Infected Subgaleal Hematoma Following Blunt Head Trauma in a Child: Case Report and Review of the Literature
We report a case of an infected SGH in an 8-month-old following closed skull fracture. The patient presented with scalp swelling 1 day after falling 3 feet. Initial evaluation found a nondisplaced skull fracture on computed tomography. She was discharged following an uneventful 23-hour observation. Three days later, she developed symptoms concerning for a viral upper respiratory tract infection and received symptomatic treatment. Nine days after injury, she returned with continued fevers, irritability, and significant increase in scalp swelling. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a subgaleal abscess with osteomyelitis. Need...
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - June 16, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Identifying Characteristics in Abusive Head Trauma: A Single-Institution Experience
Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a significant cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to better understand the trends centered on AHT patients treated at Vanderbilt Children's Hospital. A retrospective study of 139 children undergoing treatment and management for traumatic brain injury due to abuse between January 2006 and April 2013 at Vanderbilt Children's Hospital was conducted. Caucasian males made up 61% and the youngest sibling represented 86.3% of our cohort. The median age was 5 months with injuries occurring during summertime and on weekdays, 31 and 63%, respectively. Seventy-nine pe...
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - June 9, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Kyphectomy and Pedicular Screw Fixation with Posterior-Only Approach in Pediatric Patients with Myelomeningocele
Conclusions: Kyphectomy and pedicle screw instrumentation with the posterior-only approach dramatically reduces the kyphosis angle that develops in patients with myelomeningocele. The method itself is less time-consuming and leads to less intraoperative blood loss compared to other methods used for this patient population. Skin breakdown is the most common short-term complication.Pediatr Neurosurg (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - June 7, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Tip as a Rare Cause for Recurrent Pain Episodes in a Child: Think Irritable Peritoneum
Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting is an established treatment to regulate the drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in posthaemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Several complications (e.g. blockage of CSF shunting, overdrainage, but also catheter-related perforation of abdominal organs, etc.) may occur and may lead to painful episodes, mostly headache, in these children. Here, we report on a 7-year-old child with recurrent painful episodes after revision of a VP shunt that subsided only after repositioning of the abdominal tip of the VP shunt. Visceral irritation by a malpositioned VP shunt should be considered as a cause for recur...
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - June 5, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy in Children with Myelomeningocele: A Case Series
We present 7 cases of children with MM and hydrocephalus undergoing a total of 10 ETV procedures. All patients demonstrated clinical improvement (in acute/subacute cases) or stabilization (in chronic cases). Three patients requiring a second ETV have shown clinical stability and renewed radiological evidence of functioning ventriculostomies in follow-up since reintervention. ETV can be used, albeit cautiously, in selected cases of hydrocephalus associated with MM. However, the frequency with which anatomical variation is encountered and the difficulty of the assessment of success make the procedure more challenging than us...
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - May 28, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

The Hormone Levels in the Differential Diagnosis of Central Precocious Puberty
Pediatr Neurosurg (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - May 28, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Endovascular Occlusion of Cervical Internal Carotid Artery Pseudoaneurysm in a Child Treated by N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate: A Rare Case Report
We report a rare case of spontaneous extracranial cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) pseudoaneurysm in a female child aged 3 years who presented with a swelling in the neck which had bled following an attempted incision as it had been thought to be an abscess. A CT angiogram and an MR angiogram were not very conclusive to diagnose the exact site of origin and the morphology of the aneurysm. Digital subtraction angiography revealed a dissecting pseudoaneurysm of the right extracranial cervical ICA. The right ICA was ending as a pseudosac, and the right cerebral circulation was filling up through the right posterior cere...
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - May 19, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

A Simple Technique for Bone Storage after Decompressive Craniectomy in Children
We present a simple method of bone storage and autologous cranioplasty in a small child with severe head injury. The child underwent surgical treatment with decompressive craniectomy. A bone flap was transversally divided into two pieces and stored under the galea. Bone storage and reconstruction of the cranial vault with our surgical technique is a safe, easy and cost-effective choice excluding the surgical trauma to obtain a new subcutanous pocket for bone storage in pediatric decompressive craniectomy patients.Pediatr Neurosurg (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - May 14, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Severe Acute Subdural Hematoma in a Child following a Minor Head Trauma in the Context of a Recent Antecedent Head Injury: A Case Report
We present a case of acute subdural hematoma following a low-level fall in a 3-year-old patient. An antecedent head injury associated with normal CT scan might have had some bearing on this outcome.Pediatr Neurosurg (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - May 14, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Transnasal Transsphenoidal Surgical Method in Pediatric Pituitary Adenomas
Aim: To evaluate the clinical outcome in a 13-year consecutive series of children operated for pituitary adenomas with transnasal transsphenoidal surgery. Methods: All patients (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - May 14, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor with Cervical Vertebra Involvement in a Teenage Child: Case Report and Review of the Literature
This study presents a case of MRT involving the C4 vertebra and its appendix. A 13-year-old girl was found to have vague neck pain and a mass in the left neck area of the mid-cervical spine. Percutaneous needle biopsy was performed and the histological and immunohistochemical analysis pointed towards a rhabdoid tumor. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy were performed, but the tumor mass progressively enlarged. Tumorectomy was conducted followed by another 6 courses of chemotherapy and 125I radioactive seed implantation. Unfortunately, the C4 vertebra and its appendix were found to be abnormal 3 months after the end of therapy. ...
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - May 14, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Successful Management of a Unique Condition of Isolated Intracranial Mucormycosis in an Immunocompetent Child
In conclusion, this is a unique case of mucormycosis with regard to the nature and location of the infection, along with the host being a healthy child. Initial surgical exploration is a very critical step in the early diagnosis and treatment of such rare conditions.Pediatr Neurosurg (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - May 6, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

The Total Calvarial Remodeling with Transsutural Distraction Osteogenesis of 21 Cases of Craniosynostosis: New, Efficient, Safe and Natural Method in Craniosynostosis Surgery
Introduction: The majority of the present distraction osteogenesis techniques involve local site expansion that only produces localized decompression and affords limited decompression and cosmetic results. We designed a new surgical procedure, total calvarial transsutural distraction osteogenesis (TSuDO). Methods: We performed total calvarial TSuDO surgical procedures in 21 children. The total calvarial TSuDO method consisted of suturectomy and distraction for the sagittal, bicoronal and bilambdoid sutures. Results: The mean surgery duration was 110 ± 16 min, the mean transfusion volume was 38 ± 45 ml, an ave...
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - April 25, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Ventriculobiliary Shunts, Another Option
We report 3 cases: a 7-year-old boy with a surgically treated complex heart disease, a 16-month-old girl with hydrocephalus secondary to a brain tumor and multiple bacteremias secondary to an infection of the central venous reservoir, and a 4-year-old girl with nonreabsorptive hydrocephalus caused by intraventricular bleeding due to premature birth, necrotizing enterocolitis and shunt infections with abdominal pseudocysts, which caused multiple abdominal septations and, finally, a nonreabsorptive peritoneum. At present, cases 1 [45 months after ventriculobiliary shunt (VBS)] and 3 (27 months after VBS) are symptom free, wh...
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - April 25, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Complete Response and Long-Term Survival (>20 Years) of a Child with Tectal Glioma: A Case Report
This report discusses a case of a 13-year-old male diagnosed with tectal glioma who obtained a complete response and long-term survival after the treatment with antineoplastons (ANP) in phase II trial. Prior treatment consisted of placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. After 6 years of stabilization there had been an increase in tumor size with signs of malignant transformation. The patient received treatment with ANP A10 and AS2-1 infusions for 20 months, obtained a complete response, and was switched to maintenance with ANP capsules. All treatments were discontinued in December 2003. Adverse events according to CTCAE...
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - April 21, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Intrathecal Morphine Therapy in the Management of Status Dystonicus in Neurodegeneration Brain Iron Accumulation Type 1
We present the case of a 14-year-old boy diagnosed with NBIA-1, presenting intractable progressive generalized dystonia leading to unresponsive status dystonicus (SD). The patient received a SynchroMed II (model 8637) programmable system pump (Medtronic®, Inc.) implant with an Ascenda intrathecal catheter for intrathecal morphine therapy (IMT). The initial dose of morphine was 1.0 mg/day. Overall, we observed no complications with IMT treatment and important improvement of the patient's motor function with stabilization of his incapacitating dystonia and his quality of life. On the Global Dystonia Severity Rating Scale...
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - April 18, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Evolution of a Pediatric Primary Cerebral ALK-1-Positive Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma on Serial MRI
Conclusions: Our case demonstrates the rapidity with which a PCNSL lesion can develop, and the evolution of the imaging characteristics prior to definitive diagnosis and treatment. Serial imaging by MRI may help differentiate the behavior of a PCNSL from other imitating lesions.Pediatr Neurosurg (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - April 18, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Horizontal Tonic Conjugate Gaze Deviation in a 4-Week-Old Infant: What Can the Eyes (of the Parents) Tell
A 4-week-old healthy infant failed to make eye contact when approached from the left. When evaluated by us at the age of 11 weeks, left tonic conjugate gaze deviation was noted. Brain MRI showed a left frontotemporal large tension arachnoid cyst causing right falcial herniation. During the insertion of an Ommaya reservoir, hemosiderin was found to be coating the inner wall of the cyst, which may indicate that the asymptomatic cyst evolved to a tension cyst due to spontaneous hemorrhage. Surgical decompression resulted in complete restoration of the horizontal gaze and considerable reduction in the size of the cyst. After 3...
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - April 18, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Paediatric Intracranial Anaplastic Ependymoma: The Role of Multiple Surgical Resections for Disease Relapse in Maintaining Quality of Life and Prolonged Survival
Conclusion: For patients with multiple relapses, surgery should be considered primarily to re-resect any symptomatic lesion. This case demonstrates that multiple tumour resections can be undertaken with limited morbidity for the patient and with maintenance of quality of life. Repeated focal irradiation can also be used to control the disease with limited morbidity.Pediatr Neurosurg (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - April 10, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

A Rare Case of Medulloblastoma Coexisting with Multiple Spinal Intramedullary Tumors
We describe a unique case of medulloblastoma with multiple intramedullary lesions at the D-7 and D-12 levels.Pediatr Neurosurg (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - March 30, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Announcements
Pediatr Neurosurg 2014–15;50:56–56 (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - March 26, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Malignant Cause of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt ‘Pseudocyst': A Case Report
We present the case of a 4-year-old boy with a history of complicated hydrocephalus managed with a VP shunt due to sequelae of prematurity. The patient presented with abdominal distention, and a pseudocyst was diagnosed. Despite shunt externalization and aspiration, the pseudocyst continued to produce up to 1 liter of serosanguineous fluid per day. After MRI revealed malignant features within the pseudocyst, laparotomy was performed and the pseudocyst was partially excised. Pathology reports suggested sarcoma. The cystic mass grew back aggressively, accompanied by distant metastasis. The patient's condition deteriorated an...
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - March 26, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Secondary Cranial Vault Remodeling for Restenosis after Primary Sagittal Synostosis Repair
The mainstay of treatment for single-suture cranial synostosis is cranial vault reconstruction. After primary cranial vault remodeling, patients are at risk for cranial restenosis and delayed intracranial hypertension, which may result in developmental delay or blindness. Synostosis patients are therefore generally monitored periodically for signs and symptoms of intracranial hypertension that may indicate a second cranial expansion procedure. The authors present a carefully illustrated case of a patient who presented 2 years after primary cranial vault reconstruction for sagittal synostosis with a decrease in head circumf...
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - March 26, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Primary Pure and Nonsecreting Embryonal Carcinoma of the Anterior Third Ventricle: A Case Report
Central nervous system germ cell tumors (GCTs) account for less than 5% of primary brain tumors in children and adolescents but continue to attract much attention. To the best of our knowledge, a primary pure and nonsecreting embryonal carcinoma of the anterior third ventricle has never been previously reported. A 15-year-old boy presented with signs of increased intracranial pressure for the past 2 weeks complicated by 2 episodes of generalized tonic-clonic seizures 1 day before admission. Neurological examination was normal, and funduscopic examination disclosed a grade II papilledema bilaterally. CT and MRI revealed a w...
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - March 26, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Packing to Tamponade Severe Intracranial Hemorrhage in Pediatric Patients
The medical records of all children in whom packing was used to control severe intracranial hemorrhage were reviewed. Eight children, with ages ranging from newborn to 4 years, met the inclusion criteria and all survived. Five were victims of severe closed head trauma, 2 had received penetrating cranial injuries, and 1 developed severe bleeding while undergoing surgery for a malignant tumor in the posterior fossa. Blood loss at the time of removal of the packing was minimal in 7 patients and was surgically controllable in the other. Packing is a simple, efficient, and safe maneuver which can very often halt intracranial bl...
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - March 24, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Successful Endovascular Reconstruction of a Recurrent Giant Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm with Multiple Telescoping Flow Diverters in a Pediatric Patient
Intracranial aneurysms of the pediatric population are rare, but giant fusiform aneurysms (GFAs) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) are common within this cohort of patients. These aneurysms are difficult to treat and often require advanced microsurgical skills, as they are usually not amenable to direct clipping. Here, we report the successful treatment of a recurrent GFA of the MCA with three telescoping Pipeline Embolization Devices 6 months after attempted clip reconstruction in a pediatric patient.Pediatr Neurosurg (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - March 17, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy in an Apparently Healthy Child: An Unsuspected Diagnosis
Pediatr Neurosurg (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - March 17, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Neural Tube Defects in Jarcho-Levin Syndrome: Study of Twenty-Eight Cases
Jarcho-Levin syndrome (JLS) is a congenital disorder consisting of various vertebral and costal anomalies. Congenital heart defects, abdominal wall malformations, urogenital and anal abnormalities, multiple skeletal anomalies, upper limb anomalies, spina bifida, and inguinal, umbilical and diaphragmatic hernias can be seen as components of JLS. Spina bifida appears to be a common finding in reported JLS cases. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records, plain X-rays and MRIs of patients with spina bifida between 2010 and 2014 and discussed the results.Pediatr Neurosurg (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - March 17, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Morphometric Analysis of Lumbar Pedicles in Patients with Spinal Dysraphism
Conclusions: Patients with open neural tube defects had more medially angled pedicle trajectories in the lumbar spine when compared to previously reported values.Pediatr Neurosurg (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - February 26, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Cervical Spine MRI Findings in Patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II
Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II; Hunter syndrome) is an X-linked, recessive, lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of iduronate-2-sulfatase (EC 3.1.6.13). The purpose of this report is to describe cervical spine magnetic resonance (MRI) findings in MPS II patients and to correlate them with clinical phenotype. Seven cervical spine MRI examinations from Polish MPS II patients (mean age 11.4 years, median age 8 years, range 5-30) were evaluated. Six patients were classified as neurological (85.7%) and 1 as attenuated (14.3%). Five patients were treated with idursulfase (range 110-260 weeks, mean 195, median 2...
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - February 24, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Intracranial Aneurysms in the Youngest Patients: Characteristics and Treatment Challenges
Conclusion: We demonstrate that the youngest patients (10 years and under) have aneurysms even more distinct and less similar to adult aneurysms than those in the larger pediatric cohort.Pediatr Neurosurg (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - February 24, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Pediatric Glioblastoma Multiforme in Association with Turner's Syndrome: A Case Report
The Ullrich-Turner syndrome (complete or partial X-chromosome monosomy) has been found to be associated with an increased rate of some extragonadal neoplasms. Sporadic reports of the Turner syndrome with various brain tumors, including few cases of glioblastoma multiforme, have been found in the literature. However, published data are insufficient to establish a definite relationship between these tumors and the Turner syndrome. Herein, a rare case of primary pediatric glioblastoma multiforme in a 7-year-old girl with Turner's syndrome is reported, and various aspects regarding clinical and pathophysiological issues have b...
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - February 24, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

National Trends, Complications, and Hospital Charges in Pediatric Patients with Chiari Malformation Type I Treated with Posterior Fossa Decompression with and without Duraplasty
Conclusions: This large national study indicates that PFDD is performed more often in Caucasians, less so emergently, and associated with significantly more complications and immediate reoperations, while PFD is more frequent in those with syringomyelia and more economical, requiring fewer hospital resources. Overall, PFD is more favorable for CM-1, though it would be prudent to conduct a prospective trial, as this analysis is limited by data on preoperative presentations and long-term outcomes.Pediatr Neurosurg (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - February 17, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 49, 2013
Pediatr Neurosurg 2013;49:I-VI (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - January 28, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Measures of Ventricles and Evans' Index: From Neonate to Adolescent
This study aims to provide normative data about ventricle diameters. Among 14,854 cranial MRI performed between 2011 and 2013, 2,755 images of Turkish children aged 0-18 years were obtained. After exclusions, 517 images were left. Four radiologists were trained by a pediatric radiologist. Twenty images were assessed by all radiologists for a pilot study to see that there was no interobserver variation. There were 10-22 children in each age group. The maximum width of the third ventricle was 5.54 ± 1.29 mm in males in age group 1 and 4.98 ± 1.08 mm in females in age group 2. The Evans' index was 1 and (Source:...
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - January 23, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Occipital Post-Traumatic Intradiploic Arachnoid Cyst Converted to Pseudomeningocele after Re-Trauma: A Rare Complication of Rare Pathology
Conclusion: PTIAC is an extremely rare occurrence as a variant of GSF. It is usually asymptomatic, but it may rupture with trivial trauma due to a thinned-out outer table and then converts into pseudomengocele. En masse excision with dural-defect repair gives good results in cases of ruptured PTIAC due to re-trauma.Pediatr Neurosurg (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - January 21, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Frontoethmoidal Cephalocele: Our Experience of Eleven Cases Managed Surgically
Conclusion: The surgical treatment of frontoethmoidal cephaloceles is complex, sometimes requiring a multidisciplinary team. However, early closing of the malformation before the appearance of important bone deformities can prevent maxillofacial surgery. The results of the surgery are satisfactory as regards the vital prognosis. However, the fear of a more or less long-term occurrence of psychomotor retardation and the complications of early surgery make the recommendation and emphasis of prevention our main concern.Pediatr Neurosurg (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - January 12, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Ewing's Sarcoma: Dural Metastases after Intracranial Hemorrhage
Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is a primary malignant tumor of the mesenchymal tissue of bone in children and young adults. Central nervous system metastases of ES are rarely seen. In this paper, we report a case of ES that progressed with dural metastases after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.Pediatr Neurosurg (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - January 12, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Rare Pathologies in the Posterior Third Ventricular Region in Children: Case Series and Review
Tumors of the pineal region in children often belong to 2 categories, namely germ cell tumors and pineal parenchymal tumors. Very rare pathologies have previously been reported in this region. Most of these tumors may be similar radiologically, while their management differs. The present series reports 2 children with pineal region tumors, each one being a rare pathological entity by itself, namely an embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes (ETANTR) and a rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT). Very few such cases in each pathology have been reported in the literature for the pediatric age group up to n...
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - January 12, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Symptomatic Thoracic Arachnoid Cyst with Coexisting Tick Paralysis: Case Report and Review of the Literature
We present a case of a child presenting with weakness of the lower extremities and frequent falls who was found to have a compressive thoracic arachnoid cyst and a large distal syrinx. After surgical decompression, the patient made significant improvement in her leg strength, but quickly developed an ascending quadriparesis, followed by respiratory depression. Subsequent imaging and physical examination revealed an engorged tick embedded in her scalp. The tick was removed, and the patient made a rapid and complete clinical recovery. We present a unique case of concomitant tick paralysis and a symptomatic spinal intradural ...
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - December 17, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Troubleshooting Distraction Osteogenesis for Craniosynostosis
Conclusions: The distraction osteogenesis technique has complications that may not occur in conventional one-stage cranioplasty. In this study, neither age at operation nor distraction distance were significant causes of complications during distraction osteogenesis.Pediatr Neurosurg (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - December 9, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Choroid Plexus Tumors in Children: A Population-Based Study
Background: Choroid plexus tumors are rare neoplasms that primarily occur in children. The use of the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) database allows for the analysis of the relationship between prognostic factors and survival. Methods: We analyzed the SEER database to select pediatric patients ( (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - December 5, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Factors Influencing Blood Loss and Postoperative Morbidity in Children Undergoing Craniosynostosis Surgery: A Retrospective Study
Background: Craniosynostosis is a condition resulting from the premature fusion of cranial sutures. Corrective surgery is often associated with a large amount of blood loss, with transfusion of red blood cells (RBC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP). The aims of this study were to determine the variables associated with increased blood loss and postoperative complications. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed of 42 pediatric patients who underwent craniosynostosis surgery. We analyzed the following: demographic parameters, duration of surgery, intraoperative blood loss, RBC, FFP and fluid transfusion, urine output, ...
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - December 3, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Neuroendoscopic Assessment of Choroid Plexus Coagulation to Release Ventricular Catheter: Note on the Seldinger Technique
We report the unique case of a neuroendoscopic view of choroid plexus coagulation by the Seldinger technique in a 7-year-old child with shunt dysfunction submitted to endoscopic third ventriculostomy and previous shunt removal. We reinforce the security and efficacy of the Seldinger technique with a direct neuroendoscopic view of the coagulation process.Pediatr Neurosurg (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - December 3, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Peroneal and Tibial Intraneural Ganglion Cysts in Children
Conclusion: Intraneural ganglion cysts in children can be treated with excellent outcome in experienced and dedicated centers, which specialize in peripheral nerve microsurgery.Pediatr Neurosurg (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - December 1, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Time to First Shunt Failure in Pediatric Patients over 1 Year Old: A 10-Year Retrospective Study
Studies comparing alternatives to ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting for treatment of hydrocephalus have often relied upon data from an earlier era that may not be representative of contemporary shunt survival outcomes. We sought to determine the shunt survival rate of our cohort and compare our results to previously published shunt survival and endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) success rates. We identified 95 patients between 1 and 18 years of age, who underwent initial VP shunt placement between January 2001 and December 2010. Our study shows a shunt survival rate of 85% at 6 months and 79% at 2 years, for initial s...
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - November 27, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Dog Ear Graft for Closure of the Large Skin Defects in Meningomyelocele Surgery
We report a technique for closing the large skin defects after the surgical repair of meningomyeloceles.Pediatr Neurosurg (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - November 27, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Infection with Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Species in an Infant
We present a case of a 3-month-old male with a history of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus after premature birth who presented to the emergency department with irritability and decreased oral intake. His presentation was concerning for shunt infection and evaluation for this was undertaken. He was found to have a shunt infection due to non-Salmonellatyphi species, a rare cause of meningitis in children in the United States and rarer cause of shunt infection. With effective treatment for this organism, the patient did well and was discharged home in good condition.Pediatr Neurosurg (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - November 25, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Expression Patterns of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein Isoforms in Medulloblastoma Subtypes and Clinical Correlation
Background: Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) are known to be differentially expressed in brain tumours. The role of some IGFBPs in malignant CNS tumours, except glioblastoma, is unknown. We evaluated the protein expression of 3 IGFBP isoforms (IGFBP-2, -3, -5) in medulloblastoma and correlated them with histological subtypes and clinical parameters. Methods: The expression of IGFBP-2, -3 and -5 was analysed in 67 samples of medulloblastoma by immunohistochemistry and correlated with histological subtypes and patient prognosis. Results: IGFBP-3 expression was seen in 37.3% of cases and IGFBP-5 expression...
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - November 21, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research

Can Multiparametric MRI and FDG-PET Predict Outcome in Diffuse Brainstem Glioma? A Report from a Prospective Phase-II Study
Conclusions: Cumulative RPI was able to classify tumours into different grades and predicted clinical outcome. At baseline, MR hyperperfusion indicated a shorter survival for DIPG patients. Sensitivity and specificity of imaging modalities to detect low-grade gliomas were poor.Pediatr Neurosurg 2013;49:274-281 (Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery)
Source: Pediatric Neurosurgery - November 20, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Source Type: research