Stealth Polymer-Coated Graphene Oxide Decorated Mesoporous Titania Nanoplatforms for In Vivo Chemo-Photodynamic Cancer Therapy
ConclusionCumulatively, the above results showed promising effects of S-MTN@IG-P for effective chemo-phototherapy of colon cancer. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - August 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Engineering the pH-Sensitivity of the Graphene and Carbon Nanotube Based Nanomedicines in Smart Cancer Therapy by Grafting Trimetyl Chitosan
ConclusionSimultaneous application of the carboxyl group and TMC can optimize the pH sensitivity of the SWCNTs and graphene to prepare a novel and smart drug carrier for cancer therapy. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - August 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Understanding Nanomedicine Size and Biological Response Dependency: What Is the Relevance of Previous Relationships Established on Only Batch-Mode DLS-Measured Sizes?
ConclusionParticles activating the complement system in the parent dispersion were not those that were detected by batch-mode DLS while measuring its size. This work pointed out that previously established relationships between nanomedicine size and their biological response should be taken with caution if sizes were only measured by batch-mode DLS. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - August 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Drug Elimination Alteration in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Mediated by Renal Transporters and Glomerular Filtration
ConclusionsThe specific alteration of renal transporters and glomerular filtration in kidneys provide a rational explanation for changes in pharmacokinetics for ALL. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - August 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Formulation and Administration of Biological Medicinal Products ”
AbstractMonoclonal antibody (Mabs) containing medicinal products are widely used in clinical practice. Prior to parenteral administration, licensed Mab containing medicinal products are transferred to the ready-to-administer (RTA) forms. Reconstitution and/or preparation should follow the guidelines for Good Reconstitution/Good Preparation Practice. Preparation in the pharmacy must take place within the framework of a suitable quality management system. The responsible pharmacist must apply a risk assessment on the process to ensure the appropriate quality of the RTA preparation, especially because the extent of quality te...
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - August 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Dose-Response Mixed Models for Repeated Measures – a New Method for Assessment of Dose-Response
ConclusionsDR-MMRM is a promising method for dose-response analysis. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - July 31, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Solvent-Assisted Secondary Drying of Spray-Dried Polymers
ConclusionsThe observation that methanol-assisted drying is more effective than the other drying techniques is consistent with the free-volume theory of solvent diffusion in polymers. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - July 31, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Lymphatic Distribution of Etanercept Following Intravenous and Subcutaneous Delivery to Rats
ConclusionsLymphatic system was shown to play an essential role in systemic disposition and SC absorption of etanercept. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - July 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Big Shoes to Fill at A Challenging Time
(Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - July 26, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Material-Sparing and Expedited Development of a Tablet Formulation of Carbamazepine Glutaric Acid Cocrystal – a QbD Approach
ConclusionThe successful tablet development of CBZ-GLA, using
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - July 23, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Metabolic Activity of Anthocyanin Extracts Loaded into Non-ionic Niosomes in Diet-Induced Obese Mice
ConclusionACN-loaded niosomes administration, as a functional drink, had a beneficial effect on the reversal of metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - July 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Enhanced Follicular Delivery of Finasteride to Human Scalp Skin Using Heat and Chemical Penetration Enhancers
The article Enhanced Follicular Delivery of Finasteride to Human Scalp Skin Using Heat and Chemical Penetration Enhancers, written by Farah, Brown, and McAuley was originally published electronically on the publisher ’s internet portal on 31 May, 2020 without open access. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - July 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Generation of High Dose Inhalable Effervescent Dispersions against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms
ConclusionsOverall, these results showed the potential to use particle engineering to generate particles that are highly disruptive of bacterial biofilms. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - July 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ion Pair Strategy in Solid Lipid Nanoparticles: a Targeted Approach to Improve Epidermal Targeting with Controlled Adapalene Release, Resulting Reduced Skin Irritation
ConclusionsThe studies demonstrated that the encapsulation of AD in SLNs through the formation of an ion pair is a valuable alternative to diminish the adverse skin reactions caused by AD and can optimize patient adherence to treatment. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - July 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Residual Solvents in Nanomedicine and Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems: a Case Study to Better Understand Processes
ConclusionsThis work might prove valuable as a reference for scientists of different fields to compare their own practices and streamline the translation of nanomedicines into efficacious and safe drug products. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - July 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacogenetic Study of Etoposide in High-Dose Protocol (TI-CE) for Advanced Germ Cell Tumors
CONCLUSIONSThe present study suggests that neithera priori dose individualization nor dose adaptation using TDM is required validating body surface area dosing of etoposide in the TI-CE protocol. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - July 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A Novel Eyes Topical Drug Delivery System: CsA-LNC for the Treatment of DED
ConclusionThis work has demonstrated CsA-LNCs, in particular small sizes CsA-LNC, are safe and effective with promising potential to treat DED.Grapical abstract (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - July 14, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Dicationic Amino Substituted Gemini Surfactants and their Nanoplexes: Improved Synthesis and Characterization of Transfection Efficiency and Corneal Penetration In Vitro
ConclusionOverall, 18-7NH-18 NPXs are potential gene delivery systems for ophthalmic gene delivery and for furtherin vivo studies. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - July 14, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Construction of Nucleolin-Targeted Lipid Nanobubbles and Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Molecular Imaging in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
AbstractPurposeTo construct aptamer AS1411-functionalized targeted lipid nanobubbles that could simultaneously target abnormally highly expressed nucleolin (NCL) on tumor tissue and neovasculature. Additionally, the study of their contrast-enhanced ultrasound molecular imaging capabilitiesin vitro andin vivo to explore new methods and approaches for the early and accurate diagnosis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC).MethodsFirst, the targeted lipid-nucleic acid molecules were constructed by an amide reaction. Then, the targeted lipid nanobubbles (AS1411-NBs) and nontargeted lipid nanobubbles (NBs) were prepared by mem...
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - July 14, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Role of FK506 Binding Protein on Tacrolimus Distribution in Red Blood Cells
ConclusionsFKBP played an important role in the distribution of tacrolimus in RBCs. The effect of intracellular and extracellular FKBPs on RBC distribution of tacrolimus in circulating blood was substantial. FKBP was shown as a potential biomarker for predicting the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tacrolimus. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - July 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

RVG29-Functionalized Lipid Nanoparticles for Quercetin Brain Delivery and Alzheimer ’s Disease
ConclusionsRVG29-nanoparticles that simultaneously target the blood-brain barrier and induce neurons protection against amyloid-beta fibrillation proved to be an efficient way of quercetin delivery and a promising strategy for future approaches in Alzheimer ’s disease.Graphical Abstract (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - July 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Machine Learning Platform to Discover Novel Growth Inhibitors of Neisseria gonorrhoeae
ConclusionsThis represents, to the best of our knowledge, the first machine learning approach to successfully predict novel growth inhibitors of this bacterium. To assist the chemical tool and drug discovery fields, we have made our curated training set available as part of the Supplementary Material and the Bayesian model is accessible via the web.Graphical Abstract (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - July 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

10th Anniversary of a Two-Stage Design in Bioequivalence. Why Has it Still Not Been Implemented?
ConclusionThe use of the two-stage design in bioequivalence studies seems to be a beneficial alternative to the 2  × 2 crossover study. Basic information on the properties of the active substance and the characteristics of the drug form are needed to make an initial decision to carry out the two-stage study. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - July 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chitosan Hydrogels for Synergistic Delivery of Chemotherapeutics to Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells and Spheroids
ConclusionsThe ACS hydrogel delivery system accomplishes drug release kinetics and molar ratio that affords strong therapeutically synergism. These results, in combination with the choice of ACS as affordable and highly abundant source material, provide a strong pre-clinical demonstration of the potential of the proposed system for complementing surgical resection of aggressive solid tumors. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - July 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Accelerated Forced Degradation of Therapeutic Peptides in Levitated Microdroplets
ConclusionsThe accelerated forced degradation method requires a minimal amount of therapeutic peptide per stress condition, and the appropriate extent of degradation can be readily generated in seconds by adjusting the droplet levitation time. Levitated microdroplets should be applicable in pharmaceutical development to rapidly determine the intrinsic stability of therapeutic peptides and to aid formulation development by screening the effects of excipients on the stability of the peptides.Graphical abstract (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - July 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The 3D Brain Unit Network Model to Study Spatial Brain Drug Exposure under Healthy and Pathological Conditions
ConclusionsWe demonstrate that the 3D brain unit network model is an excellent tool to gain understanding in the interdependencies of the factors governing spatial-temporal drug concentrations within the brain ECF. Additionally, the model helps in predicting the spatial-temporal brain ECF concentrations of existing drugs, under both normal and disease conditions. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - July 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Structure Elucidation and Mechanistic Study of a New Dimeric Degradant in Ropinirole Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets
ConclusionsThe newly occurred unknown degradant in ropinirole extended-release tablets was elucidated as the methylene-bridged 1,3 ′-Dimer of ropinirole. Based on the mechanistic study, 1,3′-Dimer and its isomer (3,3′-Dimer) were both formed by the reaction of ropinirole with residual formaldehyde present or formed in lactose, a main excipient of the formulation. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - July 8, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Dual-pH Sensitive Charge-Reversal Drug Delivery System for Highly Precise and Penetrative Chemotherapy
ConclusionsThis work proposes a unique nanomedical approach that enables the precise delivery of chemotherapy drugs and significantly reduces side effects, which is promising for clinical translation. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - July 8, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Farewell Message from the Editor-in-Chief
(Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - July 8, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Molecular Origin of the Distinct Tabletability of Loratadine and Desloratadine: Role of the Bonding Area – Bonding Strength Interplay
ConclusionsThis work provides new insights into the molecular origins of BA and BS, which can be applied to improve mechanical properties and tableting performance of drugs through appropriate crystal engineering. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - June 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Oral Fixed-Dose Combination Pharmaceutical Products: Industrial Manufacturing Versus Personalized 3D Printing
AbstractFixed-dose combination (FDC) products containing at least two different active pharmaceutical ingredients are designed to treat more effectively different pathologies as they have demonstrated to enhance patient compliance. However, the combination of multiple drugs within the same dosage form can bring many physicochemical and pharmacodynamic interactions. The manufacturing process of FDC products can be challenging, especially when it is required to achieve different drug release profiles within the same dosage form to overcome physicochemical drug interactions. Monolithic, multiple-layer, and multiparticulate sy...
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - June 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chiral Discrimination of P-glycoprotein in Parturient Women: Effect of Fluoxetine on Maternal-Fetal Fexofenadine Pharmacokinetics
ConclusionsA single oral dose of 40  mg fluoxetine inhibited the intestinal P-gp mediated transport of S-(−)-fexofenadine to a greater extent than R-(+)-fexofenadine in parturient women. However, the placental P-gp did not discriminate fexofenadine enantiomers and was not inhibited by fluoxetine. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - June 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Improving Tabletability of Excipients by Metal-Organic Framework-Based Cocrystallization: a Study of Mannitol and CaCl 2
ConclusionsMOF-based cocrystallization will be a promising and valuable approach to tailor mechanical properties of pharmaceutical materials in order to achieve better pharmaceutical performance. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - June 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

PEGylated-Paclitaxel and Dihydroartemisinin Nanoparticles for Simultaneously Delivering Paclitaxel and Dihydroartemisinin to Colorectal Cancer
ConclusionsThe combination of PTX and DHA in a PEG-conjugated dual-drug co-delivery system can minimize the severe side effect associated with the high-dose of PTX while enhancing the antitumor efficacy. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - June 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Bioprospecting for Antibacterial Drugs: a Multidisciplinary Perspective on Natural Product Source Material, Bioassay Selection and Avoidable Pitfalls
AbstractBioprospecting is the exploration, extraction and screening of biological material and sometimes indigenous knowledge to discover and develop new drugs and other products. Most antibiotics in current clinical use (eg. β-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, macrolides) were discovered using this approach, and there are strong arguments to reprioritize bioprospecting over other strategies in the search for new antibacterial drugs. Academic institutions should be well positioned to lead the early stages of thes e efforts given their many thousands of locations globally and because they are not constrained by ...
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - June 11, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Repurposing the Dihydropyridine Calcium Channel Inhibitor Nicardipine as a Na v 1.8 Inhibitor In Vivo for Pitt Hopkins Syndrome
ConclusionsThesein vivo results in the well characterized Tcf4( ± ) PTHS mice may suggest the potential to test this already approved drug further in a clinical study with PTHS patients or suggest the potential for use off label under compassionate use with their physician. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - June 11, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Predictions of the Effect of Curcumin on Metabolism of Imatinib and Bosutinib: In Vitro and In Vivo Disconnect
ConclusionA PBPK model for curcumin in a SLN formulation was successfully developed. Although curcumin possesses a strongIn Vitro inhibitory activity towards CYP3A4 and CYP2C8 enzymes, its interactions with imatinib and bosutinib were unlikely to be of clinical importance due to curcumin ’s poor bioavailability. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - June 11, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Enhancement of Liposomal Plasmid DNA and siRNA Delivery by Itraconazole through Intracellular Cholesterol Accumulation
ConclusionsItraconazole enhanced gene delivery of pDNA and siRNA, and it can be used to potentiate nucleic acid therapeutics. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - June 11, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chase Dosing of Lipid Formulations to Enhance Oral Bioavailability of Nilotinib in Rats
ConclusionChase dosed LBF enhanced thein vivo bioavailability of nilotinib. Long chain lipids showed superior performance compared to medium chain lipids. Chase dosing appeared to prolong the absorption phase of the drug. Therefore, chase dosing of LBF is favourable compared to lipid suspensions for ‘brick dust’ molecules such as nilotinib.Graphical AbstractThe potential of bio-enabling lipid vehicles, administered via chase dosing and lipid suspensions, has been evaluated as an approach to enhance oral bioavailability of nilotinib. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - June 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Influence of Production Process and Scale on Quality of Polypeptide Drugs: a Case Study on GLP-1 Analogs
ConclusionsDifferences in manufacturing processes affect chemical/physical stability and impurity profile, and may impact immunogenicity. Follow-on versions of liraglutide and semaglutide, and possibly other polypeptides, should be clinically evaluated for efficacy and safety. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - June 8, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Nanotechnology Based Repositioning of an Anti-Viral Drug for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)
ConclusionsNelfinavir, a lead HIV protease inhibitor can be repositioned as a NSCLC therapeutic through nanoparticulate delivery. Given its ability to induce apoptosis and efficient tumor penetration capability, NFV loaded PLGA nanoparticulate systems provide a promising delivery system in NSCLC treatment. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - June 8, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Metformin Transport in Native MDCK-Wt and MDCK-II Monolayers Unveils Functional Inter-Strains Differences Influencing Drug Permeability
ConclusionsMetformin transport revealed functional differences between MDCK strains. Apical uptake was governed by MATE in MDCK-II or PMAT in MDCK-wt, such that metformin transport was either secretory or absorptive, respectively. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - June 8, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

New Japanese Regulatory Frameworks for Post-Marketing Management of Pharmaceutical Products
AbstractDossiers on approved pharmaceutical products must be kept updated and current during the products ’ life cycles. The coalition, merger and acquisition along with corporate strategy that pursues efficiency and profitability of pharmaceutical companies have led to the globalization of supply chains for pharmaceutical ingredients and instruments in the post-marketing phase, and progress in manufa cturing technologies can improve manufacturing processes during this phase. Regulatory requirements for post-marketing management of pharmaceutical products sometimes differ among countries around the world depending on...
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - June 8, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Tuning the Physicochemical Characteristics of Particle-Based Carriers for Intraperitoneal Local Chemotherapy
AbstractOver the last few decades, intraperitoneal (IP) local drug delivery, providing high drug concentrations with prolonged retention in the peritoneal cavity, has opened a new horizon for the management of life-threatening peritoneal disorders, such as peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). However, clinical translation of this strategy is hampered by several hurdles, namely premature clearance of small-sized molecules from the peritoneum, limited distribution within the peritoneal space and inadequate penetration into the target tissues. To address these challenges, incorporation of therapeutic agents into the particulate-ba...
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - June 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Measuring Lipolytic Activity to Support Process Improvements to Manage Lipase-Mediated Polysorbate Degradation
ConclusionThe lipase assay can be used to detect lipolytic activity in intermediate and final DS, for example during process optimization in downstream purification, to better and specifically reduce the level, or deplete, lipases from HCPs. The assay is also suitable to be applied during root cause investigations related to polysorbate degradation in biopharmaceutical DP. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - June 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Microneedle Mediated Transdermal Delivery of Protein, Peptide and Antibody Based Therapeutics: Current Status and Future Considerations
AbstractThe success of protein, peptide and antibody based therapies is evident - the biopharmaceuticals market is predicted to reach $388 billion by 2024 [1], and more than half of the current top 20 blockbuster drugs are biopharmaceuticals. However, the intrinsic properties of biopharmaceuticals has restricted the routes available for successful drug delivery. While providing 100% bioavailability, the intravenous route is often associated with pain and needle phobia from a patient perspective, which may translate as a reluctance to receive necessary treatment. Several non-invasive strategies have since emerged to overcom...
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - June 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A Facile and Novel Approach to Manufacture Paclitaxel-Loaded Proliposome Tablet Formulations of Micro or Nano Vesicles for Nebulization
ConclusionOverall, in this study LMH was identified as a superior carbohydrate carrier for proliposome tablet manufacturing in a 1:25w/w lipid to carrier ratio forin-vitro nebulization via Ultrasonic nebulizer. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - June 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Investigation of Fluorescent Substrates and Substrate-Dependent Interactions of a Drug Transporter Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 2B1 (OATP2B1)
ConclusionWe found two fluorescein analogs, DBF and 5-CF as the OATP2B1 substrates that exhibited substrate-dependent interactions. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - June 1, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Analytical and Functional Similarity Assessment of ABP 710, a Biosimilar to Infliximab Reference Product
ConclusionsBased on the comprehensive analytical similarity assessment, ABP 710 was found to be highly analytically similar to infliximab RP for all biological activities relevant for clinical efficacy and safety. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - May 31, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Impact of Surfactants on Polymer Maintained Nifedipine Supersaturation in Aqueous Solution
ConclusionsThe ultimate impacts of various surfactants on polymer stabilized nifedipine supersaturation could be attributed to the interplay between different factors, including solubility enhancement of the drug, drug-polymer-surfactant interactions, and polymer-surfactant synergy. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - May 31, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research