Investigating associations between intestinal alterations and parasite load according to Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. abundance in the gut microbiota of hamsters infected by Leishmania infantum.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that L. infantum infection leads to important changes in the colon and suggest that bacteria in the GM play a protective role. PMID: 33263602 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - December 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Passos FC, Gois MB, Sousa AD, de Marinho AIL, Corvo L, Soto M, Barral-Netto M, Barral A, Baccan GC Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Gastropods as intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus spp. in the Americas: bioecological characteristics and geographical distribution.
CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the importance of integrative studies, analysing both the etiological agent and its transmission dynamic in the environment, the biological and ecological characteristics of the hosts, and the impact on host populations. It is necessary to increase interdisciplinary studies to determine the potential epidemiological health risk of angiostrongyliasis in the Americas, and thus be able to establish prevention, monitoring and contingency strategies in the region. PMID: 33263610 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - December 3, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Valente R, Robles MDR, Diaz JI Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Latex proteins downregulate inflammation and restores blood-coagulation homeostasis in acute Salmonella infection.
CONCLUSIONS: LPPIII recruited macrophages to the target organs of bacterial infection. This addressed inflammatory stimulus seems to reduce bacterial colonisation in spleen and liver, down regulate bacterial spread and contribute to avoid septic shock. PMID: 33237133 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 27, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sousa BF, Silva AFBD, Lima-Filho JV, Agostinho AG, Oliveira DN, de Alencar NMN, de Freitas CDT, Ramos MV Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

An overview of the sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) followed by the detection of Leishmania DNA and blood meal identification in the state of Acre, Amazonian Brazil.
CONCLUSIONS: In Brumptomyia sp. and Evandromyia termitophila, the first report of Leishmania DNA-detection is provided in Acre; Nyssomyia shawi is implicated as potential vector of L. (V.) braziliensis and L. (V.) guyanensis for the first time in Brazil. PMID: 33206821 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Araujo-Pereira T, Pita-Pereira D, Baia-Gomes SM, Boité M, Silva F, Pinto IS, de Sousa RLT, Fuzari A, de Souza C, Brazil R, Britto C Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Metformin promotes susceptibility to experimental Leishmania braziliensis infection.
CONCLUSION: Experimental treatment with MET interfered with the kinetics of cutaneous ulceration, increased Lb parasite load, altered ROS production and modulated cellular proliferation. Our experimental results indicate that MET interfere with the evolution of CL. PMID: 33206822 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lima FR, Ferreira LM, Malta TA, Bonyek-Silva I, Santos RL, Tavares NM, Carvalho Filho EM, Arruda S Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Detection of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus anthracis-like spores in soil from state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
CONCLUSIONS: This work showed promising results and it was the first study to report results from an active surveillance for B. anthracis in Brazil. PMID: 33174903 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 13, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Salgado JR, Rabinovitch L, Gomes MFDS, Allil RCDS, Werneck MM, Rodrigues RB, Picão RC, Oliveira Luiz FB, Vivoni AM Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Pyomelanin biosynthetic pathway in pigment-producer strains from the pandemic Acinetobacter baumannii IC-5.
CONCLUSION: There is a biosynthetic pathway compatible with the pyomelanin production observed in persistent A. baumannii IC-5 strains. PMID: 33174904 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 13, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fonseca É, Freitas F, Caldart R, Morgado S, Vicente AC Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Experimental yellow fever virus infection in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri spp.) I: gross anatomical and histopathological findings in organs at necropsy.
Vasconcelos PFDC Abstract BACKGROUND: Non-human primates contribute to the spread of the yellow fever virus (YFV) and the establishment of transmission cycles in endemic areas. OBJECTIVE: To describe the severe histopathological aspects of YFV infection, 10 squirrel monkeys were infected with YFV and blood, brain, liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lung, lymph node and stomach were collected at 1-7, 10, 20 and 30 days post-infection (dpi). METHODS: Histopathological analysis and detection of the genome and viral antigens and neutralising antibodies were performed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and neutralis...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 13, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ferreira MS, Júnior PSB, Cerqueira VD, Rivero GRC, Júnior CAO, Castro PHG, Silva GAD, Silva WBD, Imbeloni AA, Sousa JR, Araújo APS, Silva FAE, Tesh RB, Quaresma JAS, Vasconcelos PFDC Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Assessing the efficacy of two new formulations of larvicide pyriproxyfen for the control of Aedes aegypti using dissemination stations in two sites of Rio de Janeiro city.
CONCLUSIONS: New formulations of PPF associated with mosquito dissemination approach make a valuable vector control strategy, managing to cover places of difficult access for whatever reason. New formulations application requires less labour, being economically attractive. PMID: 33146241 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pinto RA, Bauzer LGSDR, Borges DT, Lima JBP Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

The secreted acid trehalase encoded by the CgATH1 gene is involved in Candida glabrata virulence.
CONCLUSIONS: The acid trehalase is involved in the hydrolysis of external trehalose by C. glabrata, and the enzyme also plays a major virulence role during infectivity. PMID: 33146242 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lopes RG, Muñoz JE, Barros LM, Alves-Jr SL, Taborda CP, Stambuk BU Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

CD14 genotype and functional dichotomy of CD14+ and CD14- cells are associated with activated immune response and development of Chagas dilated cardiomyopathy.
Abstract We aimed to investigate the association of CD14 -260C/T (rs2569190) polymorphism and Chagas cardiomyopathy and the functional characteristics of CD14+ and CD14- monocytes upon infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. We observed an association between the T- genotype (absence of allele -260T) related to low CD14 expression and the dilated cardiomyopathy type of Chagas disease. Furthermore, we observed that CD14- monocytes showed a more activated profile upon in vitro infection with T. cruzi than CD14+ monocytes. Our findings suggest that T- genotype is associated with susceptibility to develop Chagas dilated car...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Costa GC, Rocha MODC, Souza PEA, Melo DFS, Moreira PR, Gollob KJ, Nunes MDCP, Dutra WO Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Infestation dynamics of Triatoma dimidiata in highly deforested tropical dry forest regions of Guatemala.
CONCLUSIONS: Because almost all infested houses have reproducing populations in this deforested dry forest region and statistical analysis identified the domiciliary risk factors for infestation, intermediate and long-term control of Chagas disease vectors in this region requires management of these risk factors. PMID: 33146245 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Penados D, Pineda J, Catalan M, Avila M, Stevens L, Agreda E, Monroy C Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

In vitro-induction of metronidazole-resistant Giardia duodenalis is not associated with nucleotide alterations in the genes involved in pro-drug activation.
Abstract Giardiasis is an infectious disease caused by Giardia duodenalis. The pro-drug metronidazole (MTZ) is the first-line treatment for giardiasis. Parasite's proteins as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), ferredoxin (Fd), nitroreductase-1 (NR-1) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) participate in MTZ activation. Here, we showed Giardia trophozoites long-term exposed to MTZ presented higher IC50 than controls, showing the drug influenced the parasite survival. That reduction in MTZ's susceptibility does not seem to be related to mutations in the genes pfor, fd, nr-1 or trxr. It points that different mechan...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lopes-Oliveira LAP, Fantinatti M, Da-Cruz AM Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Two years into the Brazilian Reproducibility Initiative: reflections on conducting a large-scale replication of Brazilian biomedical science.
al OB Abstract Scientists have increasingly recognised that low methodological and analytical rigour combined with publish-or-perish incentives can make the published scientific literature unreliable. As a response to this, large-scale systematic replications of the literature have emerged as a way to assess the problem empirically. The Brazilian Reproducibility Initiative is one such effort, aimed at estimating the reproducibility of Brazilian biomedical research. Its goal is to perform multicentre replications of a quasi-random sample of at least 60 experiments from Brazilian articles published over a 20-year pe...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - October 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Neves K, Carneiro CF, Wasilewska-Sampaio AP, Abreu M, Valério-Gomes B, Tan PB, Amaral OB Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 isolation from the first reported patients in Brazil and establishment of a coordinated task network.
CONCLUSION: We believe that the protocols for virus growth and studies here described and the distribution initiative may constitute a viable model for other developing countries, not only to help a rapid effective pandemic response, but also to facilitate and support basic scientific research. PMID: 33111751 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - October 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Araujo DB, Machado RRG, Amgarten DE, Malta FM, de Araujo GG, Monteiro CO, Candido ED, Soares CP, de Menezes FG, Pires ACC, Santana RAF, Viana AO, Dorlass E, Thomazelli L, Ferreira LCS, Botosso VF, Carvalho CRG, Oliveira DBL, Pinho JRR, Durigon EL Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Ultrastructural and proapoptotic-like effects of kaempferol in Giardia duodenalis trophozoites and bioinformatics prediction of its potential protein target.
CONCLUSIONS: KPF exerted a proapoptotic effect on G. duodenalis trophozoites involving partial interruption of DNA synthesis without oxidative stress or structure damage to chromatin and cytoskeletal structures. GdAldRed is a likely target underlying its antigiardial activity. PMID: 33111756 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - October 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Argüello-García R, Calzada F, García-Hernández N, Chávez-Munguía B, Velázquez-Domínguez JA Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Insights into the proteomic profile and gene expression of Lutzomyia longipalpis-derived Lulo cell line.
CONCLUSIONS: This set of results adds relevant information regarding the usefulness of the Lulo cell line for studies with Leishmania parasites that indicate variations of protein expression. PMID: 33111757 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - October 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Côrtes LMC, de Pita-Pereira D, Farani PSG, Pereira BAS, Dias-Lopes G, da Silva FS, Corrêa PR, Silva RMM, Côrte-Real S, Bello FJ, Mendonça-Lima L, Moreira ODC, Waghabi MC, Alves CR Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Invasive fungal disease in humans: are we aware of the real impact?
Abstract Despite the medical advances and interventions to improve the quality of life of those in intensive care, people with cancer or severely immunocompromised or other susceptible hosts, invasive fungal diseases (IFD) remain severe and underappreciated causes of illness and death worldwide. Therefore, IFD continue to be a public health threat and a major hindrance to the success of otherwise life-saving treatments and procedures. Globally, hundreds of thousands of people are affected every year with Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pneumocystis jirovecii, endemic dimorphic fun...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - October 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Firacative C Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Expression and cellular localisation of Trypanosoma cruzi calpains.
CONCLUSION: Calpains are differentially expressed and localised in the T. cruzi life cycle forms. This study adds data on the calpain occurrence and expression pattern in T. cruzi. PMID: 33053076 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - October 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ennes-Vidal V, Pitaluga AN, Britto CFPC, Branquinha MH, Santos ALSD, Menna-Barreto RFS, d'Avila-Levy CM Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Malaria and tuberculosis as diseases of neglected populations: state of the art in chemotherapy and advances in the search for new drugs.
ra EI Abstract Malaria and tuberculosis are no longer considered to be neglected diseases by the World Health Organization. However, both are huge challenges and public health problems in the world, which affect poor people, today referred to as neglected populations. In addition, malaria and tuberculosis present the same difficulties regarding the treatment, such as toxicity and the microbial resistance. The increase of Plasmodium resistance to the available drugs along with the insurgence of multidrug- and particularly tuberculosis drug-resistant strains are enough to justify efforts towards the development of n...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - October 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: de Araújo RV, Santos SS, Sanches LM, Giarolla J, El Seoud O, Ferreira EI Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Flavonoid glycosides and their putative human metabolites as potential inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp).
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these results suggest that both flavonoid glycosides and their putative human metabolites can play a key role as inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro and RdRp. Obviously, further researches, mainly in vitro and in vivo experiments, are necessary to certify the docking results reported here, as well as the adequate application of these substances. Furthermore, it is necessary to investigate the risks of D. ambrosioides as a phytomedicine for use against COVID-19. PMID: 33027419 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - October 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: da Silva FMA, da Silva KPA, de Oliveira LPM, Costa EV, Koolen HH, Pinheiro MLB, de Souza AQL, de Souza ADL Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

COVID-19: molecular targets, drug repurposing and new avenues for drug discovery.
or FP Abstract Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly contagious infection that may break the healthcare system of several countries. Here, we aimed at presenting a critical view of ongoing drug repurposing efforts for COVID-19 as well as discussing opportunities for development of new treatments based on current knowledge of the mechanism of infection and potential targets within. Finally, we also discuss patent protection issues, cost effectiveness and scalability of synthetic routes for some of the most studied repurposing candi...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - October 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Senger MR, Evangelista TCS, Dantas RF, Santana MVDS, Gonçalves LCS, de Souza Neto LR, Ferreira SB, Silva-Junior FP Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Molecular and serological characterization of occult hepatitis B among blood donors in Maputo, Mozambique.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show the importance of using nucleic acid amplification test to detect occult hepatitis B infection in blood donors in Mozambique. PMID: 32997000 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - October 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mabunda N, Zicai AF, Ismael N, Vubil A, Mello F, Blackard JT, Lago B, Duarte V, Moraes M, Lewis L, Jani I Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Genomic and phylogenetic characterisation of an imported case of SARS-CoV-2 in Amazonas State, Brazil.
In this study, we report the complete genome sequencing and genetic characterisation of a SARS-CoV-2 detected in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, and the protocol we designed to generate high-quality SARS-CoV-2 full genome data. The isolate was obtained from an asymptomatic carrier returning from Madrid, Spain. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed a total of nine mutations in comparison with the original human case in Wuhan, China, and support this case as belonging to the recently proposed lineage A.2. Phylogeographic analysis further confirmed the likely European origin of this case. To our knowledge, this is the first SARS-CoV-...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - October 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nascimento VAD, Corado ALG, Nascimento FOD, Costa ÁKAD, Duarte DCG, Luz SLB, Gonçalves LMF, Jesus MS, Costa CFD, Delatorre E, Naveca FG Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Effect of Cinnamomum verum leaf essential oil on virulence factors of Candida species and determination of the in-vivo toxicity with Galleria mellonella model.
CONCLUSION: C. verum leaf oil acts against virulence factors of Candida and does not show any toxicity. PMID: 32997002 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - October 2, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wijesinghe GK, Maia FC, de Oliveira TR, de Feiria SNB, Joia F, Barbosa JP, Boni GC, Sardi JCO, Rosalen PL, Höfling JF Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Lipophosphoglycans from dermotropic Leishmania infantum are more pro-inflammatory than those from viscerotropic strains.
In conclusion, LPGs from dermotropic strains are devoid of side-chains and exhibit high pro-inflammatory activity. PMID: 32965329 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cardoso CA, Araujo GV, Sandoval CM, Nogueira PM, Zúniga C, Sosa-Ochoa WH, Laurenti MD, Soares RP Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Abdominal angiostrongyliasis can be diagnosed with a immunochromatographic rapid test with recombinant galactin from Angiostrongylus cantonensis.
Abstract Angiostrongylus costaricensis is the causative agent of abdominal angiostrongyliasis, a zoonotic infection that may produce severe eosinophilic enterocolitis or hepatitis in humans. Parasites are usually not released in stools and serology has an important role in diagnosis. Since cross-reactivity is demonstrated between A. costaricensis and another metastrongylid worm, A. cantonensis, we tested heterologous recombinant galectin as a probe in an immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic test (ICT-RDT) for detection of anti-A. costaricensis antibodies. Almost all (11/12) positive control sera from A. costaric...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Graeff-Teixeira C, Pascoal VF, Rodriguez R, Morassutti AL, Intapan PM, Maleewong W Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Genomic analysis of Latin American-Mediterranean family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical strains from Kazakhstan.
Abstract The human-adapted strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) comprise seven phylogenetic lineages originally associated with their geographical distribution. Here, we report the genomes of three drug-resistant clinical isolates of the Latin American-Mediterranean (LAM) family collected in Kazakhstan. We utilised whole-genome sequencing to study the distribution and drug resistance of these isolates. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the genomes described in this study with the sequences from Russia, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan belonging to the LAM family. One isolate has acquired extensive drug r...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tarlykov P, Atavliyeva S, Alenova A, Ramankulov Y Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Identification of SARS-CoV-2 and additional respiratory pathogens cases under the investigation of COVID-19 initial phase in a Brazilian reference laboratory.
Abstract Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) surveillance, in Brazil, initiated shortly after its description, in China. Our aim was to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and additional pathogens in samples from the initial phase of the outbreak in Brazil, from late February to late March. From 707 samples analysed, 29 (4.1%) were SARS-CoV-2 positive. Fever and cough were their most prevalent symptoms. Co-detection of rhinovirus was observed in 2 (6.9%) cases. Additional pathogens were identified in 66.1% of the SARS-CoV-2 negative cases, mainly rhinovirus and influenza A(H1N1)pdm0...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Matos ADR, Motta FC, Caetano BC, Ogrzewalska M, Garcia CC, Lopes JCO, Miranda M, Livorati MTFP, Abreu A, Brown D, Siqueira MM Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Efficacy of factory-treated and dip-it-yourself long lasting insecticide-treated bednets against cutaneous leishmaniasis vectors in the sub-Andean region of Colombia: results after two years of use.
CONCLUSIONS: Both LLINs demonstrated high efficacy against L. longiflocosa indoors. Therefore, the deployment of these LLINs could have a significant impact on the reduction of CL transmission in the sub-Andean region. The DIY lambda-cyhalothrin kit may be used to convert untreated nets to LLINs increasing coverage. PMID: 32935748 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Santamaría E, Cabrera OL, Pardo RH Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Toxoplasma gondii infection damages the perineuronal nets in a murine model.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed a random distribution of cysts in the brain, the disruption of PNNs surrounding neurons in four areas of the cerebral cortex and hyperlocomotor behavior in T. gondii-infected mice. These results can contribute to elucidate the link toxoplasmosis with the establishment of neuroinflammatory response in neuropsychiatric disorders and to raise a discussion about the mechanisms related to changes in brain connectivity, with possible behavioral repercussions during chronic T. gondii infection. PMID: 32935749 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Meurer YDSR, Brito RMM, da Silva VP, Andade JMA, Linhares SSG, Pereira Junior A, de Andrade-Neto VF, de Sá AL, Oliveira CBS Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Increased levels of reactive oxygen species in platelets and platelet-derived microparticles and the risk of respiratory failure in HIV/AIDS patients.
This study assessed comorbidities and laboratory parameters in HIV/AIDS inpatients with RF (N = 58) in relation to those without RF (N = 36). Tuberculosis showed a huge relative risk and platelet counts were slightly higher in HIV/AIDS inpatients with RF. A flow cytometry assay for reactive oxygen species (ROS) showed lower levels in platelets of these patients in relation to the healthy subjects. However, when stimulated with adrenaline, ROS levels increased in platelets and platelet-derived microparticles of HIV/AIDS inpatients, which may increase the risk of RF during HIV and tuberculosis (HIV-TB) coinfection. PMID...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gama WM, Oliveira LB, Chaves YO, Ribeiro F, Almeida TVR, Baptista BJA, Santana MF, Ferreira LC, Lacerda MVG, Nogueira PA Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Phylogenetic relationships of closely-related phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Nyssomyia genus and Lutzomyia subgenus.
CONCLUSIONS: This study evidences the phylogenetic proximity among closely-related species within Nyssomyia genus and Lutzomyia subgenus. The COI sequences of Nyssomyia neivai derived from the present study are the first available in GenBank. PMID: 32935751 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Moya SL, Pech-May A, Quintana MG, Manteca-Acosta M, Salomón OD Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Tracking the onset date of the community spread of SARS-CoV-2 in western countries.
o G Abstract Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly spread around the world during 2020, but the precise time in which the virus began to spread locally is difficult to trace for most countries. Here, we estimate the probable onset date of the community spread of SARS-CoV-2 for heavily affected countries from Western Europe and the Americas on the basis of the cumulative number of deaths reported during the early stage of the epidemic. Our results support that SARS-CoV-2 probably started to spread locally in all western countries analysed between mid-January and mid-February 2020, thu...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Delatorre E, Mir D, Gräf T, Bello G Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Low risk of serological cross-reactivity between dengue and COVID-19.
Abstract In the near future, the overlap of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and dengue epidemics is a concrete threat in tropical regions. Co-epidemics of COVID-19 and dengue could be an overwhelming challenge for health systems in low- and middle-income countries. In this work, we investigated potential serological cross-reactions between COVID-19 and dengue patients. Among 32 COVID-19 positive sera, no positive Dengue virus (DENV) IgG/IgM results were observed. On the other hand, one false-positive result was observed among 44 DENV-positive sera tested for COVID-19 antibodies with each of the two rapid tests...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - August 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Spinicci M, Bartoloni A, Mantella A, Zammarchi L, Rossolini GM, Antonelli A Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

A novel Betacoronavirus characterised in collared peccaries from the Rio de Janeiro Zoo (Brazil) killed by unknown disease.
Abstract In an enclosure with nine collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) from the Rio de Janeiro city Zoo, Brazil, one specimen was found dead and two others developed prostration, apathy and dehydration, resulting on its death. Necropsy of two animals pointed to pulmonary and renal damage. Histological examination revealed vasculitis in spleen from both P. tajacu, suggesting a systemic viral infection. Lungs from one specimen showed fibrinoid vasculitis, alveolar damage with hyaline membrane, and interstitial lymphocytes infiltration. Virome analysis in anal wash samples from the latter two animals revealed a new ty...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - August 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: D'arc M, Cosentino MC, Moreira FRR, Cavalcante LTF, Augusto AM, Trocolli F, Ubiali DG, Verona CE, Soares MA, Santos AF Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Prioritisation of potential drug targets against Bartonella bacilliformis by an integrative in-silico approach.
CONCLUSION This work represents an effort to reduce the costs in the first phases of B. bacilliformis drug discovery. PMID: 32785422 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - August 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Farfán-López M, Espinoza-Culupú A, García-de-la-Guarda R, Serral F, Sosa E, Palomino MM, Fernández Do Porto DA Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Prevention and control of Aedes transmitted infections in the post-pandemic scenario of COVID-19: challenges and opportunities for the region of the Americas.
rra H Abstract The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic challenges public health systems around the world. Tropical countries will face complex epidemiological scenarios involving the simultaneous transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with viruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti. The occurrence of arboviral diseases with COVID-19 in the Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region presents challenges and opportunities for strengthening health services, surveillance and control programs. Financing of training, equipment and reconversion of hospital spaces will have a n...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - August 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dantés HG, Manrique-Saide P, Vazquez-Prokopec G, Morales FC, Siqueira Junior JB, Pimenta F, Coelho G, Bezerra H Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Fungal-host interactions: insights into microRNA in response to Paracoccidioides species.
CONCLUSIONS In summary, this study showed the miRNAs pattern of epithelial cells in response to infection by Paracoccidioides species and the potential role of these molecules in the regulation of key pathogenesis mechanisms of PCM. PMID: 32756740 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - August 13, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Singulani JL, Silva JFD, Gullo FP, Costa MC, Fusco-Almeida AM, Enguita FJ, Mendes-Giannini MJS Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Preliminary results of SARS-CoV-2 detection in sewerage system in Niter ói municipality, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
This study presents preliminary results from a sewage-based surveillance to monitor the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the municipality of Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. By using ultracentrifugation method associated to quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) we detected SARS-CoV-2 in 41.6% (5/12) of raw sewage samples obtained from sewage treatment plants and sewers network in the city. This pioneer study carried out in Brazil aims to subsidise information for health surveillance concerning the viral circulation in different areas ...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Prado T, Fumian TM, Mannarino CF, Maranhão AG, Siqueira MM, Miagostovich MP Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Application of WHO International Biological Reference Standards to evaluate commercial serological tests for chronic Chagas disease.
CONCLUSIONS The results reinforce the recommendation that these standards be considered for performance evaluations of commercialised immunoassays and should be an integral step in the development of new test components or assay paradigms. PMID: 32725060 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sáez-Alquezar A, Junqueira ACV, Durans ADM, Guimarães AV, Corrêa JA, Provance DW, Cabello PH, Coura JR, Viñas PA Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Role of Trypanosoma cruzi nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1 in DNA damage responses.
CONCLUSION: These results strongly suggest a novel function for TcNDPK1; its involvement in the maintenance of parasite's genome integrity. PMID: 32696913 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - July 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Reigada C, Sayé M, Girolamo FD, Valera-Vera EA, Pereira CA, Miranda MR Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Effect of Mycobacterium leprae on neurotrophins expression in human Schwann cells and mouse sciatic nerves.
CONCLUSIONS: Our in vitro results showed a trend to decline in NGF and BDNF mRNA in ML-treated hSC, compared to controls. The immunodetection of BDNF and NT-4 was significantly downregulated in ML-treated hSC. Conversely, ML-infected mice demonstrated upregulation of NT-3, compared to non-infected animals. Our findings indicate that ML may be involved in neurotrophins regulation, suggesting that a pathogen-related imbalance of these growth factors may have a role in the neural impairment of leprosy. PMID: 32696914 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - July 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nogueira MRS, Amôr NG, Michellin LB, Cury Filho M, Rosa PS, Latini ACP, Rodrigues LS, Lemes RMR, Lara FA, Pessolani MCV Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Increased platelet distribution width and reduced IL-2 and IL-12 are associated with thrombocytopenia in Plasmodium vivax malaria.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that an increase in MPV and the association between reductions of IL-2 and IL-12 and PDW values may be an immune response to thrombocytopenia in uncomplicated P. vivax malaria. PMID: 32696915 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - July 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Costa AG, Chaves YO, Teixeira-Carvalho A, Ramasawmy R, Antonelli LRV, Barbosa L, Balieiro A, Monteiro WM, Mourão MP, Lacerda MVG, Martins-Filho OA, Costa FTM, Malheiro A, Nogueira PA Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis habitat: far beyond armadillo burrows?
e B Abstract Paracoccidioides spp. isolation from environmental samples is rare and hardly reproducible. Molecular techniques have facilitated the fungal detection. However, it can be still difficult. Some strategies to enhance the capacity of DNA detection have been adopted, including the analysis of soil samples belonging to the habitat of animals from which Paracoccidioides spp. have already been isolated, notably armadillo burrows. To date, the detection of Paracoccidioides spp. has not yet been reported from outbreak hotspots. Clusters and outbreaks of acute paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), usually a more severe...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - July 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: de Macedo PM, Scramignon-Costa BS, Almeida-Paes R, Trilles L, de Oliveira LSC, Zancopé-Oliveira RM, do Valle ACF, Wanke B Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Seasonal population dynamics of the primary yellow fever vector Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Dyar & Shannon) (Diptera: Culicidae) is mainly influenced by temperature in the Atlantic Forest, southeast Brazil.
CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring population dynamics of Hg. leucocelaenus and climatic factors in YFV risk areas, especially mean temperature, may assist in developing climate-based surveillance procedures to timely strengthening prophylaxis and control. PMID: 32696917 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - July 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Couto-Lima D, Andreazzi CS, Leite PJ, Bersot MIL, Alencar J, Lourenço-de-Oliveira R Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Evaluation of different total Leishmania amazonensis antigens for the development of a first-generation vaccine formulated with a Toll-like receptor-3 agonist to prevent cutaneous leishmaniasis.
CONCLUSIONS The protein profile and immune response depend on the methodology used to obtain the antigens. Also, the formulation sTLA + Poly (I:C) provides partial protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice. PMID: 32667458 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - July 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Germanó MJ, Lozano ES, Sanchez MV, Bruna FA, García-Bustos MF, Sosa Lochedino AL, Salomón MC, Fernandes AP, Mackern-Oberti JP, Cargnelutti DE Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

The impact of imported malaria by gold miners in Roraima: characterizing the spatial dynamics of autochthonous and imported malaria in an urban region of Boa Vista.
CONCLUSIONS The increase in imported malaria cases circulating in the west region of Boa Vista, where there are positive breeding sites for the main vectors, may represent a potential condition for increased autochthonous malaria transmission in this space. PMID: 32667459 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - July 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Louzada J, de Almeida NCV, de Araujo JLP, Silva J, Carvalho TM, Escalante AA, Oliveira-Ferreira J Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

The influence of meteorological variables on the oviposition dynamics of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in four environmentally distinct areas in northeast Brazil.
CONCLUSIONS The effect of climate variables on oviposition varied according to local environmental conditions. Precipitation was a main predictor of egg abundance in the study settings. PMID: 32667460 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - July 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Santos ICDS, Braga C, de Souza WV, de Oliveira ALS, Regis LN Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic diary: from rumors to the first case. Early reports of molecular tests from the military research and diagnostic institute of Rio de Janeiro.
Abstract Corona virus disease (COVID-19) presents a serious threat to global health. A historical timeline of early molecular diagnostics from government alert (January 22) (D) was presented. After in silico analysis, Brazilian Army Institute of Biology (IBEx-RJ) tested samples in house using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (fast mode) based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations. First cases from Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, IBEx, and diagnosis team were reported in D36, D44, D66, and D74 respectively. Therefore, after 1300 tests, we recommend N1/N2 prime...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - July 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cipitelli MDC, Valentin E, da Cruz NVG, Nogueira TL, de Melo ECA, da Silva RA, Serra MM, Meriano AL, Colares AM, Dornelas-Ribeiro M, Santos CG Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research