Lessons Learnt from Epidemiological Investigation of Lassa Fever Outbreak in a Southwest State of Nigeria December 2015 to April 2016
Introduction Lassa fever (LF) is a severe acute viral hemorrhagic illness caused by a virus belonging to the family Arenaviridae.1,2 The disease was first discovered in Sierra Leone in the 1950s, but the aetiological agent was first isolated after an outbreak of the disease in a village called Lassa in Borno State, Nigeria claiming the lives of two foreign missionary nurses in 1969.3 The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection, with profuse urinary virus excretion in Mastomys natalensis rodents, which serve as the natural reservoir.1,2 The virus is shed in their excreta (urine and faeces) of the rodent which can...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - June 29, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: ELVIS EFE ISERE Source Type: research

Correction: Contributing and Terminating Factors of a Large RSV Outbreak in an Adult Hematology and Transplant Unit
Correction The author group name is incorrect. The correct name is: RSV Nosocomial Outbreak Team. The correct citation is: RSV Nosocomial Outbreak Team*. Contributing and Terminating Factors of a Large RSV Outbreak in an Adult Hematology and Transplant Unit. PLOS Currents Outbreaks. 2014 Sep 19 . Edition 1. Reference 1. RSV Outbreak Investigation Team *. Contributing and Terminating Factors of a Large RSV Outbreak in an Adult Hematology and Transplant Unit. PLOS Currents Outbreaks. 2014 Sep 19 . Edition 1. doi: 10.1371/currents.outbreaks.3bc85b2a508d205ecc4a5534ecb1f9be. (Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks)
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - June 27, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: ploscurrents Source Type: research

Zika virus outbreak in Suriname, a report based on laboratory surveillance data
This article describes the laboratory based surveillance system in Suriname and the incidence of confirmed cases of ZIKV infection according to sex, age, and spatial and temporal distribution Methods General practitioners and public health centers located in different districts of Suriname were asked to send blood samples from suspicious cases to Academic Hospital for molecular diagnosis of Zika virus infection. In particular, in cases involving pregnant women, samples were screened for free upon request. Viral RNA was extracted from blood and urine samples using a RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). An in-house ...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - May 10, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Claude Flamand Source Type: research

[OBK-18-0012] Real time forecasting of measles using generation-dependent mathematical model in Japan, 2018
In conclusion, the simplistic generation-dependent model was demonstrated to capture the observed dynamics of measles outbreaks, helping to predict the future and evaluate public health control. Polishing the forecasting model further, we aim to achieve an eventual routine forecasting and evaluation of measles, while maintaining the model structure as simple as possible. (Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks)
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - May 8, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Andrei R. Akhmetzhanov Source Type: research

The First Outbreak of Autochthonous Zika Virus in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo
Conclusions Surveillance, risk assessment, and intervention were strengthened throughout Malaysia in response to the 2016 outbreak of ZIKV in neighboring Singapore. The Malaysian Ministry of Health undertook regular surveillance from June 2015 during the South American outbreak, but no ZIKV was detected in 784 samples tested up to August 2016 (https://kpkesihatan.com/2016/08/28/kenyataan-akhbar-kpk-28-ogos-2016-situasi-terkini-virus-zika-di-malaysia/). However, during the peak of the 2016 Singapore ZIKV outbreak from September through December 2016, eight out of 849 samples tested were positive for ZIKV (https://kpkesiha...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - May 1, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jiloris Julian Frederick Dony Source Type: research

A Psittacosis Outbreak among English Office Workers with Little or No Contact with Birds, August 2015
Conclusions This investigation into a probable outbreak provides evidence of transmission of psittacosis in one or more office workers with no direct bird contact. In light of this clinicians and public health professionals should be aware of the possibility of psittacosis in cases of severe respiratory illness reporting no overt bird contact and consider it on their list of differential diagnoses in situations where indirect exposure to birds is possible, but not necessarily obvious. Competing Interests The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Corresponding Author John Mair-Jenkins: john.mairjenkins...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - April 27, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: John Mair-Jenkins Source Type: research

Analyzing the Local Epidemiological Profile of Malaria Transmission in the Brazilian Amazon Between 2010 and 2015
We described a time series of malaria incidence for the 72 months of study for the entire area and divided by state. To address irregularities and error components, we smoothed the time series using a centred moving average of k=5, in which k is the number of observations that are averaged. This value was selected because it highlighted the best pattern of the data. We used the method of seasonal decomposition by Loess smoothing to capture the trend, seasonal and irregular components. A generalized linear model was applied to quantify this overall trend, and the Kruskal-Wallis Rank Sum test was applied to test for seasonal...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - March 27, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tiago Canelas Source Type: research

Health Information Needs and Health Seeking Behavior During the 2014-2016 Ebola Outbreak: A Twitter Content Analysis
Conclusion Social media content can support outbreak surveillance efforts. Such sites allows for the development of networks to share and seek a variety of information regarding events including outbreaks such as Ebola. At the same time, social media can be an impediment to health security when it propagates (social contagion of simplistic ideas) information based on collective unawareness (e.g., crystals protect against Ebola). This phenomenon of social media fills a collective thought space that could be replaced with a wealth of scientific knowledge. Twitter and other social networking sites are also important for asses...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - March 23, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Michelle Odlum Source Type: research

Human Orthobunyavirus Infections, Tef é, Amazonas, Brazil
REPORT Between April and June 2015, professionals of the health surveillance system at Tefé (03° 21′ 14″ S; 64° 42′ 39″ W), a mid-size city located in the interior of the Amazonas state, Brazil, collected serum samples from a series of dengue suspected cases. The specimens were obtained between the first and second day after symptom onset and sent to Fundação de Medicina Tropical – Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD) at Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil for dengue virus (DENV) testing using RT-PCR 1. Thirty DENV negative samples were randomly selected and sent to Instituto...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - March 22, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Felipe Gomes Naveca Source Type: research

A Nosocomial Outbreak of Clinical Sepsis in a Neonatal Care Unit (NCU) in Port-Au-Prince Haiti, July 2014 – September 2015.
We describe the efforts taken by the hospital in response to the outbreak and the analysis of information results from the epidemiological and microbiological surveillance activities. Methods Setting CRUO is a container hospital (established soon after the earthquake in 2010) and is equipped with 162 beds, including 106 obstetrics beds and 56 for neonates. The hospital runs on city power when available and is otherwise fully supplied by external generators. Water supply is done by a private company who provide trucked water supply. All water is filtered and chlorinated on site of the hospital to render it potable. Neo...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - March 21, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: alenglet Source Type: research

The Impact of a Case of Ebola Virus Disease on Emergency Department Visits in Metropolitan Dallas-Fort Worth, TX, July, 2013 –July, 2015: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis
Background and Rationale Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a rare but deadly and highly contagious zoonotic infection first recognized in 1976 in rural Central Africa.1,2 Though associated with high mortality, the remote locations characterized by low population density of these early outbreaks, curtailed extensive exposure.1 In stark contrast, the 2014 EVD outbreaks in West Africa (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) occurred primarily in urban areas. 1,23 Widespread morbidity and mortality are associated with the hemorrhagic fever caused by the virus. An unprecedented number of cases (>28,600) were reported since the first ...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - March 20, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: nmolinari Source Type: research

The Impact of a Case of Ebola Virus Disease on Emergency Department Visits in Metropolitan Dallas-Fort Worth, TX, July, 2013 –July, 2015: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis
Background and Rationale Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a rare but deadly and highly contagious zoonotic infection first recognized in 1976 in rural Central Africa.1,2 Though associated with high mortality, the remote locations characterized by low population density of these early outbreaks, curtailed extensive exposure.1 In stark contrast, the 2014 EVD outbreaks in West Africa (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) occurred primarily in urban areas. 1,23 Widespread morbidity and mortality are associated with the hemorrhagic fever caused by the virus. An unprecedented number of cases (>28,600) were reported since the first ...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - March 20, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: nmolinari Source Type: research

Epidemiology of the Zika Virus Outbreak in the Cabo Verde Islands, West Africa
In conclusion, our early epidemiological assessment of the largest ZIKV outbreak in Africa suggests that half of the Cabo Verde population was exposed in 2015-2016. Since other regions have consistently reported higher attack rates, it is possible that Cabo Verde could still witness a second ZIKV outbreak. This finding highlights the need for an integrated epidemiological, molecular and genomic arbovirus surveillance system in order to improve control in forthcoming outbreaks in Cabo Verde. Competing interests We declare none. Corresponding Authors Nuno Rodrigues Faria at nuno.faria@zoo.ox.ac.uk and José Louren&cc...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - March 15, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: jose.lourenco at zoo.ox.ac.uk Source Type: research

Clinical and Laboratory Profile of Zika and Dengue Infected Patients: Lessons Learned From the Co-circulation of Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya in Brazil
This study accessed the patients information on demographic characteristics, physical signs and symptoms. Study population This is a cross-sectional and observational study carried out in Brazil during DENV and ZIKV epidemic occurred in 2016. Patients were assisted at the Healthy Unit UPA Coronel Antonino in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil from February to March of 2016. During the study 134 suspected arboviral infection cases were included and submitted to investigation. Patients presenting fever, rash during acute phase of infection (up to the 7th day after disease onset) followed by at least two of the following signals a...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - February 15, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Elzinandes Leal de Azeredo Source Type: research

Clinical and Laboratory Profile of Zika and Dengue Infected Patients: Lessons Learned From the Co-circulation of Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya in Brazil
This study accessed the patients information on demographic characteristics, physical signs and symptoms. Study population This is a cross-sectional and observational study carried out in Brazil during DENV and ZIKV epidemic occurred in 2016. Patients were assisted at the Healthy Unit UPA Coronel Antonino in Campo Grande, MS, Brazil from February to March of 2016. During the study 134 suspected arboviral infection cases were included and submitted to investigation. Patients presenting fever, rash during acute phase of infection (up to the 7th day after disease onset) followed by at least two of the following signals a...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - February 15, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Elzinandes Leal de Azeredo Source Type: research

Epidemiological Review of Francisella Tularensis: A Case Study in the Complications of Dual Diagnoses
Discussion This case study illustrated not only the veracity of the maxim “chance favors the prepared mind” exquisitely because of the judicious, albeit auspicious, identification of the assiduous bacterium by the owner’s veterinarian, but also the high level of patient care that can potentially be achieved when veterinary personnel actively foster working relationships with their local public health counterparts. In this case, the owner was prophylactically treated with doxycycline for F. tularensis exposure within 24 hours of being bitten and given the rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (human rabies imm...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - January 18, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: tonystidham Source Type: research

Epidemiological Review of Francisella Tularensis: A Case Study in the Complications of Dual Diagnoses
Discussion This case study illustrated not only the veracity of the maxim “chance favors the prepared mind” exquisitely because of the judicious, albeit auspicious, identification of the assiduous bacterium by the owner’s veterinarian, but also the high level of patient care that can potentially be achieved when veterinary personnel actively foster working relationships with their local public health counterparts. In this case, the owner was prophylactically treated with doxycycline for F. tularensis exposure within 24 hours of being bitten and given the rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (human rabies imm...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - January 18, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: tonystidham Source Type: research

Incidence Prediction for the 2017-2018 Influenza Season in the United States with an Evolution-informed Model
Incidence prediction for the 2017-2018 influenza season in the United States Human infections caused by the seasonal influenza virus impose a large burden on public health in the United States and worldwide. Advanced forecasts of the severity of the upcoming influenza season can contribute to timely preparation for the season, including resource allocation and vaccination campaigns. Existing computational methods have already been developed for this purpose, which can be largely classified into two main classes: the first one focuses on within-season forecasting and relies on updated incidence information as the season dev...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - January 17, 2018 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Xiangjun Du Source Type: research

A Possible Link Between Pyriproxyfen and Microcephaly
This study was based upon a small number of cases and ultrasound detection rather than births. Seven cases of microcephaly were reported above background, but only one of them was a birth; the others were detected by ultrasound. The high rate of ultrasound detection is not consistent with observations by ultrasound of microcephaly in other countries, including Colombia. We use the model for French Polynesia as a reference model for comparison with other data in order to clarify which data is or is not consistent with that model. We note that this rate is about 100 times larger than the minimum reported background rate for ...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - November 27, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: rparen01 Source Type: research

Detecting Local Zika Virus Transmission in the Continental United States: A Comparison of Surveillance Strategies
Discussion In areas of the US and Hawaii where there is potential risk of ZIKV transmission, detecting transmission should it occur is a key public health objective17. This poses a challenge for surveillance systems: to balance the probability of detecting ZIKV transmission with the resources needed to carry out surveillance when infections may be rare. An efficient surveillance system should have high sensitivity (a relatively high probability of detecting infections) and high specificity (a low probability of a positive test result in an individual without infection). Comparing three general surveillance systems, we fou...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - November 22, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Steven Russell Source Type: research

Excess Mortality Related to Chikungunya Epidemics in the Context of Co-circulation of Other Arboviruses in Brazil
The objective of this study was to assess the mortality associated with chikungunya epidemics in Brazil by comparing the mortality of pre-chikungunya with mortality during chikungunya epidemics2,3. Methods We studied the 3 Brazilian states with higher chikungunya incidence rates (IR), Pernambuco (9,410,772 inhabitants), Rio Grande do Norte (3,474,998 inhabitants), and Bahia (15,498,733 inhabitants)5. Bahia is the largest and most populated state, with a heterogeneous incidence of chikungunya, and therefore we analyzed separately each one of 9 administrative regions of Bahia. We retrospectively analyzed anonymous, publicly...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - November 13, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: André Ricardo Ribas Freitas Source Type: research

Enhancing Ebola Virus Disease Surveillance and Prevention in Counties Without Confirmed Cases in Rural Liberia: Experiences from Sinoe County During the Flare-up in Monrovia, April to June, 2016
Introduction The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak started in Guinea in 20131,2, and as of June 10, 2016, 28,616 cases had been registered, with 11,310 deaths32. After the end of the original outbreak, in the three most affected countries in 20152, specifically, in Liberia in May, Sierra Leone in November, and Guinea in December, different flare-ups were reported. The biggest flare-up was in Guinea, which occurred from February 274 to June 1, 2016, with 10 reported cases and seven deaths3, while the smallest one was in Sierra Leone, from January 14 to March 17, 2016, with two reported cases and one death5. Flare-ups may ...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - November 9, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Jeremias Naiene Source Type: research

An Outbreak of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infection Linked to a “Black Friday” Piercing Event
We report on a large outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection linked to a relatively new type of cosmetic piercing (scaffold piercing) conducted during a busy “Black Friday” event. Based on molecular subtyping of isolates from cases and from water samples taken from taps in the affected premises, the source of the outbreak was most likely to be contaminated plastic plumbing pipes. All cases occurred among clients who had scaffold-piercing done by the newly-appointed trainee, whilst no individuals pierced by the more experienced practitioner or who did not have scaffold piercing, was infected. We therefore h...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - October 16, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: petermacpherson Source Type: research

First Wave of the 2016-17 Cholera Outbreak in Hodeidah City, Yemen – Acf Experience and Lessons Learned
Introduction Cholera remains a major public health risk in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region. During the last decade, at least 14 out of 22 countries in the region have reported cholera cases, often in epidemic proportions. Countries in this region facing complex emergencies are particularly at risk, as they lack safe drinking-water and sanitation facilities and management. The full extent of the burden of cholera in the region is difficult to estimate due to weak surveillance systems in some endemic countries, in addition to underreporting of cases. Nevertheless it is estimated that the number of suspected cases may be...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - October 13, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Mathias Altmann Source Type: research

Assessing the Prevalence of Risk Factors for Neglected Tropical Diseases in Brazos County, Texas
Conclusion Although NTDs may increasingly pose a threat to health in the U.S., insufficient data exists to ascertain the prevalence and geographic distribution of risk factors relevant to these diseases. Concern over the potential for increasing rates of NTD infection and transmission in Texas led the Texas State Legislature to mandate the establishment of a surveillance program for NTDs. We tested one potential methodology for the surveillance of NTDs; the use of CASPER for assessing the prevalence of risk factors in Brazos County, Texas. Although Texas has a population of more than 25 million, the second largest in the U...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - October 4, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: jenhorney Source Type: research

Fetal Zika Virus Infection in Vietnam
This report is one of the first documented cases of ZIKV infection in Vietnam, however it is likely that infection has been occurring for many years without detection or diagnosis. Since the increased awareness of the risk of ZIKV infection, three tourists have been identified who were infected while traveling in Veitnam and two local cases have been confirmed3. Based on this report it is important for countries in Southeast Asia to increase surveillance, vector control, and public health messaging and for the global public health system to consider increasing travelers’ awareness of infection risks not only in the A...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - September 5, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: leishan Source Type: research

Ecological Niche Modeling for Filoviruses: A Risk Map for Ebola and Marburg Virus Disease Outbreaks in Uganda
Conclusion Ecological niche modeling techniques have been widely used in predicting where disease outbreaks are likely to occur, more specifically where species have suitable living conditions depending on their environmental factors. The MaxEnt modeling algorithm uses presence only occurrence data and has been useful to estimate species’ niche in environmental space where absence records for a species are not available as it is the case with filoviruses. Given the public and global importance of filoviruses, developing models that predict where they are likely to occur is very important, and efforts in this directi...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - September 5, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Luke Nyakarahuka Source Type: research

Multi-provincial Salmonellosis Outbreak Related to Newly Hatched Chicks and Poults: A Genomics Perspective
Conclusions This was the first outbreak in Canada to provide direct evidence of how genome sequencing can perform source attribution and provide improved data for targeted outbreak investigations salmonellosis. This multi-discipline, multi-jurisdictional, and collaborative investigation also highlighted the importance of timely integrated surveillance based on the farm-to-fork continuum and a One Health concept. While this outbreak investigation was completed without genome sequence analysis, SNV-based clustering was effective for source-tracking of SE during an outbreak associated with exposure to live chicks and poults, ...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - August 9, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: mcroxen Source Type: research

Estimation of Time Period for Effective Human Inhalational Anthrax Treatment Including Antitoxin Therapy
Discussion B. anthracis remains a bioterrorism threat, with the potential for thousands or tens of thousands to be exposed after spore release in a densely populated setting5,6,30,31. Such numbers of casualties would likely strain and possibly overwhelm the public health and medical care system and it is highly plausible that some patients may not receive immediate prophylaxis or treatment when symptoms are just beginning to manifest. With large numbers of patients presenting to emergency departments seeking care, it is crucial that emergency physicians, intensivists and other clinicians understand the importance of therap...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - July 28, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lewis Rubinson Source Type: research

Genomic Characterization Helps Dissecting an Outbreak of Listeriosis in Northern Italy
This study was performed according to the guidelines of the IRCCS Foundation Policlinico San Matteo Hospital in Pavia Institutional Review Board of on the use of biological specimens for scientific purposes in keeping with Italian law (art.13 D.Lgs 196/2003). The work described here is a retrospective study performed on bacterial isolates from human samples that were obtained as part of hospital routine. No extra human samples were obtained for this research. Therefore, informed consent (either written or verbal) was not required. Strain isolation Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) samples obtained from the six patients...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - July 6, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: davidesassera Source Type: research

Integrating Environmental Monitoring and Mosquito Surveillance to Predict Vector-borne Disease: Prospective Forecasts of a West Nile Virus Outbreak
The objective of this study was to evaluate a predictive model of West Nile virus in South Dakota (SD), which was used to make whole-year forecasts at the beginning of the 2016 WNV season, as well as short-term weekly forecasts throughout the season. This modeling approach was unique in that it incorporated not only weather data but also WNV infection data to predict spatial and temporal patterns of WNV cases. Because the model was specified and parameterized prior to the start of the 2016 WNV season, this exercise provided an opportunity to make a priori predictions and then validate them using independent data. The model...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - May 23, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Justin K. Davis Source Type: research

No Evidence of On-farm Circulation of Avian Influenza H5 Subtype in Ca Mau Province, Southern Vietnam, March 2016 – January 2017
Discussion The vast majority of Vietnam’s poultry sector is still smallholder poultry, with more than 96% of poultry-owning households holding fewer than 100 chickens15 and more than 93% of poultry-owning households holding fewer than 100 ducks16. Outbreaks of avian influenza on poultry farms are common and have been recorded every year in Vietnam1,17 since the re-emergence in 2002 and 2003 of highly-pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 genotypes in Asia18,19. Live poultry sales in Vietnam take place in a large informal system of household sales and wet markets, with some markets occupying the place of a central town/city...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - May 5, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: maciekboni Source Type: research

Rapid Assessment Zika Virus Knowledge Among Clinical Specialists in Singapore: A Cross-sectional Survey
We report the results of a rapid assessment of Zika virus awareness among key clinical specialties in Singapore, with the aim of identifying gaps in knowledge and opportunities for improving communication on Zika virus disease management and control policies. Methods Study Participants and Sites Between June 6 and June 19, 2016 prior to the Zika virus outbreak, we conducted an online survey of doctors working in obstetrics and gynaecology, neonatology and paediatrics in Singapore. A link to the online survey was disseminated by email to the relevant doctors at KK women’s and Children’s Hospital and Singapo...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - May 3, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: YCF Source Type: research

Spatial Determinants of Ebola Virus Disease Risk for the West African Epidemic
In this study, we sought to identify environmental and population-level demographic spatial predictors of human EVD risk from the recent West African epidemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study area The study included the three West African countries with widespread EVD transmission: Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Guinea has an estimated population of 11,780,00025 and covers an area of 245,860 km2 including terrain consisting of costal mangrove plains, forested highlands, and savannah plains.26 Guinea has a tropical climate with a rainy season (April to October) and a dry season (November to March).25 Liberia has an...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - March 31, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: kzinszer Source Type: research

Vaccine Hesitancy: In Search of the Risk Communication Comfort Zone
Conclusions There are some limitations to this study worth noting. First, although the online panel used for our survey is constructed to be representative of the Canadian population in terms of age, region of residence, income and education, selection bias and non-response bias cannot be ruled out. However, the sociodemographic characteristics of our respondents are not significantly different from those of the Canadian population of parents with children aged 5 and younger. Second, the MMR vaccination decision for the child was self-reported by parents which could lead to recall bias, and there was no other measure withi...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - March 3, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Joshua Greenberg Source Type: research

Correction: Contributing and Terminating Factors of a Large RSV Outbreak in an Adult Hematology and Transplant Unit
Correction The author’s name is incorrect. The correct name is: RSV Nosocomial Outbreak Investigation Team. The correct citation is: RSV Nosocomial Outbreak Investigation Team. Contributing and Terminating Factors of a Large RSV Outbreak in an Adult Hematology and Transplant Unit. PLOS Currents Outbreaks. 2014 Sep 19. Edition 1. doi: 10.1371/currents.outbreaks.3bc85b2a508d205ecc4a5534ecb1f9be. References RSV Outbreak Investigation Team. Contributing and Terminating Factors of a Large RSV Outbreak in an Adult Hematology and Transplant Unit. PLOS Currents Outbreaks. 2014 Sep 19. Edition 1. doi: 10.1371/currents.outbre...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - February 27, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: ploscurrents Source Type: research

Does Zika Virus Cause Microcephaly – Applying the Bradford Hill Viewpoints
This study included more recent evidence compared to the previous one. The Bradford-Hill Viewpoints are used in public health to determine causation of diseases.11 Systematic application of the viewpoints can assist with analysing a possible causal relationship. Additional studies to assess the risk of microcephaly in affected pregnant mothers are ongoing.12 In this study we applied the Bradford-Hill viewpoints to investigate the association between Zika virus and Microcephaly. Method Using the Bradford Hills nine viewpoints we analysed data from a 2013 outbreak in French Polynesia and the 2015 Brazilian outbreak to esta...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - February 22, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: asma Source Type: research

[OBK-17-0008] Does Zika Virus Cause Microcephaly – Applying the Bradford Hill Viewpoints
This study included more recent evidence compared to the previous one. The Bradford-Hill Viewpoints are used in public health to determine causation of diseases.11 Systematic application of the viewpoints can assist with analysing a possible causal relationship. Additional studies to assess the risk of microcephaly in affected pregnant mothers are ongoing.12 In this study we applied the Bradford-Hill viewpoints to investigate the association between Zika virus and Microcephaly. Method Using the Bradford Hills nine viewpoints we analysed data from a 2013 outbreak in French Polynesia and the 2015 Brazilian outbreak to esta...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - February 22, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: asma Source Type: research

First Report of the East-Central South African Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Conclusions CHIKV has been responsible for important emerging and reemerging epidemics characterized by severe and incapacitating polyarthralgia syndrome 8,22. Due to the intense movement of viremic travelers arising from Africa, India and Indian Ocean islands, many imported cases of the disease were reported on American, European and Asian countries since 2006 11,13. The high vector density, the presence of susceptible individuals and the intense movement of people has characterized Brazil as a country of major risk for the occurrence of epidemics by arboviruses. After its introduction, CHIKV has caused outbreaks in many...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - February 14, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: thiara.souza at ioc.fiocruz.br Source Type: research

Characterization of Clostridium Baratii Type F Strains Responsible for an Outbreak of Botulism Linked to Beef Meat Consumption in France
INTRODUCTION Botulism is a rare but severe neurological disorder characterized by a flaccid paralysis that, in the most severe forms, leads to respiratory failure. The disease is due to botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) which are produced by diverse anaerobic spore-forming bacteria from the genus Clostridium including Clostridium botulinum2 (groups I to III), Clostridium argentinense, Clostridium baratii, and Clostridium butyricum 1,31,2. Food-borne botulism is the main form of botulism in France. Between 20 and 40 cases of human botulism are reported every year. Homemade ham or ham processed by small-scale enterprises is the ...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - February 1, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Michel Popoff Source Type: research

Aedes aegypti Control Through Modernized, Integrated Vector Management
Discussion In the wake of the largest Zika virus outbreak in history, there have been calls for a paradigm shift towards a more modern strategy for controlling vectors.6,24 Several novel A. aegypti control methods, namely SIT, RIDL and the release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes, have recently been endorsed by the WHO for use in the containment of the ongoing Zika virus outbreak.17 The current study sought to provide an initial, comparative assessment of these tools as well as to strategize their use as part of a modernized, integrated vector management programme. In simulating a release schedule designed to emulate thos...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - January 30, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Laith Yakob Source Type: research

Rapid Molecular Detection of Zika Virus in Acute-Phase Urine Samples Using the Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay
Conclusions To our knowledge, the developed RT-RPA assay is the first sensitive rapid molecular assay applied on field samples for the detection of ZIKV in 15 minutes, which could be implemented at the point of need in a mobile suitcase laboratory 5 to make testing of pregnant women available directly in rural settings. Moreover, combining it with the developed dengue 6, chikungunya 7 and Sigma 8 RT-RPA assays will allow its use during outbreak investigations. Sigma virus infects exclusively dipterans, which is a good candidate to be used in the future as an extraction and RPA reaction control. Data Availability Statement...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - January 25, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: abdelwahed Source Type: research

Strategic Interactions in Antiviral Drug Use During an Influenza Pandemic
Discussion Here we developed a two-player game of strategic interactions in antiviral usage during an influenza pandemic. The model highlights the possibility for externalities to develop, if a drug resistant influenza strain is as transmissible as the non-resistant variety. Under such circumstances, it is possible for a socially suboptimal Nash equilibrium to develop where both players use antiviral influenza drugs at a high rate, when the socially optimal behaviour is actually for both players to treat at a low rate. This occurs because players may opt to treat at a high rate, knowing that drug-resistant mutants will eme...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - January 12, 2017 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kamal Jnawali Source Type: research

Epidemic Potential for Local Transmission of Zika Virus in 2015 and 2016 in Queensland, Australia
Introduction In 2015, Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged throughout the Americas and in February 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV a public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV is principally transmitted from infected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses. ZIKV can also be transmitted from mother to fetus, through sexual contact and via blood transfusion1,2. Up to eighty percent of infected people are asymptomatic3. In adults, the illness is usually mild, and common symptoms include fever, rash, joint pain and conjunctivitis, lasting for up to one week. ...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - December 13, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: viennet Source Type: research

Social Media as a Sentinel for Disease Surveillance: What Does Sociodemographic Status Have to Do with It?
DISCUSSION Real-time reports of dengue on social media can potentially be used to augment disease response time; resulting in quicker control efforts and mitigation of disease spread. Although the majority of tweets are suspected cases, laboratory confirmed cases are also reported and real-time reports provide timely updates for situational awareness14, which is necessary due to weekly or monthly delays in dengue case reporting in Brazil and other endemic regions. Inequality and low mean per capita income have been associated with dengue mortality in Brazil15. Furthermore, males, and people older than 69 years had a highe...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - December 7, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Elaine O. Nsoesie Source Type: research

Community Event-Based Surveillance for Ebola Virus Disease in Sierra Leone: Implementation of a National-Level System During a Crisis
Conclusion The implementation of CEBS has shown that a national system can be implemented at scale and that community volunteers are capable of detecting and reporting important health related events in their communities. Participation of community leaders in the implementation process proved to be an important step in ensuring that communities are supportive of the program and Community Health Monitors are able to carry out their responsibilities effectively. The experience with CEBS implementation shows that planning to implement a large-scale community based program in two months across many partners requires well-plann...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - December 7, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Laura Miller Source Type: research

Laboratory Investigation of Salmonella enterica serovar Poona Outbreak in California: Comparison of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) Results
Conclusions Real-time PFGE and WGS genotyping results from this Salmonella Poona outbreak provided concordant assignment of isolates to the outbreak cluster by both methods. However, the WGS allowed for a more unequivocal determination of the genetic relatedness of the isolates than PFGE. WGS provided additional information regarding MLST type, pathogenicity genes, and bacteriophage content of the isolates. WGS data obtained independently at two laboratories showed complete agreement. Data Availability Statement The raw reads for sequenced here samples were submitted to NCBI SRA archive under accession numbers SRR2566826-...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - November 22, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: vkozyreva Source Type: research

Identifying Candidate Targets of Immune Responses in Zika Virus Based on Homology to Epitopes in Other Flavivirus Species
Discussion The current outbreak of ZIKV infections has resulted in a massive effort to accelerate the development of ZIKV specific diagnostics and vaccines. These efforts would benefit greatly from the definition of the specific epitope targets of immune responses in ZIKV, but given the relatively recent emergence of ZIKV as a pandemic threat, few such data are available. We used a large body of epitope data for other Flaviviruses that was available from the IEDB for a comparative analysis against the ZIKV proteome in order to project targets of immune responses in ZIKV and their potential properties. The most common appr...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - November 15, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kerrie Vaughan Source Type: research

Pok émon Go and Exposure to Mosquito-Borne Diseases: How Not to Catch ‘Em All
In conclusion, as millions of people continue to explore augmented reality games such as Pokémon Go each day, it will be important for public health officials and others to think creatively about how to minimize risks and maximize opportunities associated with this fundamentally new and distinct activity. Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Ethics Statement The individuals in this manuscript have given written informed consent (as outlined in PLOS consent form) to publish these case details. Corresponding Author Rachel Oidtman, E-mail: roidtman@nd.edu Alex Pe...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - November 15, 2016 Category: Epidemiology Authors: roidtman Source Type: research