A public health risk assessment for yellow fever vaccination: a model exemplified by an outbreak in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.
A public health risk assessment for yellow fever vaccination: a model exemplified by an outbreak in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2015 Apr;110(2):230-4 Authors: Ribeiro AF, Tengan C, Sato HK, Spinola R, Mascheretti M, França AC, Port-Carvalho M, Pereira M, Souza RP, Amaku M, Burattini MN, Coutinho FA, Lopez LF, Massad E Abstract We propose a method to analyse the 2009 outbreak in the region of Botucatu in the state of São Paulo (SP), Brazil, when 28 yellow fever (YF) cases were confirmed, including 11 deaths. At the time of the outbreak, the Secretary of H...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - April 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ribeiro AF, Tengan C, Sato HK, Spinola R, Mascheretti M, França AC, Port-Carvalho M, Pereira M, Souza RP, Amaku M, Burattini MN, Coutinho FA, Lopez LF, Massad E Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Clinical and epidemiological profiles of individuals with drug-resistant tuberculosis.
Abstract Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a growing global threat. Approximately 450,000 people developed multidrug-resistant TB worldwide in 2012 and an estimated 170,000 people died from the disease. This paper describes the sociodemographic, clinical-epidemiological and bacteriological aspects of TB and correlates these features with the distribution of anti-TB drug resistance. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) cultures and drug susceptibility testing were performed according to the BACTEC MGIT 960 method. The results demonstrated that MT strains from individuals who received treatment for TB and people who we...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - April 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pedro Hda S, Nardi SM, Pereira MI, Oliveira RS, Suffys PN, Gomes HM, Finardi AJ, Moraes EB, Baptista IM, Machado RL, Castiglioni L Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Biofilm production by multiresistant Corynebacterium striatum associated with nosocomial outbreak.
In conclusion, biofilm production may contribute to the establishment of HAIs caused by C. striatum. PMID: 25946249 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - April 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Souza Cd, Faria YV, Sant'Anna Lde O, Viana VG, Seabra SH, Souza MC, Vieira VV, Hirata Júnior R, Moreira Lde O, Mattos-Guaraldi AL Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Widespread distribution of CTX-M and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases in Escherichia coli from Brazilian chicken meat.
Widespread distribution of CTX-M and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases in Escherichia coli from Brazilian chicken meat. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2015 Apr;110(2):249-54 Authors: Botelho LA, Kraychete GB, Costa E Silva JL, Regis DV, Picão RC, Moreira BM, Bonelli RR Abstract The dissemination of plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance genes may pose a substantial public health risk. In the present work, the occurrences of blaCTX-M and plasmid-mediated ampC and qnr genes were investigated in Escherichia coli from 16 chicken carcasses produced by four commercial brands in Brazil. Of the brands...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - April 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Botelho LA, Kraychete GB, Costa E Silva JL, Regis DV, Picão RC, Moreira BM, Bonelli RR Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Structure-based drug design studies of the interactions of ent-kaurane diterpenes derived from Wedelia paludosa with the Plasmodium falciparum sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase PfATP6.
Fde P Abstract Malaria is responsible for more deaths around the world than any other parasitic disease. Due to the emergence of strains that are resistant to the current chemotherapeutic antimalarial arsenal, the search for new antimalarial drugs remains urgent though hampered by a lack of knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms of artemisinin resistance. Semisynthetic compounds derived from diterpenes from the medicinal plant Wedelia paludosa were tested in silico against the Plasmodium falciparum Ca2+-ATPase, PfATP6. This protein was constructed by comparative modelling using the three-dimensional structur...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - April 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Guimarães DS, Fonseca AL, Batista R, Comar Junior M, Oliveira AB, Taranto AG, Varotti Fde P Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Waiting for chikungunya fever in Argentina: spatio-temporal risk maps.
Abstract Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission has been detected in America in 2013 and recently reached south up to Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay, bordering countries of Argentina. The presence of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in half of the country together with the regional context drove us to make a rapid assessment of transmission risk. Temperature thresholds for vector breeding and for virus transmission, together with adult activity from the literature, were mapped on a monthly basis to estimate risk. Transmission of chikungunya by Ae. aegypti in the world was seen at monthly mean temperatures from 21-34º...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - April 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Carbajo AE, Vezzani D Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

T-helper 17-related cytokines and IgE antibodies during hepatitis A virus infection in children.
ro NA Abstract We determined the serum IgE levels and T-helper (Th)17-related cytokines during distinct hepatitis A virus (HAV)-induced clinical courses in children. A significantly higher concentration of macrophage inflammatory protein 3α, interleukin (IL)-17E and IL-17F in HAV-infected children with intermediate liver injury compared with those with minor liver damage was found. A reduction in the IgE levels in those patients who showed the highest levels of IL-17F in the group of intermediate liver injury was found. The data suggested that the Th17-related profile is associated with the severity of HAV i...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - April 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Trujillo-Ochoa JL, Corral-Jara KF, Escobedo-Meléndez G, Realpe M, Panduro A, Roman S, Fierro NA Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Spontaneous hepatitis C viral clearance and hepatitis C chronic infection are associated with distinct cytokine profiles in Mexican patients.
ro/ A Abstract The mechanisms related to the spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been primarily studied in regions where the infection is endemic. Results of prior studies have been extrapolated to populations with low endemicity, such as Mexico. Herein, we determined the cytokine profiles in serum samples from Mexican patients who spontaneously cleared HCV and patients chronically infected with HCV genotype 1a. Chronic HCV-infected patients displayed increased interleukin (IL)-8 and regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (CCL-5) secretion, whereas patients who spontaneou...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - April 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fierro NA, González-Aldaco K, Torres-Valadez R, Trujillo-Trujillo ME, Roman S, Trujillo-Ochoa JL, Panduro/ A Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Molecular diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in tropical areas: a comparison of conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction with parasitological methods.
This study aimed to evaluate the use of conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis from stool samples in tropical areas. Stool samples were collected from individuals and were determined to be positive for Strongyloides stercoralis (group I), negative for S. stercoralis (group II) and positive for other enteroparasite species (group III). DNA specific to S. stercoralis was found in 76.7% of group I samples by cPCR and in 90% of group I samples by qPCR. The results show that molecular methods can be used as alternative tools for detecting S....
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - April 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Paula FM, Malta Fde M, Marques PD, Sitta RB, Pinho JR, Gryschek RC, Chieffi PP Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Accuracy of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosis using polymerase chain reaction: systematic literature review and meta-analysis.
This study aimed to assess the ability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify MCL and to compare these results with clinical research recently published by the authors. A systematic literature review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: the PRISMA Statement was performed using comprehensive search criteria and communication with the authors. A meta-analysis considering the estimates of the univariate and bivariate models was performed. Specificity near 100% was common among the papers. The primary reason for accuracy differences was sensitivity. The meta-analysis, which w...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - March 31, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gomes CM, Mazin SC, Santos ER, Cesetti MV, Bächtold GA, Cordeiro JH, Theodoro FC, Damasco FD, Carranza SA, Santos AO, Roselino AM, Sampaio RN Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Clinical and epidemiological profiles of individuals with drug-resistant tuberculosis.
Abstract Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a growing global threat. Approximately 450,000 people developed multidrug-resistant TB worldwide in 2012 and an estimated 170,000 people died from the disease. This paper describes the sociodemographic, clinical-epidemiological and bacteriological aspects of TB and correlates these features with the distribution of anti-TB drug resistance. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) cultures and drug susceptibility testing were performed according to the BACTEC MGIT 960 method. The results demonstrated that MT strains from individuals who received treatment for TB and people who we...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - March 31, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pedro HD, Nardi SM, Pereira MI, Oliveira RS, Suffys PN, Gomes HM, Finardi AJ, Moraes EB, Baptista IM, Machado RL, Castiglioni L Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Sandfly species diversity in association with human activities in the Kani tribe settlements of the Western Ghats, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.
Abstract Sandfly prevalence in the Kani tribe settlements of Western Ghats in India was investigated. A total of 1,279 sandflies comprising 17 species was obtained. Sandfly abundance showed a negative correlation (r = -0.97, p = 0.003) with increase in altitudinal ranges from 0-1,000 m. When sandfly samples were grouped according to landscape characteristics of the location, the estimated Shannon-Weiner index (H) and species richness index (S) were high and species evenness index (J) was low in settlements located at 0-300 m altitudinal range. On the contrary, the values of H and J were high, while S was low at 30...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - March 31, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ranganathan S, Swaminathan S Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

New scenarios of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the Orinoco region of Colombia.
We report an infestation index of 88.5% in 148 palms and an index of T. cruzi natural infection of 60.2% in 269 dissected insects and 11.9% in 160 captured mammals. High population densities of triatomines were observed in the sylvatic environment and there was a high relative abundance of reservoirs in the area, suggesting a stable enzootic cycle. We found no evidence of insect domiciliation. Taken together, these observations suggest that eco-epidemiological factors shape the transmission dynamics of T. cruzi, creating diverse scenarios of disease transmission. PMID: 25830543 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Sou...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - March 31, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rendón LM, Guhl F, Cordovez JM, Erazo D Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

T-helper 17-related cytokines and IgE antibodies during hepatitis A virus infection in children.
ro NA Abstract We determined the serum IgE levels and T-helper (Th)17-related cytokines during distinct hepatitis A virus (HAV)-induced clinical courses in children. A significantly higher concentration of macrophage inflammatory protein 3α, interleukin (IL)-17E and IL-17F in HAV-infected children with intermediate liver injury compared with those with minor liver damage was found. A reduction in the IgE levels in those patients who showed the highest levels of IL-17F in the group of intermediate liver injury was found. The data suggested that the Th17-related profile is associated with the severity of HAV i...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - March 31, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Trujillo-Ochoa JL, Corral-Jara KF, Escobedo-Meléndez G, Realpe M, Panduro A, Roman S, Fierro NA Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

The efficacy of 2-nitrovinylfuran derivatives against Leishmania in vitro and in vivo.
García-Trevijano JA, Cabrera-Pérez MÁ Abstract Despite recent advances in the treatment of some forms of leishmaniasis, the available drugs are still far from ideal due to inefficacy, parasite resistance, toxicity and cost. The wide-spectrum antimicrobial activity of 2-nitrovinylfuran compounds has been described, as has their activity against Trichomonas vaginalis and other protozoa. Thus, the aim of this study was to test the antileishmanial activities of six 2-nitrovinylfurans in vitro and in a murine model of leishmaniasis. Minimum parasiticide concentration (MPC) and 50% inhibitory conce...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - March 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sifontes-Rodríguez S, Monzote-Fidalgo L, Castañedo-Cancio N, Montalvo-Álvarez AM, López-Hernández Y, Diogo NM, Infante-Bourzac JF, Pérez-Martín O, Meneses-Marcel A, García-Trevijano JA, Cabrera-Pérez MÁ Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Positive deviance study to inform a Chagas disease control program in southern Ecuador.
This study used positive deviance to inform the design of an anti-triatomine prototype house by identifying knowledge, attitudes and practices used by families that have remained triatomine-free (2010-2012). Positive deviants reported practices that included maintenance of structural elements of the house, fumigation of dwellings and animal shelters, sweeping with "insect repellent" plants and relocation of domestic animals away from the house, among others. Participants favoured construction materials that do not drastically differ from those currently used (adobe walls and tile roofs). They also expressed their...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - March 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nieto-Sanchez C, Baus EG, Guerrero D, Grijalva MJ Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Evolution of Trypanosoma cruzi: clarifying hybridisations, mitochondrial introgressions and phylogenetic relationships between major lineages.
Abstract Several different models of Trypanosoma cruzi evolution have been proposed. These models suggest that scarce events of genetic exchange occurred during the evolutionary history of this parasite. In addition, the debate has focused on the existence of one or two hybridisation events during the evolution of T. cruzi lineages. Here, we reviewed the literature and analysed available sequence data to clarify the phylogenetic relationships among these different lineages. We observed that TcI, TcIII and TcIV form a monophyletic group and that TcIII and TcIV are not, as previously suggested, TcI-TcII hybrids. Par...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - March 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tomasini N, Diosque P Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Factors associated with the occurrence of Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in rural localities of Central-West Brazil.
This study estimates the factors of artificial environments (houses and peridomestic areas) associated with Triatoma sordida occurrence. Manual searches for triatomines were performed in 136 domiciliary units (DUs) in two rural localities of Central-West Brazil. For each DU, 32 structural, 23 biotic and 28 management variables were obtained. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed in order to identify statistically significant variables associated with occurrence of T. sordida in the study areas. A total of 1,057 specimens (99% in peridomiciles, mainly chicken coops) of T. sordida were collected from 63 DUs (in...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - March 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rossi JC, Duarte EC, Gurgel-Gonçalves R Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

The rising importance of Triatoma rubrofasciata.
Abstract The migration of invasive vector species has contributed to the worldwide extension of infectious diseases such as dengue (Aedes aegypti) and chikungunya (Aedes albopictus). It is probably a similar behaviour for certain vectors of Chagas disease which allowed it to become a continental burden in Latin America. One of them, Triatoma rubrofasciata has also been spreading throughout the tropical and subtropical world. Here, the recent and massive peridomestic presence of T. rubrofasciata in Vietnam cities is reported, and tentatively explained, highlighting the need for improved entomological surveillance. ...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - March 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dujardin JP, Lam TX, Khoa PT, Schofield CJ Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Congenital Chagas disease: an update.
Abstract Congenital infection with Trypanosoma cruzi is a global problem, occurring on average in 5% of children born from chronically infected mothers in endemic areas, with variations depending on the region. This presentation aims to focus on and update epidemiological data, research methods, involved factors, control strategy and possible prevention of congenital infection with T. cruzi. Considering that etiological treatment of the child is always effective if performed before one year of age, the diagnosis of infection in pregnant women and their newborns has to become the standard of care and integrated int...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - March 6, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Carlier Y, Sosa-Estani S, Luquetti AO, Buekens P Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

The prevalence of norovirus, astrovirus and adenovirus infections among hospitalised children with acute gastroenteritis in Porto Velho, state of Rondônia, western Brazilian Amazon.
The prevalence of norovirus, astrovirus and adenovirus infections among hospitalised children with acute gastroenteritis in Porto Velho, state of Rondônia, western Brazilian Amazon. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2015 Mar 6;0:0 Authors: Amaral MS, Estevam GK, Penatti M, Lafontaine R, Lima IC, Spada PK, Gabbay YB, Matos NB Abstract Although viruses are well-established causes of acute gastroenteritis, few data on the circulation of these pathogens in Porto Velho, state of Rondônia, Brazil, are available. Thus, faecal samples from hospitalised diarrhoeic children, under six years of age, were collec...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - March 6, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Amaral MS, Estevam GK, Penatti M, Lafontaine R, Lima IC, Spada PK, Gabbay YB, Matos NB Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

A nuclear ribosomal DNA pseudogene in triatomines opens a new research field of fundamental and applied implications in Chagas disease.
Abstract A pseudogene, designated as "ps(5.8S+ITS-2)", paralogous to the 5.8S gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-2 of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), has been recently found in many triatomine species distributed throughout North America, Central America and northern South America. Among characteristics used as criteria for pseudogene verification, secondary structures and free energy are highlighted, showing a lower fit between minimum free energy, partition function and centroid structures, although in given cases the fit only appeared to be slightly lower. The unique characteristics of "...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - March 6, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zuriaga MA, Mas-Coma S, Bargues MD Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Molecular diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in tropical areas: a comparison of conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction with parasitological methods.
This study aimed to evaluate the use of conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis from stool samples in tropical areas. Stool samples were collected from individuals and were determined to be positive for Strongyloides stercoralis (group I), negative for S. stercoralis (group II) and positive for other enteroparasite species (group III). DNA specific to S. stercoralis was found in 76.7% of group I samples by cPCR and in 90% of group I samples by qPCR. The results show that molecular methods can be used as alternative tools for detecting S....
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - March 6, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Paula FM, Malta FM, Marques PD, Sitta RB, Pinho JR, Gryschek RC, Chieffi PP Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Widespread distribution of CTX-M and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases in Escherichia coli from Brazilian chicken meat.
Widespread distribution of CTX-M and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases in Escherichia coli from Brazilian chicken meat. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2015 Mar 6;0:0 Authors: Botelho LA, Kraychete GB, Silva JL, Regis DV, Picão RC, Moreira BM, Bonelli RR Abstract The dissemination of plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance genes may pose a substantial public health risk. In the present work, the occurrences of blaCTX-M and plasmid-mediated ampC and qnr genes were investigated in Escherichia coli from 16 chicken carcasses produced by four commercial brands in Brazil. Of the brands tested, three w...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - March 6, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Botelho LA, Kraychete GB, Silva JL, Regis DV, Picão RC, Moreira BM, Bonelli RR Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

A public health risk assessment for yellow fever vaccination: a model exemplified by an outbreak in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.
A public health risk assessment for yellow fever vaccination: a model exemplified by an outbreak in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2015 Feb 27;0:0 Authors: Ribeiro AF, Tengan C, Sato HK, Spinola R, Mascheretti M, França AC, Port-Carvalho M, Pereira M, Souza RP, Amaku M, Burattini MN, Coutinho FA, Lopez LF, Massad E Abstract We propose a method to analyse the 2009 outbreak in the region of Botucatu in the state of São Paulo (SP), Brazil, when 28 yellow fever (YF) cases were confirmed, including 11 deaths. At the time of the outbreak, the Secretary of Health ...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - February 27, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ribeiro AF, Tengan C, Sato HK, Spinola R, Mascheretti M, França AC, Port-Carvalho M, Pereira M, Souza RP, Amaku M, Burattini MN, Coutinho FA, Lopez LF, Massad E Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Mechanisms of growth inhibition of Phytomonas serpens by the alkaloids tomatine and tomatidine.
Abstract Phytomonas serpens are flagellates in the family Trypanosomatidae that parasitise the tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum L.), which results in fruits with low commercial value. The tomato glycoalkaloid tomatine and its aglycone tomatidine inhibit the growth of P. serpens in axenic cultures. Tomatine, like many other saponins, induces permeabilisation of the cell membrane and a loss of cell content, including the cytosolic enzyme pyruvate kinase. In contrast, tomatidine does not cause permeabilisation of membranes, but instead provokes morphological changes, including vacuolisation. Phytomonas treated with...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - February 13, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Medina JM, Rodrigues JC, Moreira OC, Atella G, Souza W, Barrabin H Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Therapeutic switching: from antidermatophytic essential oils to new leishmanicidal products.
This study examined whether the antidermatophytic activity of essential oils (EOs) can be used as an indicator for the discovery of active natural products against Leishmania amazonensis. The aerial parts of seven plants were hydrodistilled. Using broth microdilution techniques, the obtained EOs were tested against three strains of dermatophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis). To compare the EOs antifungal and antiparasitic effects, the EOs activities against axenic amastigotes of L. amazonensis were concurrently evaluated. For the most promising EOs, their antileishmanial activiti...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - February 13, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Houël E, Gonzalez G, Bessière JM, Odonne G, Eparvier V, Deharo E, Stien D Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Quantification of C4d deposition and hepatitis C virus RNA in tissue in cases of graft rejection and hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation.
Abstract Histology is the gold standard for diagnosing acute rejection and hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation. However, differential diagnosis between the two can be difficult. We evaluated the role of C4d staining and quantification of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels in liver tissue. This was a retrospective study of 98 liver biopsy samples divided into four groups by histological diagnosis: acute rejection in patients undergoing liver transplant for hepatitis C (RejHCV+), HCV recurrence in patients undergoing liver transplant for hepatitis C (HCVTx+), acute rejection in patients undergoing liv...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - February 13, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Song AT, Mello ES, Alves VA, Cavalheiro NP, Melo CE, Bonazzi PR, Tengan FM, Freire MP, Barone AA, D'Albuquerque LA, Abdala E Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Full-genome sequences of hepatitis B virus subgenotype D3 isolates from the Brazilian Amazon Region.
Abstract The Brazilian Amazon Region is a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, little is known regarding the genetic variability of the strains circulating in this geographical region. Here, we describe the first full-length genomes of HBV isolated in the Brazilian Amazon Region; these genomes are also the first complete HBV subgenotype D3 genomes reported for Brazil. The genomes of the five Brazilian isolates were all 3,182 base pairs in length and the isolates were classified as belonging to subgenotype D3, subtypes ayw2 (n = 3) and ayw3 (n = 2). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the Braz...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - February 13, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Spitz N, Mello FC, Araujo NM Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

An overview of malaria transmission from the perspective of Amazon Anopheles vectors.
dei WP, Secundino NF Abstract In the Americas, areas with a high risk of malaria transmission are mainly located in the Amazon Forest, which extends across nine countries. One keystone step to understanding the Plasmodium life cycle in Anopheles species from the Amazon Region is to obtain experimentally infected mosquito vectors. Several attempts to colonise Ano- pheles species have been conducted, but with only short-lived success or no success at all. In this review, we review the literature on malaria transmission from the perspective of its Amazon vectors. Currently, it is possible to develop experimental Plas...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - February 13, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pimenta PF, Orfano AS, Bahia AC, Duarte AP, Ríos-Velásquez CM, Melo FF, Pessoa FA, Oliveira GA, Campos KM, Villegas LM, Rodrigues NB, Nacif-Pimenta R, Simões RC, Monteiro WM, Amino R, Traub-Cseko YM, Lima JB, Barbosa MG, Lacerda MV, Tadei WP, Secundino Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Neutralising antibodies for Mayaro virus in Pantanal, Brazil.
ar N Abstract The Pantanal hosts diverse wildlife species and therefore is a hotspot for arbovirus studies in South America. A serosurvey for Mayaro virus (MAYV), eastern (EEEV), western (WEEV) and Venezuelan (VEEV) equine encephalitis viruses was conducted with 237 sheep, 87 free-ranging caimans and 748 equids, including 37 collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. Sera were tested for specific viral antibodies using plaque-reduction neutralisation test. From a total of 748 equids, of which 264 were immunised with vaccine composed of EEEV and WEEV and 484 had no histo...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - February 3, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pauvolid-Corrêa A, Juliano RS, Campos Z, Velez J, Nogueira RM, Komar N Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

The metabogenic role of iron in chronic chagasic cardiac failure.
cute; PMID: 25650767 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - February 3, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Miranda CP, Botoni FA, Nunes MD, Rocha MÓ Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) species diversity in an urban area of the municipality of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico.
EA, Vera AC Abstract Monitoring phlebotomine sandflies in urban areas is key for epidemiological studies in susceptible populations. This paper describes sandfly fauna that were present in an urban area of the municipality of Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico, and were captured with Shannon and CDC light traps. During February and March of 2014, 1,442 sandflies were captured, specifically Lutzomyia cruciata (Coquillet) (98.8%), Lutzomyia cayennensis cayennensis (Floch and Abonnenc) (0.8%), Lutzomyia chiapanensis (Dampf) (0.3%) and Lutzomyia atulapai (De León) (0.1%). Lu. cruciata was the most abundant and the most...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - February 3, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pacheco OF, León JC, Rebollar-Téllez EA, Vera AC Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Genetic variability in G2 and F2 region between biological clones of human respiratory syncytial virus with or without host immune selection pressure.
In conclusion, it is possible that minor sequences could be selected by host antibodies contributing to the HRSV evolutionary process, hampering the development of an effective vaccine, since we verify the same codon alteration in absence and presence of human sera in individual clones of BR-85 sample. PMID: 25650769 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - February 3, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Moraes CT, Oliveira DB, Campos AC, Bosso PA, Lima HN, Stewien KE, Gilio AE, Vieira SE, Botosso VF, Durigon EL Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Experimental infection with the Toxoplasma gondii ME-49 strain in the Brazilian BR-1 mini pig is a suitable animal model for human toxoplasmosis.
ta RA Abstract Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a worldwide disease. Experimentation with pigs is necessary for the development of new therapeutic approaches to human diseases. BR-1 mini pigs were intramuscularly infected with T. gondii with tachyzoites (RH strain) or orally infected with cysts (ME-49 strain). Haematology and serum biochemistry were analysed and buffy coat cells were inoculated in mice to determine tachyzoite circulation. No alterations were observed in erythrocyte and platelet values; however, band neutrophils increased seven days after infection with ME-49. Serology of the mice inoculated...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - February 3, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Miranda FJ, Souza DB, Frazão-Teixeira E, Oliveira FC, Melo JC, Mariano CM, Albernaz AP, Carvalho EC, Oliveira FC, Souza W, DaMatta RA Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Experimental benznidazole treatment of Trypanosoma cruzi II strains isolated from children of the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil, with Chagas disease.
ana M Abstract Trypanosoma cruzi strains from distinct geographic areas show differences in drug resistance and association between parasites genetic and treatment response has been observed. Considering that benznidazole (BZ) can reduce the parasite burden and tissues damage, even in not cured animals and individuals, the goal is to assess the drug response to BZ of T. cruzi II strains isolated from children of the Jequitinhonha Valley, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, before treatment. Mice infected and treated with BZ in both phases of infection were compared with the untreated and evaluated by fresh blood examin...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - January 23, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Oliveira-Silva JC, Machado-de-Assis GF, Oliveira MT, Paiva NC, Araújo MS, Carneiro CM, Martins-Filho OA, Martins HR, Lana M Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

BAY 41-2272 activates host defence against local and disseminated Candida albicans infections.
Abstract In our previous study, we have found that 5-cyclopropyl-2-[1-(2-fluoro-benzyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-3-yl]-pyrimidin-4-ylamine (BAY 41-2272), a guanylate cyclase agonist, activates human monocytes and the THP-1 cell line to produce the superoxide anion, increasing in vitro microbicidal activity, suggesting that this drug can be used to modulate immune functioning in primary immunodeficiency patients. In the present work, we investigated the potential of the in vivo administration of BAY 41-2272 for the treatment of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus infections introduced via intraperitoneal a...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - January 23, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Soeiro-Pereira PV, Falcai A, Kubo CA, Antunes E, Condino-Neto A Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Whole-genome sequences of influenza A(H3N2) viruses isolated from Brazilian patients with mild illness during the 2014 season.
In this study we evaluate five whole genome sequences of influenza A(H3N2) viruses detected in patients with mild illness collected from January-March 2014. To sequence the genomes, a new generation sequencing (NGS) protocol was performed using the Ion Torrent PGM platform. In addition to analysing the common genes, haemagglutinin, neuraminidase and matrix, our work also comprised internal genes. This was the first report of a whole genome analysis with Brazilian influenza A(H3N2) samples. Considerable amino acid variability was encountered in all gene segments, demonstrating the importance of studying the internal genes. ...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - January 23, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Resende PC, Motta/ FC, Born PS, Miranda M, Siqueira MM Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

The use of halloysite clay and carboxyl-functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes for recombinant LipL32 antigen delivery enhanced the IgG response.
Abstract We studied the feasibility of using halloysite clay nanotubes (HNTs) and carboxyl-functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs) as antigen carriers to improve immune responses against a recombinant LipL32 protein (rLipL32). Immunisation using the HNTs or COOH-MWCNTs significantly increased the rLipL32-specific IgG antibody titres (p
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - January 23, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hartwig DD, Bacelo KL, Oliveira TL, Schuch R, Seixas FK, Collares T, Rodrigues O, Hartleben CP, Dellagostin OA Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Trichuris trichiura in a post-Colonial Brazilian mummy.
;jo A Abstract Trichuris trichiura is a soil-transmitted helminth which is prevalent in warm, moist, tropical and subtropical regions of the world with poor sanitation. Heavy whipworm can result either in Trichuris dysenteric syndrome - especially in children - or in a chronic colitis. In heavy infections, worms can spread proximally and may cause ileitis. Here we provide first microscopic evidence for a T. trichiura adult worm embedded in the rectum of a post-Colonial Brazilian adult mummy. During Colonial and post-Colonial times, many European chroniclers described a parasitic disease named Maculo whose symptoma...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - January 23, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bianucci R, Torres EJ, Santiago JM, Ferreira LF, Nerlich AG, Souza SM, Giuffra V, Chieffi PP, Bastos OM, Travassos R, Souza W, Araújo A Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Historical review of clinical vaccine studies at Oswaldo Cruz Institute and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation - technological development issues.
Abstract This paper presents, from the perspective of technological development and production, the results of an investigation examining 61 clinical studies with vaccines conducted in Brazil between 1938-2013, with the participation of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (IOC) and the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz). These studies have been identified and reviewed according to criteria, such as the kind of vaccine (viral, bacterial, parasitic), their rationale, design and methodological strategies. The results indicate that IOC and Fiocruz have accumulated along this time significant knowledge and experience for the per...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - January 16, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Martins RM, Possas CA, Homma A Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Bioactive endophytic fungi isolated from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood) and identification of beauvericin as a trypanocidal metabolite from Fusarium sp.
ta BB Abstract Aiming to identify new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites, we isolated 82 endophytic fungi from stems and barks of the native Brazilian tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Fabaceae). We tested their ethyl acetate extracts in several in vitro assays. The organic extracts from three isolates showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 32-64 μg/mL]. One isolate inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 64 μg/mL) and two isolates inhibited the growth of Klebsiella oxytoca (MIC 64 μg/mL), Candida albicans ...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - January 16, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Campos FF, Sales Junior PA, Romanha AJ, Araújo MS, Siqueira EP, Resende JM, Alves TM, Martins-Filho OA, Santos VL, Rosa CA, Zani CL, Cota BB Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Malaria in pregnant women living in areas of low transmission on the southeast Brazilian Coast: molecular diagnosis and humoural immunity profile.
Abstract Studies on autochthonous malaria in low-transmission areas in Brazil have acquired epidemiological relevance because they suggest continued transmission in what remains of the Atlantic Forest. In the southeastern portion of the state of São Paulo, outbreaks in the municipality of Juquitiba have been the focus of studies on the prevalence of Plasmodium, including asymptomatic cases. Data on the occurrence of the disease or the presence of antiplasmodial antibodies in pregnant women from this region have not previously been described. Although Plasmodium falciparum in pregnant women has been widely a...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - December 9, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hristov AD, Sanchez MC, Ferreira JJ, Lima GF, Inoue J, Costa-Nascimento MD, Sanchez AR, Ramos-Sanchez EM, Santi SM Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Using a top predator as a sentinel for environmental contamination with pathogenic bacteria: the Iberian wolf and leptospires.
ez A, León-Vizcaíno L Abstract The Iberian wolf (Canis lupus) is the top predator in the Iberian environments in which it lives, feeding on a wide range of species, thus encountering a wide range of disease agents. Therefore, the wolf can serve as sentinel of environmental contamination with pathogens. We investigated the exposure of free-living wolves to 14 serovars of Leptospira interrogans sensu lato. Kidney samples from 49 wolves collected from 2010-2013 in northwestern Spain were analysed by culture, direct immunofluorescence and polymerase chain reaction. Tissue fluids were analysed for antibod...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - December 9, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Millán J, García EJ, Oleaga A, López-Bao JV, Llaneza L, Palacios V, Candela MG, Cevidanes A, Rodríguez A, León-Vizcaíno L Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

CagA phosphorylation EPIYA-C motifs and the vacA i genotype in Helicobacter pylori strains of asymptomatic children from a high-risk gastric cancer area in northeastern Brazil.
oz DM Abstract Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common infections worldwide and is associated with gastric diseases. Virulence factors such as VacA and CagA have been shown to increase the risk of these diseases. Studies have suggested a causal role of CagA EPIYA-C in gastric carcinogenesis and this factor has been shown to be geographically diverse. We investigated the number of CagA EPIYA motifs and the vacA i genotypes in H. pylori strains from asymptomatic children. We included samples from 40 infected children (18 females and 22 males), extracted DNA directly from the gastric mucus/juice (obta...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - December 9, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Braga LL, Oliveira MA, Gonçalves MH, Chaves FK, Benigno TG, Gomes AD, Silva CI, Anacleto C, Batista SD, Queiroz DM Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Mycobacterium tuberculosis epitope-specific interferon-g production in healthy Brazilians reactive and non-reactive to tuberculin skin test.
Abstract The interferon (IFN)-γ response to peptides can be a useful diagnostic marker of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) latent infection. We identified promiscuous and potentially protective CD4+ T-cell epitopes from the most conserved regions of MTB antigenic proteins by scanning the MTB antigenic proteins GroEL2, phosphate-binding protein 1 precursor and 19 kDa antigen with the TEPITOPE algorithm. Seven peptide sequences predicted to bind to multiple human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR molecules were synthesised and tested with IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays using peripheral blood mo...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - December 9, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Silva BC, Grassi MF, Coutinho R, Mascarenhas RE, Olavarria VN, Coutinho-Borgo A, Kalil J, Cunha Neto E, Fonseca SG Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Temporal abundance of Aedes aegypti in Manaus, Brazil, measured by two trap types for adult mosquitoes.
The objectives were to compare mosquito collections of two trap types, to characterise temporal changes of the mosquito population, to investigate the influence of meteorological variables on mosquito collections and to analyse the association between mosquito collections and dengue incidence. Mosquito monitoring was performed fortnightly using MosquiTRAPs (MQT) and BG-Sentinel (BGS) traps between December 2008-June 2010. The two traps revealed opposing temporal infestation patterns, with highest mosquito collections of MQTs during the dry season and highest collections of BGS during the rainy seasons. Several meteorologic...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - December 9, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Degener CM, Azara TM, Roque RA, Codeço CT, Nobre AA, Ohly JJ, Geier M, Eiras AE Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

The main sceneries of Chagas disease transmission. The vectors, blood and oral transmissions - A comprehensive review.
Abstract This review deals with transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi by the most important domestic vectors, blood transfusion and oral intake. Among the vectors, Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus, Rhodnius prolixus, Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma brasiliensis, Triatoma pseudomaculata, Triatoma sordida, Triatoma maculata, Panstrongylus geniculatus, Rhodnius ecuadoriensis and Rhodnius pallescens can be highlighted. Transmission of Chagas infection, which has been brought under control in some countries in South and Central America, remains a great challenge, particularly considering that many endemic countries ...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - December 2, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Coura JR Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

The draft genome sequence of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain CCBH4851, a nosocomial isolate belonging to clone SP (ST277) that is prevalent in Brazil.
Abstract The high occurrence of nosocomial multidrug-resistant (MDR) microorganisms is considered a global health problem. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain isolated in Brazil that belongs to the endemic clone ST277. The genome encodes important resistance determinant genes and consists of 6.7 Mb with a G+C content of 66.86% and 6,347 predicted coding regions including 60 RNAs. PMID: 25466623 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - December 2, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Silveira M, Albano R, Asensi M, Assef AP Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® trap in rural areas in the southeastern tropical Atlantic Forest.
Effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® trap in rural areas in the southeastern tropical Atlantic Forest. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2014 Nov 21;0:0 Authors: Sant'Ana DC, Sá IL, Sallum MA Abstract Traps are widely employed for sampling and monitoring mosquito populations for surveillance, ecological and fauna studies. Considering the importance of assessing other technologies for sampling mosquitoes, we addressed the effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® Independence (MMI) in comparison with those of the CDC trap with CO2 and Lurex3® (CDC-A) and the CDC light trap (CDC-LT). Field collections were...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 21, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sant'Ana DC, Sá IL, Sallum MA Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research