Correction to: Tissue Resistance during Large-Volume Injections in Subcutaneous Tissue of Minipigs
Table 2 of the article ‘Tissue Resistance during Large-Volume Injections in Subcutaneous Tissue of Minipigs’ encountered formatting errors in the (original) pdf version with misplacement of text and columns. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - November 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models of Probenecid and Furosemide to Predict Transporter Mediated Drug-Drug Interactions
ConclusionsWhole-body PBPK models of probenecid and furosemide were built and evaluated, providing useful tools to support the investigation of transporter mediated DDIs. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - November 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

In-Silico Screening of Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems
ConclusionThe API solubility individually depends on the choice of excipients. The proposed in-silico-screening approach allows formulators to quickly determine most-appropriate types of lipid-based formulations for a given API with low experimental effort.Graphical abstract (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - November 23, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Absorption-Enhancing Mechanisms of Capryol 90, a Novel Absorption Enhancer, for Improving the Intestinal Absorption of Poorly Absorbed Drugs: Contributions to Trans- or Para-Cellular Pathways
ConclusionsCapryol 90 is an effective absorption enhancer for improving the intestinal absorption of poorly absorbed drugs via both transcellular and paracellular pathways. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - November 23, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Nanoformulation of Apolipoprotein E3-Tagged Liposomal Nanoparticles for the co-Delivery of KRAS-siRNA and Gemcitabine for Pancreatic Cancer Treatment
ConclusionA3-SGLP led to a marked decrease in the overall tumor burden and did not show any signs of toxicity. Therefore, the combination of KRAS-siRNA and GEM holds great potential for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - November 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Enhanced Biosynthesis Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) for their Antifungal Activity Toxicity against Major Phyto-Pathogens of Apple Orchards
ConclusionsThe study drops a concern of research and offers a promising route of developing Copper based green fungicides that can help to combat with modern issues of synthetic fungicides. An average size of 80  ± 15 nm monoclinic cupric oxide (CuO) and cubic cuprous oxides (Cu2O) nanocrystals that existed in mixed form were successfully developed. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - November 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ocular Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling for Ointment Formulations
ConclusionsThis initial model for ointment ophthalmic formulations is a first step to better understand the interplay between physiological factors and ophthalmic formulation physicochemical properties and their impact on in vivo ocular drug pharmacokinetic performance in rabbits. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - November 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Sweet/Fat Preference Taste in Subjects Who are Lean, Obese and Very Obese
ConclusionsApplication of modeling provided understanding of these complex interactions of sugar and fat on the perception of sweetness, creaminess, and pleasantness and provides a tool to investigate obesity and pharmacological intervention. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - November 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Evaluating Dermal Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodymanic Effect of Soft Topical PDE4 Inhibitors: Open Flow Microperfusion and Skin Biopsies
ConclusionsLow unbound drug concentration in dISF in combination with minimal target engagement of LEO 39652 in barrier impaired human skin explants supports that lack of clinical efficacy of LEO 39652 in AD patients is likely due to insufficient drug availability at the target. We conclude that dOFM together with a pharmacodynamic target engagement biomarker are strong techniques for establishing skin PK/PD relations and that skin biopsies should be used with caution. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - November 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Folate Modified Long Circulating Nano-Emulsion as a Promising Approach for Improving the Efficiency of Chemotherapy Drugs in Cancer Treatment
ConclusionsThis study can effectively improve the therapeutic efficiency of chemotherapy drugs for tumors, and provide an useful reference for solving the problem of low efficacy of chemotherapy drugs in clinical treatment of tumors.Graphical AbstractSchematic representation of Folic acid/PEG-DSPE/nano-emulsion (FNEs) specifically target tumor cells and enhanced anti-tumor effects (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - November 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

In Silico Simulation of Simultaneous Percutaneous Absorption and Xenobiotic Metabolism: Model Development and a Case Study on Aromatic Amines
ConclusionThis mechanistic model advances the dermalin silico functionality. It provides improved quantitative spatial and temporal insight into exposure of xenobiotics, enabling the isolation of governing features of skin. It contributes to accurate modelling of concentrations of xenobiotics reaching systemic circulation and additional metabolite concentrations. This is vital for development of both pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - November 11, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Emerging Technologies to Target Drug Delivery to the Skin – the Role of Crystals and Carrier-Based Systems in the Case Study of Dapsone
AbstractDapsone (DAP) is a long-established molecule that remains a promising therapeutic agent for various diseases mainly because it combines antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. Its oral application, however, is limited by the dose-dependent hematological side effects that may rise from systemic exposure. As an alternative to overcome this limitation, the administration of DAP to the skin has witnessed prominent interest in the past 20  years, particularly when applied to the treatment of dermatological disorders. In this review, all technological strategies proposed to the topical delivery of DAP are pr...
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - November 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Tilorone: a Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Invented in the USA and Commercialized in Russia and beyond
The mentioned Tables below had data in the bottom half (right hand side) of each table that was formatted incorrectly in the final proof version versus the submitted version. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - November 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Sedimentation Velocity Analytical Ultracentrifugation Analysis of Marketed Rituximab Drug Product Size Distribution
ConclusionsSV-AUC provides an orthogonal characterization tool for protein size distribution, composition and assay, which could be informative for biosimilar drug developers who mostly only have access to formulated mAb. However, AUC needs thorough validation on its accuracy, precision and sensitivity. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - November 5, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The Labeling, Visualization, and Quantification of Hyaluronan Distribution in Tumor-Bearing Mouse Using PET and MR Imaging
ConclusionMedical imaging tools, including MR and PET, can be highly valuable for examining biomaterial distribution non-invasively. The HA tumor accumulation properties may be explored for the development of active targeting drug carriers and molecular probes. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - November 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Simultaneous Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Nitrate and its Reduced Metabolite, Nitrite, Following Ingestion of Inorganic Nitrate in a Mixed Patient Population
ConclusionsExtension of the present first-generation model, to ultimately optimize NO3− dose versus pharmacological effects, is warranted. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - November 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Therapeutic Activity of Type 3 Streptococcus pneumoniae Capsule Degrading Enzyme Pn3Pase
ConclusionsThese data indicate that Pn3Pase has potential as a therapy against Spn3. Further development as a drug product could overcome a great hurdle of pneumococcal infections. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - November 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Scutellarin is Highly Likely to be Responsible for Drug-Drug Interactions Mediated by Hepatic Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptide1B3
ConclusionScutellarin may inhibit the hOATP1B3- and rOATP1B2-mediated transport of rosuvastatinin vitro, and exerts a moderate inhibitory effect on the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin in rats. Scutellarin is highly likely to participate in drug-drug interactions, as mediated by OATP1B3 in humans. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - October 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Negative Food Effect of Danirixin: Use of PBPK Modelling to Explore the Effect of Formulation and Meal Type on Clinical PK
ConclusionsInteractions between DNX and food components are the likely the source of the negative food effect via micellar entrapment, ion pairing and/or meal induced viscosity changes. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - October 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Improved In Vitro-In Vivo Correlation by Using the Unbound-Fraction-Adjusted IC 50 for Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Inhibition
ConclusionWe have found a way to obtain a betterin vitro-in vivo correlation for BCRP-mediated transport. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - October 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

On the Breakage of High Aspect Ratio Crystals in Filter Beds under Continuous Percolation
ConclusionLGA and PABA have a similar breakage strength (50  MPa), ibuprofen is significantly weaker (9 MPa). Available breakage strength data may be correlated to the volumetric Gibbs free energy. Data from 12 and 35 mm bed diameters compares well to literature data in a 80 mm filter; the smaller, easy to operate percolation unit is a versatile tool to assess crystal breakage in filtration operations. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - October 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Historical Evolution and Provider Awareness of Inactive Ingredients in Oral Medications
ConclusionsA multitude of available versions of the same medications provides a potentially under-recognized opportunity to prescribe the most suitable formulation to a patient as a step towards personalized medicine and mitigate potential adverse events from inactive ingredients. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - October 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

In Vitro Evaluation and Biodistribution Studies of HPMA Copolymers Targeting the Gastrin Releasing Peptide Receptor in Prostate Cancer
ConclusionPositively-charged BBN-HPMA copolymer conjugates demonstrated good GRPR-targeting and internalizationin vitro. However, the impact of peptide density and charge onin vivo MPS recognition are parameters that must be optimized in future agent development. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - October 23, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Formation of an Unprecedented Impurity during CE-SDS Analysis of a Recombinant Protein
ConclusionsOur study clearly suggested that even though IAM has been used extensively as an alkylation reagent in the traditional non-reducing CE-SDS analysis of monoclonal antibodies and other proteins, alkylation with IAM could potentially lead to additional impurity peak, and therefore complicating analysis. Therefore, before performing CE-SDS and other analyses, the effects of sample preparation procedures on analytical results must be evaluated. For protein X, IAM should be excluded for CE-SDS analysis. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - October 23, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Extended Pharmacokinetic Model of the Intravitreal Injections of Macromolecules in Rabbits. Part 2: Parameter Estimation Based on Concentration Dynamics in the Vitreous, Retina, and Aqueous Humor
ConclusionsThis study extends the use of 3D ocular PK models for parameter estimation using simultaneously macromolecule concentrations in three ocular tissues. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - October 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

IVIVC for Extended Release Hydrophilic Matrix Tablets in Consideration of Biorelevant Mechanical Stress
ConclusionFor establishing IVIVC of oral dosage forms susceptible mechanical stress, a comparison of the deconvoluted individualin vivo profiles within vitro profiles of different dissolution scenarios can be recommended. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - October 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cetuximab Exhibits Sex Differences in Lymphatic Exposure after Intravenous Administration in Rats in the Absence of Differences in Plasma Exposure
ConclusionsThese data suggested that mAbs more efficiently access lymph in females, but this does not affect plasma pharmacokinetics or biodistribution. Further, the data suggest that sex differences observed in humans could be a function of antigen density. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - October 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Editorial: Formulation and Delivery of Biologics
(Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - October 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Optimizing Predictive Performance of Bayesian Forecasting for Vancomycin Concentration in Intensive Care Patients
This article was updated to correct Figs.  1 and 4 as author corrections were overlooked during the production process. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - October 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics and Biodistribution of Tacrolimus after Topical Administration: Implications for Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation
AbstractAimThe high doses of oral tacrolimus (TAC) (1,2) necessary to prevent acute rejection (AR) after vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) are associated with systemic adverse effects. The skin is the most antigenic tissue in VCA and the primary target of AR. However, the short-term use of topical TAC (Protopic ®), as an off-label adjunct to oral TAC, to treat AR episodes pro re nata (PRN), has yielded inconsistent results. There is lack of data on the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of topical TAC in VCA, that hampers our understanding of the reasons for unreliable efficacy. Toward this goal, w...
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - October 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Exosomal Secretion of Adipose Tissue during Various Physiological States
AbstractExosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles containing a wide array of biologically active components. Recent studies have demonstrated that exosomes serve as an important vehicle for extracellular communication and exert systemic effects on the physiology of organisms. Adipose tissues (ATs) play a key role in balancing systemic energy homeostasis as a central hub for fatty acid metabolism. At the same time, proper endocrine function of ATs has also been shown to be crucial for regulating physiological and metabolic health. The endocrine function of ATs is partially mediated by AT-derived exosomes that regulate me...
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - October 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Multifunctional Microparticles Incorporating Gold Compound Inhibit Human Lung Cancer Xenograft
ConclusionAuP in IPN microparticles can reduce the systemic toxicity of AuP without compromising its antitumor activity. This work highlighted the potential application of AuP in IPN microparticles for anticancer chemotherapy. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - October 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Fluorescent Nanoparticles Coated with a Somatostatin Analogue Target Blood Monocyte for Efficient Leukaemia Treatment
Conclusion: The formulated novel QDs-OCD can target SSTR2 overexpressed in blood cells with great potential for treating blood cancer. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - October 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Diving into Batch-to-Batch Variability of Topical Products-a Regulatory Bottleneck
ConclusionsSemisolid dosage forms exhibit intrinsic variability. This calls for the attention to the need of establishing reasonable equivalence criteria applied to generic drug products.Graphical abstract (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - October 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Surface Composition and Aerosolization Stability of an Inhalable Combinational Powder Formulation Spray Dried Using a Three-Fluid Nozzle
ConclusionsThe 3-fluid nozzle provides flexibility in choosing different solvents and has the capability to spray dry at higher feed solid concentrations. This study highlights the impact of hydrophobic azithromycin enrichment on particle surface irrespective of the nozzle type, on the prevention of moisture-induced deterioration of FPF for hygroscopic colistin. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - October 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Impact of Silicone Oil on Free Fatty Acid Particle Formation due to Polysorbate 20 Degradation
ConclusionHerein, we demonstrate that FFAs partition from aqueous solution into si-oil. However, the extent of the partitioning effect is not large enough to delay PS20-related FFA particle formation at typical formulation conditions (pH  5.0–7.5, 0.01% - 0.1%w/v PS20) filled in typical PFSs (
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - October 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Structural, Biological, and Functional Similarity of Biosimilar Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor to its Reference Product
ConclusionBased on the similarity assessment, despite being manufactured at two different production sites, biosimilar Fraven ® is highly similar to the reference product Turkey originated Neupogen®. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - October 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A Systems Biology Workflow for Drug and Vaccine Repurposing: Identifying Small-Molecule BCG Mimics to Reduce or Prevent COVID-19 Mortality
ConclusionsOur results provide systems biology support for using BCG and small-molecule BCG mimics as putative vaccine and drug candidates against emergent viruses including SARS-CoV-2. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - October 5, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ternary Polypeptide Nanoparticles with Improved Encapsulation, Sustained Release, and Enhanced In Vitro Efficacy of Carfilzomib
ConclusionstPNPs improved stability and efficacy of CFZin vitro, and these results potentiate effective cancer treatment using CFZ/tPNPs in future vivo studies. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - October 5, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Impact of Reverse Micelle Loaded Lipid Nanocapsules on the Delivery of Gallic Acid into Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells: A Promising Therapeutic Approach for Hepatic Fibrosis
This erratum is to correct the name of the moiety responsible for the negativity of Lipoid S75. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - October 5, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Use of Microfluidics to Fabricate Bioerodable Lipid Hybrid Nanoparticles Containing Hydromorphone or Ketamine for the Relief of Intractable Pain
ConclusionsThe two-stage microfluidic method allowed efficient production of analgesic/adjuvant drug-loaded NPs. Our proof-of-principlein vivo study shows prolonged hydromorphone analgesic for 78  h after single i.t. injection. At the i.t. dose administered, ketamine released from NPs was insufficient to augment hydromorphone analgesia. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - October 1, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cutaneous Pharmacokinetics of Acyclovir Cream 5% Products: Evaluating Bioequivalence with an In Vitro Permeation Test and an Adaptation of Scaled Average Bioequivalence
ConclusionsThe current study demonstrated that the IVPT method, with an appropriate statistical analysis of the results, is a sensitive and discriminating test that can detect differences in the rate and extent of acyclovir bioavailability in the skin from differently formulated cream products. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - September 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Intestinal Efflux Transporters P-gp and BCRP Are Not Clinically Relevant in Apixaban Disposition
ConclusionsInhibition or induction of intestinal CYP3A4 can account for exposure changes of apixaban in all clinically significant drug-drug interactions, and lack of intestinal CYP3A4 inhibition can explain all studies with no exposure changes, regardless of the potential for these perpetrators to inhibit intestinal or systemic efflux transporters. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - September 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Combined in Vitro-in Silico Approach to Predict Deposition and Pharmacokinetics of Budesonide Dry Powder Inhalers
ConclusionsCombination of realistic in vitro experiments, lung deposition modeling, and pharmacokinetic modeling was shown to provide reasonable estimation of in vivo systemic exposure from DPIs. Such combined approaches are useful in the development of orally inhaled drug products. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - September 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Understanding Oxidation Propensity in GCSF and Assessment of its Safety and Efficacy
ConclusionThe data from the present study suggests that methionine oxidation in GCSF is a critical quality attribute that needs careful monitoring and control during commercial manufacturing and subsequent supply chain stages. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - September 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Correction to: Revising Pharmacokinetics of Oral Drug Absorption: I Models Based on Biopharmaceutical/Physiological and Finite Absorption Time Concepts
This erratum corrects the content of our work published inPharm Res (2020) 37:187 (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - September 28, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic Modeling of the Impact of P-glycoprotein on Ondansetron Disposition in the Central Nervous System
ConclusionsThe study provides important quantitative information on the role of Pgp in limiting ondansetron exposure in various regions of the CNS using data from wild-type and Pgp knockout rats. CSF drug concentrations, as a surrogate to CNS exposure, are likely to underestimate the effect of Pgp on drug penetration to the brain and the spinal cord. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - September 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Variability of Skin Pharmacokinetic Data: Insights from a Topical Bioequivalence Study Using Dermal Open Flow Microperfusion
ConclusionsInter-subject variability was the major component of overall variability for acyclovir, and treatment site location did not significantly influence intra-subject variability. These results support a dOFM BE study design with T and R products assessed simultaneously on the same subject, where T and R treatment sites do not necessarily need to be next to each other. Localized variation in skin microstructure may be primarily responsible for intra-subject variability. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - September 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A Biopredictive In Vitro Approach for Assessing Compatibility of a Novel Pediatric Hydrocortisone Drug Product within Common Pediatric Dosing Vehicles
ConclusionsA novelin vitro approach ensuring a proper risk assessment of the use of dosing vehicles in the administration of pediatric dosage forms was established and applied to a novel pediatric hydrocortisone drug product. The studied dosing vehicles were shown to not alter performance of the drug product and are thus considered suitable for administration with hydrocortisone granules.Graphical abstract (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - September 23, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

To Maintain Formulation Composition Similarity of Coated Tablets of Different Strengths: Should Coating be Based on Core Tablet Weight or Surface Area?
ConclusionFor a routine tablet formulation development with Opadry color coating, it does not matter whether the coating is applied based on the core tablet surface area or weight. (Source: Pharmaceutical Research)
Source: Pharmaceutical Research - September 23, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research