a large group of patients. Consequently, thyroid uptake tests were carried out for a total of 89 patients (22 males and 67 females; age: 44 ± 13 years) with thyroid cancer (n = 74), hyperthyroidism (n = 16) at 2 and 24 h after administration ...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - May 24, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Abuqbeitah M, Demir M, Yeyin N, Sager S, Gray D Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Biomechanical properties enhancement of gamma radiation-sterilized cortical bone using antioxidants.
In conclusion, the results indicate that HT and ALA can be used before irradiation to enhance the mechanical properties of gamma-sterilized bone allografts. PMID: 32444954 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics)
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - May 22, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: El-Hansi NS, Sallam AM, Talaat MS, Said HH, Khalaf MA, Desouky OS Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Triterpenoid CDDO-Me induces ROS generation and up-regulates cellular levels of antioxidative enzymes without induction of DSBs in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
Abstract Ionizing radiation produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to cellular DNA damage. Therefore, patients undergoing radiation therapy or first responders in radiological accident scenarios could both benefit from the identification of specifically acting pharmacological radiomitigators. The synthetic triterpenoid bardoxolone-methyl (CDDO-Me) has previously been shown to exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities in several cell lines, in part by enhancing the DNA damage response. In our study, we examined the effect of nanomolar concentrations of CDDO-Me in human peripheral blood ...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - May 14, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Beinke C, Scherthan H, Port M, Popp T, Hermann C, Eder S Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Eurados review of retrospective dosimetry techniques for internal exposures to ionising radiation and their applications.
chev SY, Wieser A, Woda C, Youngman M Abstract This work presents an overview of the applications of retrospective dosimetry techniques in case of incorporation of radionuclides. The fact that internal exposures are characterized by a spatially inhomogeneous irradiation of the body, which is potentially prolonged over large periods and variable over time, is particularly problematic for biological and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry methods when compared with external exposures. The paper gives initially specific information about internal dosimetry methods, the most common cytogenetic techniques u...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - May 5, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Giussani A, Lopez MA, Romm H, Testa A, Ainsbury EA, Degteva M, Della Monaca S, Etherington G, Fattibene P, Güclu I, Jaworska A, Lloyd DC, Malátová I, McComish S, Melo D, Osko J, Rojo A, Roch-Lefevre S, Roy L, Shishkina E, Sotnik N, Tolmachev SY, Wieser Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Measurement of radiation attenuation parameters of modified defatted soy flour-soy protein isolate-based mangrove wood particleboards to be used for CT phantom production.
Abstract For the first time, Rhizophora spp. (Rh. spp.) particleboard phantoms were developed using defatted soy flour (DSF) and soy protein isolate (SPI) modified by sodium hydroxide and itaconic acid polyamidoamine-epichlorohydrin (IA-PAE) adhesive. The microstructural characterization and X-ray diffraction patterns of the material revealed that the modified DSF and SPI adhesives became more compact and homogeneous when NaOH/IA-PAE was added, which prevented damage by moisture. It was confirmed that the composite is crystalline with (101), (002), and (004) orientations. Phantoms made of this material were scanne...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - April 24, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Samson DO, Jafri MZM, Shukri A, Hashim R, Sulaiman O, Aziz MZA, Yusof MFM Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Comparison of antioxidative effects between radon and thoron inhalation in mouse organs.
In this study, we aimed to compare the biological effects of radon and thoron inhalation on mouse organs with a focus on oxidative stress. Male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 15 groups: sham inhalation, radon inhalation at a dose of 500 Bq/m3 or 2000 Bq/m3, and thoron inhalation at a dose of 500 Bq/m3 or 2000 Bq/m3 were carried out. Immediately after inhalation, mouse tissues were excised for biochemical assays. The results showed a significant increase in superoxide dismutase and total glutathione, and a significant decrease in lipid peroxide following thoron inhalation under several conditions...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - April 22, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Kobashi Y, Kataoka T, Kanzaki N, Ishida T, Sakoda A, Tanaka H, Ishimori Y, Mitsunobu F, Yamaoka K Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

A model of radiation action based on nanodosimetry and the application to ultra-soft X-rays.
Abstract A radiation action model based on nanodosimetry is presented. It is motivated by the finding that the biological effects of various types of ionizing radiation lack a consistent relation with absorbed dose. It is postulated that the common fundamental cause of these effects is the production of elementary sublesions (DSB), which are created at a rate that is proportional to the probability to produce more than two ionisations within a volume of 10 base pairs of the DNA. The concepts of nanodosimetry allow for a quantitative characterization of this process in terms of the cumulative probability F2. The in...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - April 10, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Schneider U, Vasi F, Schmidli K, Besserer J Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Comparing the performance of some dedicated radioprotection disks in breast intraoperative electron radiotherapy: a Monte Carlo study.
Abstract Radiation-shielding of healthy tissue is mandatory in breast intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT). In this regard, dedicated radioprotection disks have been introduced. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the performance of three radioprotection disks widely used for breast IOERT. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was used for this purpose. The considered disks included Al + Pb, PMMA + Copper, and PTFE + Steel. They were stimulated by means of the MCNPX Monte Carlo code at depths around R100 and R90 of different electron energies in a water p...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - April 6, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Baghani HR, Robatjazi M, Mahdavi SR Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Applications of MCNP simulation in treatment planning: a comparative study.
Abstract Monte Carlo codes have been used for approximately 80 years to solve various problems in medical physics. In this paper, the importance of the MCNPX code in treatment planning is highlighted. As illustrative examples of the role of MCNPX in this field, some dosimetric parameters, isodose distribution curves, and figures of merit (FOMs) were considered for photon beams of various energies. To the best of the authors' knowledge, such a systematic study has not been done before. Tissue-air ratio values were obtained as a function of depth in tissue as well as field size. The results of the simulations w...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - April 2, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Vahabi SM, Shamsaie Zafarghandi M Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Effects of chronic immobilization stress on biokinetics and dosimetry of 67Ga in a murine model.
e;rez-Soto E, Azorín-Vega EP Abstract The aim of this work is to determine the effect of chronic immobilization stress on kinetics and dosimetry of 67Ga in a mouse model. A control group (CG) and a stress group (SG), each with 15 mice, were included in the study, and the latter group was subjected to a chronic immobilization stress model 2 h daily for 14 consecutive days. At day 13, 67Ga-citrate was administered intraperitoneally (11.24 ± 0.44 MBq) to each mouse. Then, sets of three mice were obtained sequentially at 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h, in which the radionuclide acti...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - April 2, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Ramírez-Franco J, Oros-Pantoja R, Torres-García E, Aranda-Lara L, Díaz-Sánchez LE, Herrera-Ayala CI, Pérez-Soto E, Azorín-Vega EP Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Dosimetric characteristics of the INTRABEAM ® system with spherical applicators in the presence of air gaps and tissue heterogeneities.
Dosimetric characteristics of the INTRABEAM ® system with spherical applicators in the presence of air gaps and tissue heterogeneities. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2020 Mar 31;: Authors: Tegaw EM, Gholami S, Omyan G, Geraily G Abstract The main aim of this study was to investigate the dosimetric characteristics of the INTRABEAM ® system in the presence of air gaps between the surface of applicators (APs) and tumor bed. Additionally, the effect of tissue heterogeneities was another focus. Investigating the dosimetric characteristics of the INTRABEAM® system is essential to deliver the required ...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - March 31, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Tegaw EM, Gholami S, Omyan G, Geraily G Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Solid cancer risk dependence on the Pasquill-Gifford atmospheric stability classes in a radiological event.
Abstract In a radiological event, the lack of preliminary information about the site of explosion and the difficulty in predicting the accurate path and distribution of radioactive plumes makes it difficult to predict expected health effects of exposed individuals. So far, in such a health evaluation, radiation-induced stochastic health effects such as cancer are not included. The Pasquill-Gifford atmospheric classes generally allow connecting atmospheric stability with dispersion of radioactive contaminants to the environment. In this work, an environmental release of radioactive Cs-137 was simulated and the resu...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - March 27, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Bulhosa VM, Funcke RPN, Brum T, Sanchez JS, Lima ZR, Vital HC, Prah M, Andrade ER Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Comparison of ITO and ZnO ternary glassy composites in terms of radiation shielding properties by Monte Carlo N-particle transport code and BXCOM.
çelli O Abstract In the present study, radiation shielding properties of two glassy composite materials that are widely used in electronics, photovoltaic applications, and sensor technology, were investigated in the photon energy range from 15 keV to 15 MeV. The materials chosen were (ITO)/V2O5/B2O3 and ZnO/V2O5/B2O3 including various concentrations of B2O3. Radiation interaction was simulated and shielding parameters calculated by means of the MCNP and BXCOM codes. More specifically, buildup factors, effective electron density ([Formula: see text]) and effective atomic number ([Formula: see text]) were ca...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - March 19, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Toker O, Bilmez B, Kavanoz HB, Akçalı Ö, İçelli O Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Individual response of humans to ionising radiation: governing factors and importance for radiological protection.
ffler S Abstract Tissue reactions and stochastic effects after exposure to ionising radiation are variable between individuals but the factors and mechanisms governing individual responses are not well understood. Individual responses can be measured at different levels of biological organization and using different endpoints following varying doses of radiation, including: cancers, non-cancer diseases and mortality in the whole organism; normal tissue reactions after exposures; and, cellular endpoints such as chromosomal damage and molecular alterations. There is no doubt that many factors influence the responses...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - March 7, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Applegate KE, Rühm W, Wojcik A, Bourguignon M, Brenner A, Hamasaki K, Imai T, Imaizumi M, Imaoka T, Kakinuma S, Kamada T, Nishimura N, Okonogi N, Ozasa K, Rübe CE, Sadakane A, Sakata R, Shimada Y, Yoshida K, Bouffler S Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

The photo-transferred thermoluminescence phenomenon in case of emergency dose assessment.
Abstract A major disadvantage of dose reconstruction by means of thermoluminescence (TL) is the fact that during readout of any TL material exposed to ionizing radiation (i.e., during measuring the glow curve), the radiation-induced signal gets lost. Application of the photo-transferred thermoluminescence phenomenon (PTTL) may offer a solution to this problem. In PTTL, the residual signal that is not destroyed by conventional TL readout (because it comes from deeper electron traps) can be readout through simultaneous stimulation by UV light and heating, allowing to obtain information about the absorbed dose in a s...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - February 22, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Wrzesień M, Al-Hameed H, Albiniak Ł, Maciocha-Stąporek J, Biegała M Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Genetic mechanisms of formation of radiation-induced instability of the genome and its transgenerational effects in the descendants of chronically irradiated individuals of Drosophila melanogaster.
Abstract The article is devoted to the study of the role of intracellular mechanisms in the formation of radiation-induced genetic instability and its transgenerational effect in cells of different tissues of the descendants of Drosophila melanogaster mutant strains whose parents were exposed to chronic radiation (0.42 and 3.5 mGy/h). The level of DNA damage (alkali-labile sites (ALS), single-strand (SSB) and double-strand (DSB) breaks) in cells of somatic (nerve ganglia, imaginal discs) and generative (testis) tissues from directly irradiated animals and their unirradiated offspring was evaluated. Confident ...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - February 19, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Yushkova E Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Radiation-induced circulating miRNA expression in blood of head and neck cancer patients.
Abstract In recent years, scientists have found evidence confirming the aberrant expression of miRNAs in cancer patients compared to healthy individuals. The growing interest in the identification of non-invasive and specific diagnostic and prognostic molecular markers has identified microRNAs as potential candidates in cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment response. In the present study, we have analyzed the expression profile of circulating miR-21, -191 and -421 in peripheral blood of head and neck cancer patients (HNC) to investigate a possible modulation of mRNA levels by radiation and to identify the role...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - February 10, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Pasi F, Corbella F, Baio A, Capelli E, De Silvestri A, Tinelli C, Nano R Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Correlation of intensity-modulated radiation therapy at a specific radiation dose with the prognosis of nasal mucous damage after radiotherapy.
Abstract Objective of the present study was to investigate the tolerant radiation dose of nasal mucosa by observing and analyzing patients who received intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (N = 66) were selected for this study. The modified saccharin assay, endoscopy test, magnetic resonance imaging, and sino-nasal outcome test-20 (SNOT-20) survey were performed for the patients before and at 0 (T0), 3 (T1), 6 (T2), and 12 (T3) months after radiotherapy. The threshold doses of IMRT before radiotherapy and at T0, T1, T2, and T3 were determined as, respec...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - February 6, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Yin G, Tu B, Ye L Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Obituary Prof. Dr. Wolfgang D örr (1959-2019).
Obituary Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Dörr (1959-2019). Radiat Environ Biophys. 2020 Jan 22;: Authors: Friedl AA, Rühm W, Wojcik A PMID: 31970476 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics)
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - January 22, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Friedl AA, Rühm W, Wojcik A Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Phy-X/ZeXTRa: a software for robust calculation of effective atomic numbers for photon, electron, proton, alpha particle, and carbon ion interactions.
M, Kurudirek M Abstract The purpose of the present work is robust calculation of effective atomic numbers ([Formula: see text]s) for photon, electron, proton, alpha particle and carbon ion interactions through the newly developed software, Phy-X/ZeXTRa (Zeff of materials for X-Type Radiation attenuation). A pool of total mass attenuation and energy absorption coefficients (for photons) and total mass stopping powers (for charged particles) for elements was constructed first. Then, a matrix of interaction cross sections for elements Z = 1-92 was constructed. Finally, effective atomic numbers were cal...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - January 20, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Özpolat ÖF, Alım B, Şakar E, Büyükyıldız M, Kurudirek M Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Endoreduplication in Drosophila melanogaster progeny after exposure to acute γ-irradiation.
Endoreduplication in Drosophila melanogaster progeny after exposure to acute γ-irradiation. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2020 Jan 11;: Authors: Skorobagatko DA, Mazilov AA, Strashnyuk VY Abstract The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of acute γ-irradiation of parent adults on the endoreduplication of giant chromosomes in F1 generation of Drosophila melanogaster Meig. A wild-type Oregon-R strain was used as the material. Virgin females and males of Drosophila adults at the age of 3 days were irradiated with doses of 8, 16 and 25 Gy. Giant chromosomes were studied by...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - January 11, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Skorobagatko DA, Mazilov AA, Strashnyuk VY Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

DNA damage response in peripheral mouse blood leukocytes in vivo after variable, low-dose rate exposure.
Abstract Environmental contamination and ingestion of the radionuclide Cesium-137 (137Cs) is a large concern in fallout from a nuclear reactor accident or improvised nuclear device, and highlights the need to develop biological assays for low-dose rate, internal emitter radiation. To mimic low-dose rates attributable to fallout, we have developed a VAriable Dose-rate External 137Cs irradiatoR (VADER), which can provide arbitrarily varying and progressive low-dose rate irradiations in the range of 0.1-1.2 Gy/day, while circumventing the complexities of dealing with radioactively contaminated biomaterials. We i...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - January 2, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Wang Q, Pujol-Canadell M, Taveras M, Garty G, Perrier J, Bueno-Beti C, Shuryak I, Brenner DJ, Turner HC Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Internal microdosimetry of alpha-emitting radionuclides.
te;sházy I Abstract At the tissue level, energy deposition in cells is determined by the microdistribution of alpha-emitting radionuclides in relation to sensitive target cells. Furthermore, the highly localized energy deposition of alpha particle tracks and the limited range of alpha particles in tissue produce a highly inhomogeneous energy deposition in traversed cell nuclei. Thus, energy deposition in cell nuclei in a given tissue is characterized by the probability of alpha particle hits and, in the case of a hit, by the energy deposited there. In classical microdosimetry, the randomness of energy depos...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - December 21, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Hofmann W, Li WB, Friedland W, Miller BW, Madas B, Bardiès M, Balásházy I Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

High CT doses return to the agenda.
RM PMID: 31844985 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics)
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - December 16, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Rühm W, Harrison RM Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Measurement, model prediction and uncertainty quantification of plasma clearance of cerium citrate in humans.
WB Abstract Double tracer studies in healthy human volunteers with stable isotopes of cerium citrate were performed with the aim of investigating the gastro-intestinal absorption of cerium (Ce), its plasma clearance and urinary excretion. In the present work, results of the clearance of Ce in blood plasma are shown after simultaneous intravenous and oral administration of a Ce tracer. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine the tracer concentrations in plasma. The results show that about 80% of the injected Ce citrate cleared from the plasma within the 5 mins post-administration. T...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - November 29, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Höllriegl V, Barkleit A, Spielmann V, Li WB Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Gamma-ray attenuation properties of some NLO materials: potential use in dosimetry.
Abstract Mass attenuation coefficients ([Formula: see text]) for some nonlinear optical materials such as potassium dihydrogen phosphate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, zinc tris-thiourea sulphate, and zinc thiourea chloride were measured using a [Formula: see text] NaI(Tl) scintillation detector at gamma energies of 122 keV, 356 keV, 511 keV, 662 keV, 840 keV, 1170 keV, 1270 keV, and 1330 keV. In addition, GEANT4 simulations were carried out to mimic the experiment at these energies. As a result, good agreement between the experimental and GEANT4 results was observed. The measured [Formula: see text] values were ...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - November 28, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Al-Buriahi MS, Singh VP, Arslan H, Awasarmol VV, Tonguc BT Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Radio-biologically motivated modeling of radiation risks of mortality from ischemic heart diseases in the Canadian fluoroscopy cohort study.
tska LB Abstract Recent analyses of the Canadian fluoroscopy cohort study reported significantly increased radiation risks of mortality from ischemic heart diseases (IHD) with a linear dose-response adjusted for dose fractionation. This cohort includes 63,707 tuberculosis patients from Canada who were exposed to low-to-moderate dose fractionated X-rays in 1930s-1950s and were followed-up for death from non-cancer causes during 1950-1987. In the current analysis, we scrutinized the assumption of linearity by analyzing a series of radio-biologically motivated nonlinear dose-response models to get a better understand...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - November 28, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Schöllnberger H, Kaiser JC, Eidemüller M, Zablotska LB Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Modeling of chromosome aberration response functions induced by particle beams with different LET.
This study is based on our already published experimental data (Kowalska et al. in Radiat Environ Biophys 58:99-108, 2019) and is devoted to modeling of chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes induced by 22.1 MeV/u 11B ions, 199 MeV/u 12C ions, 150 MeV and spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) proton beams as well as by 60Co γ rays. The curvature of the dose-effect curves determined by the linear-quadratic model was considered in the frame of a simple analytical approach taking into account increase in the irradiation dose due to overlapping interaction regions of ion tracks. The model enabled to estimate e...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - November 21, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Czerski K, Kowalska A, Nasonova E, Kutsalo P, Krasavin E Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Assessment of absorbed dose of gamma rays using the simultaneous determination of inactive hemoglobin derivatives as a biological dosimeter.
Abstract Biological dosimetry based on sulfhemoglobin (SHb), methemoglobin (MetHb), and carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) levels was evaluated. SHb, MetHb and HbCO levels were estimated in erythrocytes of mice irradiated by γ rays from a 60Co source using the method of multi-component spectrophotometric analysis developed recently. In this method, absorption measurements of diluted aqueous Hb-solution were made at λ = 500, 569, 577 and 620 nm, and using the mathematical formulas based on multi-component spectrophotometric analysis and the mathematical Gaussian elimination method for matrix c...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - November 16, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Attia AMM, Aboulthana WM, Hassan GM, Aboelezz E Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

MnTnBuOE-2-PyP treatment protects from radioactive iodine (I-131) treatment-related side effects in thyroid cancer.
Abstract Treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer often involves administration of radioactive iodine (I-131) for remnant ablation or adjuvant therapy. However, there is morbidity associated with I-131 therapy, which can result in both acute and chronic complications. Currently, there are no approved radioprotectors that can be used in conjunction with I-131 to reduce complications in thyroid cancer therapy. It is well known that the damaging effects of ionizing radiation are mediated, in part, by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A potent scavenger of ROS, Mn(III)meso-tetrakis(N-n-butoxyethylpyrid...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - November 14, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Patel A, Kosmacek EA, Fisher KW, Goldner W, Oberley-Deegan RE Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Dose coefficients of percentile-specific computational phantoms for photon external exposures.
Abstract The use of dose coefficients (DCs) based on the reference phantoms recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) with a fixed body size may produce errors to the estimated organ/tissue doses to be used, for example, for epidemiologic studies depending on the body size of cohort members. A set of percentile-specific computational phantoms that represent 10th, 50th, and 90th percentile standing heights and body masses in adult male and female Caucasian populations were recently developed by modifying the mesh-type ICRP reference computational phantoms (MRCPs). In the present ...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - November 2, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Yeom YS, Han H, Choi C, Shin B, Kim CH, Lee C Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Dose limits for occupational exposure to ionising radiation and genotoxic carcinogens: a German perspective.
Conclusions include, among others, considerations on radiation protection concepts currently in use and recommendations of the SSK on the limitation of annual effective dose and effective dose cumulated over a whole working life. PMID: 31677018 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics)
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - November 1, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Rühm W, Breckow J, Dietze G, Friedl A, Greinert R, Jacob P, Kistinger S, Michel R, Müller WU, Otten H, Streffer C, Weiss W Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Monte Carlo investigation of electron specific energy distribution in a single cell model.
Abstract Knowledge of microdosimetric quantities of certain radionuclides is important in radio immune cancer therapies. Specific energy distribution of radionuclides, which are bound to the cell, is the microdosimetric quantity essential in the process of radionuclide selection for patient tumour treatment. The aim of this paper is to establish an applicable method to determine microdosimetric quantities for various radionuclides. The established method is based on knowledge of microdosimetric quantities of monoenergetic electrons. In this paper these quantities are determined for the single-cell model for a rang...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - October 28, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Markovic VM, Stevanovic N, Nikezic D Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

A proof of principle experiment for microbeam radiation therapy at the Munich compact light source.
This study demonstrates for the first time that MRT can be successfully performed in vivo at compact inverse Compton sources. PMID: 31655869 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics)
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - October 26, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Dombrowsky AC, Burger K, Porth AK, Stein M, Dierolf M, Günther B, Achterhold K, Gleich B, Feuchtinger A, Bartzsch S, Beyreuther E, Combs SE, Pfeiffer F, Wilkens JJ, Schmid TE Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

The degree of inhomogeneity of the absorbed cell nucleus doses in the bronchial region of the human respiratory tract.
aacute;sházy I Abstract Inhalation of short-lived radon progeny is an important cause of lung cancer. To characterize the absorbed doses in the bronchial region of the airways due to inhaled radon progeny, mostly regional lung deposition models, like the Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, are used. However, in this model the site specificity of radiation burden in the airways due to deposition and fast airway clearance of radon progeny is not described. Therefore, in the present study, the Radact version of the stochastic lung model was used to q...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - October 5, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Füri P, Farkas Á, Madas BG, Hofmann W, Winkler-Heil R, Kudela G, Balásházy I Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Phantom design and dosimetric characterization for multiple simultaneous cell irradiations with active pencil beam scanning.
Georg D Abstract A new phantom was designed for in vitro studies on cell lines in horizontal particle beams. The phantom enables simultaneous irradiation at multiple positions along the beam path. The main purpose of this study was the detailed dosimetric characterization of the phantom which consists of various heterogeneous structures. The dosimetric measurements described here were performed under non-reference conditions. The experiment involved a CT scan of the phantom, dose calculations performed with the treatment planning system (TPS) RayStation employing both the Pencil Beam (PB) and Monte Carlo (MC) algo...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - September 20, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Clausen M, Khachonkham S, Gruber S, Kuess P, Seemann R, Knäusl B, Mara E, Palmans H, Dörr W, Georg D Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Organ and detriment-weighted dose rate coefficients for exposure to radionuclide-contaminated soil considering body morphometries that differ from reference conditions: adults and children.
Abstract The system of protection established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) provides a robust framework for ionizing radiation exposure justification, optimization, and dose limitation. The system is built upon fundamental concepts of a reference person, defined in ICRP Publication 89, and the radiation protection quantity effective dose, defined in ICRP Publication 103. For external exposures to radionuclide-contaminated soil, values of the organ dose rate coefficient (Gy/s per Bq/m2) and effective dose rate coefficient (Sv/s per Bq/m2) have been computed by several authors and...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - September 5, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Kofler C, Domal S, Satoh D, Dewji S, Eckerman K, Bolch WE Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements as proxies of X-ray resistance in Phaseolus vulgaris L.
Abstract Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants were irradiated with different doses (0.3, 10, 50 and 100 Gy) of X-rays in order to obtain a reference curve of response to ionizing radiations for this species. Growth analysis, gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements were performed to estimate the radio-resistance of bean plants. Specifically, there was a negative influence of X-rays on the net photosynthesis rate at 50 and 100 Gy, already on the day of irradiation. Experimental data showed a recovery over time in the gas exchange while the theoretical maximum photochemical efficiency of the photosystem II (...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - August 28, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Guadagno CR, Pugliese M, Bonanno S, Manco AM, Sodano N, D'Ambrosio N Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Childhood leukemia in Ukraine after the Chornobyl accident.
Abstract This population-based ecological study analyzes the prevalence of childhood leukemia in Ukraine before and after the Chornobyl nuclear power plant accident, based on the contamination status of the territory, time period, gender, and age. Three regions-Zhytomyr, Kyiv (except Kyiv city), and Chernihiv were included as areas contaminated by radioactive 137Cs from 1 to 15 Ci/km2 with annual effective doses exceeding 1.0 mSv, and Sumy region as the control (non-contaminated) area with 137Cs contamination less than 1 Ci/km2 and effective doses less than 0.5 mSv per year. The integrated data...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - August 2, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Liubarets TF, Shibata Y, Saenko VA, Bebeshko VG, Prysyazhnyuk AE, Bruslova KM, Fuzik MM, Yamashita S, Bazyka DA Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Risk bases can complement dose bases for implementing and optimising a radiological protection strategy in urgent and transition emergency phases.
Abstract Current radiological emergency response recommendations have been provided by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and adopted by the International Atomic Energy Agency in comprehensive Safety Standards. These standards provide dose-based guidance for decision making (e.g., on sheltering or relocation) via generic criteria in terms of effective dose in the range from 20 mSv per year, during transition from emergency to existing exposure situation, to 100 mSv, acute or annual, in the urgent phase of a nuclear accident. The purpose of this paper was to examine how such dose refe...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - July 25, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Walsh L, Ulanowski A, Kaiser JC, Woda C, Raskob W Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

A new EPR dosimeter based on glutamic acid for radiation processing application.
Abstract L-Glutamic acid (L-GA) pellets (3.8 mm × 4 mm) and powder dosimeters were studied in the dose range of 0.1-150 kGy using the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. The EPR spectra of irradiated L-GA pellets showed an EPR signal with eight lines, and the intensity of the signal increased with an increase of absorbed dose. The results obtained in terms of the energy-absorption coefficients suggest a similar performance of the L-GA pellets as compared to alanine pellets. The value of the temperature coefficient for the L-GA pellets during irradiation was around -&...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - July 8, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Beshir WB, Soliman YS, Abdel-Fattah AA, Fahim RA Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Radiation interaction parameters for blood samples of breast cancer patients: an MCNP study.
Abstract The main goal of this study was to determine radiation interaction parameters such as mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers, and effective electron densities depending on element concentrations (Na, K, Cu, Zn, Al, Ca, Mg Cr, Fe, Se) in blood samples of patients with breast cancer. Eighty blood samples were collected and analyzed in this study (40 from breast cancer patients and 40 from healthy patients). The determination of element concentrations of the samples was performed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectr...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - July 1, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Toker O, Caglar M, Oz E, Bakirdere S, Topdagi O, Eyecioglu O, Icelli O Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Time evolution of radiation-induced EPR signals in different types of mobile phone screen glasses.
In this study, samples of smart phone touch screen glass sheets and tempered glass screen protectors were examined with respect to their potential application in the dosimetry of ionizing radiation. The glass samples were obtained from various phones with different types of glass. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of the radiation-induced signals (RIS) are presented and their dose dependence within a dose range of 0-20 Gy. Despite the observed fading with time of the dosimetric components of the signal, the remaining RIS turned out to be strong enough for a reliable dosimetry even 18 month after irrad...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - July 1, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Juniewicz M, Ciesielski B, Marciniak A, Prawdzik-Dampc A Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Radon transfer from thermal water to human organs in radon therapy: exhalation measurements and model simulations.
In this study, six volunteers were exposed to radon-rich thermal water in a bathtub, comprising eleven measurements. Exhaled activity concentrations were measured intermittently during the 20 min bathing and 20 min resting phases. Upon entering the bathtub, the radon activity concentration in the exhaled breath increased almost linearly with time, reaching its maximum value at the end of the exposure, and then decreased exponentially with time in the subsequent resting phase. Although for all individuals the time-dependence of exhaled radon activity was similar during bathing and resting, significant inter-subjec...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - June 29, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Hofmann W, Winkler-Heil R, Lettner H, Hubmer A, Gaisberger M Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Modeling of atmospheric transfer of radionuclides in the form of water aerosols from the surface area of water bodies using the example of Lake Karachay, Russia.
Abstract Based on the analysis of multi-year monitoring data on atmospheric air contamination in the vicinity of Lake Karachay, Reservoir V-9, a model is suggested here for carry-over of radionuclides (trace elements) in the form of water aerosols from the reservoir surface area. The concept of fractionation (accumulation) coefficients is introduced for different radionuclides present in V-9 Reservoir water aerosols as compared to the reference radionuclide 137Cs. The range of possible fractionation coefficient values is estimated for 134Cs, 90Sr, 103,106Ru, 95Zr+ 95Nb, 125Sb, 144Ce and Pu radionuclides. It i...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - June 27, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Mokrov YG, Mokrov KY Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Comparison of results from indoor radon measurements using active and passive methods with those from mathematical modeling.
Abstract Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to simulate the distribution of indoor radon concentration in a naturally ventilated room. Finite volume method was employed in CFD code for the simulation of indoor radon. The simulation results were validated at 34 points in a matrix of two horizontal planes (y = 1.3 m and y = 2.1 m) using passive pinhole dosimeters and at six points using an active scintillation radon monitor. The CFD results were found to exhibit an excellent correlation with the measured values. It is concluded that CFD analysis is a powerful tool ...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - June 27, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Visnuprasad AK, Reby Roy KE, Jojo PJ, Sahoo BK Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Potential survival of the lichen Caloplaca flavovirescens under high helium-beam doses.
Abstract Testing the limits of survivability in space is the primary focus in astrobiological research. Although a number of previous studies have examined terrestrial life survival in an extraterrestrial environment, only a few have investigated how life systems respond to high doses of alpha cosmic ray, the main component of cosmic rays. We used respiration and photosynthetic rates as indicators of the vital signs of the lichen Caloplaca flavovirescens, which is a symbiotic life form including fungi and algae. Our experiment demonstrated that the photosynthetic rate decreased with increased helium-beam doses, wh...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - June 20, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Miki K, Kawashima S, Takahashi Y, Yonemura S Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Exposure-lag-response associations between lung cancer mortality and radon exposure in German uranium miners.
enhoff H Abstract Exposure-lag-response associations shed light on the duration of pathogenesis for radiation-induced diseases. To investigate such relations for lung cancer mortality in the German uranium miners of the Wismut company, we apply distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) which offer a flexible description of the lagged risk response to protracted radon exposure. Exposure-lag functions are implemented with B-Splines in Cox models of proportional hazards. The DLNM approach yielded good agreement of exposure-lag-response surfaces for the German cohort and for the previously studied cohort of American C...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - June 19, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Aßenmacher M, Kaiser JC, Zaballa I, Gasparrini A, Küchenhoff H Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research

Hypoxia inducible factor-1 α/B-cell lymphoma 2 signaling impacts radiosensitivity of H1299 non-small cell lung cancer cells in a normoxic environment.
This study investigated how the activation of HIF-1α/B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) signaling under normoxic conditions impacted radiosensitivity of NSCLC cells. The recombinant pcDNA3.0-EGFP plasmids with wild-type or mutant HIF-1α complementary DNA (cDNA) were transfected into H1299 cells, an NSCLC cell line, establishing two H1299 sublines with high expression of HIF-1α. Compared with the levels of HIF-1α and BCL-2 proteins in non-transfected cells, increased levels of both proteins were found in transfected cells. Moreover, the expression of HIF-1α in non-transfected cells induced by chloride c...
Source: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics - June 15, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Wang G, Xiao L, Wang F, Yang J, Yang L, Zhao Y, Jin W Tags: Radiat Environ Biophys Source Type: research