Behavioural alterations are independent of sickness behaviour in chronic experimental Chagas disease.
Abstract The existence of the nervous form of Chagas disease is a matter of discussion since Carlos Chagas described neurological disorders, learning and behavioural alterations in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected individuals. In most patients, the clinical manifestations of the acute phase, including neurological abnormalities, resolve spontaneously without apparent consequence in the chronic phase of infection. However, chronic Chagas disease patients have behavioural changes such as psychomotor alterations, attention and memory deficits, and depression. In the present study, we tested whether or not behavioural alter...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - December 11, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vilar-Pereira G, Ruivo LA, Lannes-Vieira J Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Leishmania amazonensis DNA in wild females of Lutzomyia cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.
This study sought to investigate the natural infection by Leishmaniain wild female sandflies. The specimens were caught in the city of Corumbá, state of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil) between October 2012-March 2014, and dissected to investigate flagellates and/or submitted to molecular analysis to detect LeishmaniaDNA. A total of 1,164 females (77.56% of which were Lutzomyia cruzi) representing 11 species were investigated using molecular analysis; 126 specimens of Lu. cruziwere dissected and also submitted to molecular analysis. The infection rate based on the presence of LeishmaniaDNA considering all the sandfly spe...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Oliveira EF, Casaril AE, Mateus NL, Murat PG, Fernandes WS, Oshiro ET, Oliveira AG, Galati EA Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

New insights on the development of fungal vaccines: from immunity to recent challenges.
Abstract Fungal infections are emerging as a major problem in part due to high mortality associated with systemic infections, especially in the case of immunocompromised patients. With the development of new treatments for diseases such as cancer and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome pandemic, the number of immunosuppressed patients has increased and, as a consequence, also the number of invasive fungal infections has increased. Several studies have proposed new strategies for the development of effective fungal vaccines. In addition, better understanding of how the immune system works against fungal pathoge...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Medici NP, Del Poeta M Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Exploring the environmental diversity of kinetoplastid flagellates in the high-throughput DNA sequencing era.
This article discusses the known segment of kinetoplastid diversity and how gene-directed Sanger sequencing and next-generation sequencing methods can help to deepen our knowledge of these interesting protists. PMID: 26602872 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: d'Avila-Levy CM, Boucinha C, Kostygov A, Santos HL, Morelli KA, Grybchuk-Ieremenko A, Duval L, Votýpka J, Yurchenko V, Grellier P, Lukeš J Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Antileishmanial activity of the essential oil from Tetradenia ripariaobtained in different seasons.
This study evaluated the activity of the TrEO obtained in different seasons against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, in vitro and in vivo. The compounds in the TrEO were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; terpenoids were present and oxygenated sesquiterpenes were the majority compounds (55.28%). The cytotoxicity and nitric oxide (NO) production were also tested after TrEO treatment. The TrEO from all seasons showed a 50% growth inhibitory concentration for promastigotes of about 15 ng/mL; at 30 ng/mL and 3 ng/mL, the TrEO reduced intracellular amastigote infection, independently of season. The TrEO from ...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cardoso BM, Mello TF, Lopes SN, Demarchi IG, Lera DS, Pedroso RB, Cortez DA, Gazim ZC, Aristides SM, Silveira TG, Lonardoni MV Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Opisthorchiasis in infant remains from the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of XII-XIII centuries AD.
We present a paleoparasitological analysis of the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of the XII-XII centuries AD located in the northern part of Western Siberia. Parasite eggs, identified as eggs of Opisthorchis felineus, were found in the samples from the pelvic area of a one year old infant buried at the site. Presence of these eggs in the soil samples from the infant's abdomen suggests that he/she was infected with opisthorchiasis and imply consumption of undercooked fish. Ethnographic records collected among the population of the northern part of Western Siberia reveal numerous cases of feeding raw fish to their childr...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Slepchenko SM, Gusev AV, Ivanov SN, Svyatova EO Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Antiplasmodial activity of iron(II) and ruthenium(II) organometallic complexes against Plasmodium falciparum blood parasites.
Abstract This work reports the in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparumblood forms (W2 clone, chloroquine-resistant) of tamoxifen-based compounds and their ferrocenyl (ferrocifens) and ruthenocenyl (ruthenocifens) derivatives, as well as their cytotoxicity against HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Surprisingly with these series, results indicate that the biological activity of ruthenocifens is better than that of ferrocifens and other tamoxifen-like compounds. The synthesis of a new metal-based compound is also described. It was shown, for the first time, that ruthenocifens are good antiplasmodial prototypes. Fur...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Souza NB, Aguiar AC, Oliveira AC, Top S, Pigeon P, Jaouen G, Goulart MO, Krettli AU Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Co-administration of plasmid-encoded granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor increases human immunodeficiency virus-1 DNA vaccine-induced polyfunctional CD4+ T-cell responses.
Abstract T-cell based vaccines against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) generate specific responses that may limit both transmission and disease progression by controlling viral load. Broad, polyfunctional, and cytotoxic CD4+ T-cell responses have been associated with control of simian immunodeficiency virus/HIV-1 replication, supporting the inclusion of CD4+ T-cell epitopes in vaccine formulations. Plasmid-encoded granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (pGM-CSF) co-administration has been shown to induce potent CD4+ T-cell responses and to promote accelerated priming and increased migration of antigen...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Santana VC, Almeida RR, Ribeiro SP, Ferreira LC, Kalil J, Rosa DS, Cunha Neto E Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Correction: Interleukin-10 rs1800896 and CXCR2 rs1126579 polymorphisms modulate the predisposition to septic shock.
Abstract [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1590/0074-02760150003.]. PMID: 26560975 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Surveillance, health promotion and control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region - Medical attention in the Brazilian Amazon Region: a proposal.
Abstract We refer to Oswaldo Cruz's reports dating from 1913 about the necessities of a healthcare system for the Brazilian Amazon Region and about the journey of Carlos Chagas to 27 locations in this region and the measures that would need to be adopted. We discuss the risks of endemicity of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region. We recommend that epidemiological surveillance of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region and Pan-Amazon region should be implemented through continuous monitoring of the human population that lives in the area, their housing, the environment and the presence of triatomines. The moni...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Coura JR, Junqueira AC Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Computational drug design strategies applied to the modelling of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
Abstract Reverse transcriptase (RT) is a multifunctional enzyme in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 life cycle and represents a primary target for drug discovery efforts against HIV-1 infection. Two classes of RT inhibitors, the nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs) and the nonnucleoside transcriptase inhibitors are prominently used in the highly active antiretroviral therapy in combination with other anti-HIV drugs. However, the rapid emergence of drug-resistant viral strains has limited the successful rate of the anti-HIV agents. Computational methods are a significant part of the drug design process and indi...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Santos LH, Ferreira RS, Caffarena ER Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Viral aetiology of common colds of outpatient children at primary care level and the use of antibiotics.
Abstract Although antibiotics are ineffective against viral respiratory infections, studies have shown high rates of prescriptions worldwide. We conducted a study in Brazil to determine the viral aetiologies of common colds in children and to describe the use of antibiotics for these patients. Children up to 12 years with common colds were enrolled from March 2008-February 2009 at a primary care level facility and followed by regular telephone calls and medical consultations. A nasopharyngeal wash was obtained at enrollment and studied by direct fluorescence assay and polymerase chain reaction for nine different t...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kamikawa J, Granato CF, Bellei N Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Identification of the nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase of Trypanosoma cruzi.
In this study, a hypothetical open reading frame (ORF) for NMNAT was identified in the genome of T. cruzi.The corresponding putative protein was analysed by simulating structural models. The ORF was amplified from genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction and was further used for the construction of a corresponding recombinant expression vector. The expressed recombinant protein was partially purified and its activity was evaluated using enzymatic assays. These results comprise the first identification of an NMNAT in T. cruziusing bioinformatics and experimental tools and hence represent the first step to understanding NAD+...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Niño CH, Forero-Baena N, Contreras LE, Sánchez-Lancheros D, Figarella K, Ramírez MH Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Widespread nasal carriage of Mycobacterium lepraeamong a healthy population in a hyperendemic region of northeastern Brazil.
err L Abstract A case-control study was conducted to determine the presence ofMycobacterium lepraeDNA in nasal secretions of leprosy cases and nonleprosy individuals in Fortaleza, Brazil. It included 185 cases identified by physicians at the Dona Libânia National Reference Centre for Sanitary Dermatology (CDERM). A control group (Co) (n = 136) was identified among individuals from CDERM not diagnosed as leprosy cases. To augment the spatial analysis of M. leprae specific repetitive element (RLEP) positive prevalence, an external group (EG) (n = 121), a convenience sample of healthy students, were included. P...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lima LN, Frota CC, Mota RM, Almeida RL, Pontes MA, Gonçalves Hde S, Rodrigues LC, Kendall C, Kerr L Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae) plant cytotoxicity and activity towards malaria parasites. Part II: experimental studies withAspidosperma ramiflorum in vivo and in vitro.
li AU Abstract Several species of Aspidospermaplants are used to treat diseases in the tropics, including Aspidosperma ramiflorum, which acts against leishmaniasis, an activity that is experimentally confirmed. The species, known as guatambu-yellow, yellowperoba, coffee-peroba andmatiambu, grows in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil in the South to the Southeast regions. Through a guided biofractionation of A. ramiflorumextracts, the plant activity against Plasmodium falciparumwas evaluated in vitro for toxicity towards human hepatoma G2 cells, normal monkey kidney cells and nonimmortalised human monocytes isolated fro...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Aguiar AC, Cunha AC, Ceravolo IP, Gonçalves RA, Oliveira AJ, Krettli AU Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Multibacillary leprosy patients with high and persistent serum antibodies to leprosy IDRI diagnostic-1/LID-1: higher susceptibility to develop type 2 reactions.
This study evaluated by ELISA antibody responses to leprosy Infectious Disease Research Institute diagnostic-1 (LID-1) fusion protein and phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-I) in 100 paired serum samples of 50 MB patients collected in the presence/absence of reactions and in nonreactional patients before/after MDT. Patients who presented T2R had a median BI of 3+, while MB patients with T1R and nonreactional patients had median BI of 2.5+ (p> 0.05). Anti-LID-1 and anti-PGL-I antibodies declined in patients diagnosed during T1R (p
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mizoguti Dde F, Hungria EM, Freitas AA, Oliveira RM, Cardoso LP, Costa MB, Sousa AL, Duthie MS, Stefani MM Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Incidence of active mycobacterial infections in Brazilian patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis and negative evaluation for latent tuberculosis infection at baseline - A longitudinal analysis after using TNFa blockers.
Abstract Several studies point to the increased risk of reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis (CIAs) after using tumour necrosis factor (TNF)a blockers. To study the incidence of active mycobacterial infections (aMI) in patients starting TNFa blockers, 262 patients were included in this study: 109 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 93 with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), 44 with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and 16 with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). All patients had indication for anti-TNFatherapy. Epidemiologic and clinical data were evaluated and a simp...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gomes CM, Terreri MT, Moraes-Pinto MI, Barbosa C, Machado NP, Melo MR, Pinheiro MM Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Waterborne toxoplasmosis investigated and analysed under hydrogeological assessment: new data and perspectives for further research.
We present a set of data on human and chicken Toxoplasma gondiiseroprevalence that was investigated and analysed in light of groundwater vulnerability information in an area endemic for waterborne toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Hydrogeological assessment was undertaken to select sites for water collection from wells for T. gondiioocyst testing and for collecting blood from free-range chickens and humans for anti-T. gondiiserologic testing. Serologic testing of human specimens was done using conventional commercial tests and a sporozoite-specific embryogenesis-related protein (TgERP), which is able to differentiate whether infect...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vieira FP, Alves MD, Martins LM, Rangel AL, Dubey JP, Hill D, Bahia-Oliveira/ LM Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Risk factors associated with Trypanosoma cruziexposure in domestic dogs from a rural community in Panama.
, Chaves LF Abstract Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruziinfection, is a zoonosis of humans, wild and domestic mammals, including dogs. In Panama, the main T. cruzivector is Rhodnius pallescens, a triatomine bug whose main natural habitat is the royal palm, Attalea butyracea. In this paper, we present results from three T. cruziserological tests (immunochromatographic dipstick, indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA) performed in 51 dogs from 24 houses in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We found that nine dogs were seropositive (17.6% prevalence). Dogs were 1.6 times more likely to become T. cruzisero...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - November 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Saldaña A, Calzada JE, Pineda V, Perea M, Rigg C, González K, Santamaria AM, Gottdenker NL, Chaves LF Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Lutzomyia longipalpis urbanisation and control.
el EF Abstract Since the description of Lutzomyia longipalpis by Lutz and Neiva more than 100 years ago, much has been written in the scientific literature about this phlebotomine species. Soares and Turco (2003) and Lainson and Rangel (2005) have written extensive reviews focused on vector-host-parasite interactions and American visceral leishmaniasis ecology. However, during the last two decades, the success of Lu. longipalpis in colonising urban environments and its simultaneous geographical spreading have led to new theoretical and operational questions. Therefore, this review updates the general information a...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - October 23, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Salomón OD, Feliciangeli MD, Quintana MG, Afonso MM, Rangel EF Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Modulatory effect of iron chelators on adenosine deaminase activity and gene expression in Trichomonas vaginalis.
Abstract Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate protozoan that parasitises the urogenital human tract and causes trichomoniasis. During the infection, the acquisition of nutrients, such as iron and purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, is essential for the survival of the parasite. The enzymes for purinergic signalling, including adenosine deaminase (ADA), which degrades adenosine to inosine, have been characterised in T. vaginalis. In the evaluation of the ADA profile in different T. vaginalis isolates treated with different iron sources or with limited iron availability, a decrease in activity and an increase in ADA...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - October 23, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Primon-Barros M, Rigo GV, Frasson AP, Santos OD, Smiderle L, Almeida S, Macedo AJ, Tasca T Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Yellow fever impact on brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) in Argentina: a metamodelling approach based on population viability analysis and epidemiological dynamics.
ler P Abstract In South America, yellow fever (YF) is an established infectious disease that has been identified outside of its traditional endemic areas, affecting human and nonhuman primate (NHP) populations. In the epidemics that occurred in Argentina between 2007-2009, several outbreaks affecting humans and howler monkeys (Alouatta spp) were reported, highlighting the importance of this disease in the context of conservation medicine and public health policies. Considering the lack of information about YF dynamics in New World NHP, our main goal was to apply modelling tools to better understand YF transmission...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - October 23, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Moreno ES, Agostini I, Holzmann I, Di Bitetti MS, Oklander LI, Kowalewski MM, Beldomenico PM, Goenaga S, Martínez M, Lestani E, Desbiez AL, Miller P Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Pattern of cytokine and chemokine production by THP-1 derived macrophages in response to live or heat-killed Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin Moreau strain.
Pattern of cytokine and chemokine production by THP-1 derived macrophages in response to live or heat-killed Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin Moreau strain. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2015 Sep;110(6):809-813 Authors: Sousa-Vasconcelos PD, Seguins WD, Luz ES, Pinho/ RT Abstract Tuberculosis has great public health impact with high rates of mortality and the only prophylactic measure for it is the Mycobacterium bovisbacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. The present study evaluated the release of cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1, tumour necrosis factor and IL-6] and chemokines [macro...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sousa-Vasconcelos PD, Seguins WD, Luz ES, Pinho/ RT Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

A historical perspective on malaria control in Brazil.
Abstract Malaria has always been an important public health problem in Brazil. The early history of Brazilian malaria and its control was powered by colonisation by Europeans and the forced relocation of Africans as slaves. Internal migration brought malaria to many regions in Brazil where, given suitableAnopheles mosquito vectors, it thrived. Almost from the start, officials recognised the problem malaria presented to economic development, but early control efforts were hampered by still developing public health control and ignorance of the underlying biology and ecology of malaria. Multiple regional and national...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Griffing SM, Tauil PL, Udhayakumar V, Silva-Flannery L Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Toxocara canis and the allergic process.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Toxocara canis infection and the development of an allergic response in mice immunised with ovalbumin (OVA). We determined the total and differential blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells using BALB/c mice as a model. To this end, the levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-10 and anti-OVA-IgE were measured using an ELISA. The inflammatory process in the lungs was observed using histology slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The results showed an increase in the total number of leukocytes and eosinophils in the blood of infected ...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zaia MG, Oliveira SR, Castro CA, Soares EG, Afonso A, Monnazzi LG, Peitl Filho O, Faccioli LH, Anibal Fde F Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Evaluation of a recombinant rhoptry protein 2 enzyme-linked immunoassay for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis acquired during pregnancy.
he EM Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate an enzyme-linked immunoassay with recombinant rhoptry protein 2 (ELISA-rROP2) for its ability to detectToxoplasma gondii ROP2-specific IgG in samples from pregnant women. The study included 236 samples that were divided into groups according to serological screening profiles for toxoplasmosis: unexposed (n = 65), probable acute infection (n = 48), possible acute infection (n = 58) and exposed to the parasite (n = 65). When an indirect immunofluorescence assay forT. gondii-specific IgG was considered as a reference test, the ELISA-rROP2 had a sensitivity of 61.8%...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Capobiango JD, Pagliari S, Pasquali AK, Nino B, Ferreira FP, Monica TC, Tschurtschenthaler NN, Navarro IT, Garcia JL, Mitsuka-Breganó R, Reiche EM Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in molluscs in the municipality of São Gonçalo, a metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: role of the invasive species Achatina fulica in parasite transmission dynamics.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in molluscs in the municipality of São Gonçalo, a metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: role of the invasive species Achatina fulica in parasite transmission dynamics. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2015 Sep;110(6):739-44 Authors: Oliveira AP, Gentile R, Maldonado Júnior A, Lopes Torres EJ, Thiengo SC Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse the infection dynamics ofAngiostrongylus cantonensisin its possible intermediate hosts over two years in an urban area in the state of Rio de Janeiro where the presence ofA. cantonensis had been previo...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Oliveira AP, Gentile R, Maldonado Júnior A, Lopes Torres EJ, Thiengo SC Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Detection of Oropouche virus segment S in patients and inCulex quinquefasciatus in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.
This study aimed to investigate the circulation of Orthobunyavirus species in the state of Mato Grosso (MT) Brazil. During a dengue outbreak in 2011/2012, 529 serum samples were collected from patients with acute febrile illness with symptoms for up to five days and 387 pools of female Culex quinquefasciatuscaptured in 2013 were subjected to nested-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for segment S of the Simbu serogroup followed by nucleotide sequencing and virus isolation in Vero cells. Patients (5/529; 0.9%) from Cuiabá (n = 3), Várzea Grande (n = 1) and Nova Mutum (n = 1) municipalities were po...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cardoso BF, Serra OP, Heinen LB, Zuchi N, Souza VC, Naveca FG, Santos MA, Slhessarenko RD Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Evaluation of Haemophilus influenzaetype b carrier status among children 10 years after the introduction of Hib vaccine in Brazil.
Ribeiro AF Abstract The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of Haemophilus influenzaetype b (Hib) nasopharyngeal (NP) colonisation among healthy children where Hib vaccination using a 3p+0 dosing schedule has been routinely administered for 10 years with sustained coverage (> 90%). NP swabs were collected from 2,558 children who had received the Hib vaccine, of whom 1,379 were 12-
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zanella RC, Brandileone MC, Andrade AL, Ogassavara CT, Fiório CE, Brandão AP, Almeida SC, Lemos AP, Gorla MC, Carvalhanas TR, Sato H, Liphaus B, Nerger ML, Conde M, Ribeiro AF Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology.
to TF Abstract Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pul...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sánchez-Ribas J, Oliveira-Ferreira J, Rosa-Freitas MG, Trilla L, Silva-do-Nascimento TF Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

A randomised double-blind clinical trial of two yellow fever vaccines prepared with substrains 17DD and 17D-213/77 in children nine-23 months old.
Abstract This randomised, double-blind, multicentre study with children nine-23 months old evaluated the immunogenicity of yellow fever (YF) vaccines prepared with substrains 17DD and 17D-213/77. YF antibodies were tittered before and 30 or more days after vaccination. Seropositivity and seroconversion were analysed according to the maternal serological status and the collaborating centre. A total of 1,966 children were randomised in the municipalities of the states of Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais and São Paulo and blood samples were collected from 1,714 mothers. Seropositivity was observed in 78.6% of ...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Collaborative Group for Studies of Yellow Fever Vaccine Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

High interleukin-4 expression and interleukin-4 gene polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to human paracoccidioidomycosis.
Rodrigues V Abstract Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is caused by dimorphic fungi from theParacoccidioides brasiliensis complex. Previous studies have demonstrated that the severity of disease is associated with a T-helper 2 immune response characterised by high interleukin (IL)-4 production. In the present study we analysed two polymorphisms in the IL-4gene (-590 C/T and intron-3 microsatellite) in 76 patients with PCM and 73 control subjects from an endemic area. The production of IL-4 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells after antigen or phytohaemagglutinin stimulation was determined by ELISA. A significant corre...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mendonça MS, Peraçolli TS, Silva-Vergara ML, Ribeiro SC, Oliveira RF, Mendes RP, Rodrigues V Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Molecular characterisation of the NSP4 gene of group A human rotavirus G2P[4] strains circulating in São Paulo, Brazil, from 1994 and 2006 to 2010.
This study analysed the NSP4 genetic diversity of HuRVA G2P[4] strains collected in the state of São Paulo (SP) from 1994 and 2006-2010 using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Forty (97.6%) G2P[4] strains displayed genotype E2; one strain (2.4%) displayed genotype E1. These results are consistent with the proposed linkage between VP4/VP7 (G2P[4]) and the NSP4 (E2) genotype of HuRVA. NSP4 phylogenetic analysis showed distinct clusters, with grouping of most strains by their genotype and collection year, and most strains from SP were clustered together with strains ...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bertol JW, Fregolente MC, Caruzo TA, Silva MJ, Munford V, Sáfadi MA, Rácz ML, Gatti MS Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Thermal preferences and limits of Triatoma brasiliensis in its natural environment - Field observations while host searching.
uti L Abstract The goal of this work was to explore the thermal relationship between foraging Triatoma brasiliensis and its natural habitat during the hottest season in the state of Ceará, Brazil. The thermal profiles were determined using infrared analysis. Although the daily temperature of rock surfaces varied in a wide range, T. brasiliensisselected to walk through areas with temperatures between 31.7-40.5ºC. The temperature of T. brasiliensisbody surface ranged from 32.8-34.4ºC, being higher in legs than the abdomen. A strong relationship was found between the temperature of the insect and the...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Catalá S, Bezerra CM, Diotaiuti L Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi: rare enough to be neglected?
This study aimed to strengthen the clinical and epidemiological importance of L. (V.) naiffiin the Amazon Region (Manaus, state of Amazonas) and to report therapeutic failure in patients infected with this species. Thirty Leishmania spp samples isolated from cutaneous lesions were characterised by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. As expected, the most common species was Leishmania (V.) guyanensis (20 cases). However, a relevant number ofL. (V.) naiffi patients (8 cases) was observed, thus demonstrating that this species is not uncommon in the region. No patient infected withL. (V.) naiffievolved to spontaneous cure until...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fagundes-Silva GA, Romero GA, Cupolillo E, Yamashita EP, Gomes-Silva A, Guerra JA, Da-Cruz AM Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Evaluation of light-emitting diodes as attractant for sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in northeastern Brazil.
Abstract Hoover Pugedo light traps were modified for use with green and blue-light-emitting diodes to trap phlebotomine sandflies in northeastern Brazil. A total of 2,267 specimens belonging to eight genera and 15 species were sampled. The predominant species were Nyssomyia whitmani(34.41%) and Micropygomyia echinatopharynx(17.25%).The green LED trap prevailed over the blue and control lights; however, no statistically significant difference could be detected among the three light sources. Even without statistical significance, we suggest using LEDs as an attractant for the capture of sandflies because of several ...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Silva FS, Brito JM, Costa Neta BM, Lobo SE Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Evaluating anti-Orthopoxvirus antibodies in individuals from Brazilian rural areas prior to the bovine vaccinia era.
Gde S Abstract Vaccinia virus naturally circulates in Brazil and is the causative agent of a zoonotic disease known as bovine vaccinia (BV). We retrospectively evaluated two populations from the Amazon and Southeast Regions. BV outbreaks had not been reported in these regions before sample collection. Neutralising antibodies were found in 13 individuals (n = 132) with titres ranging from 100 ≥ 6,400 neutralising units/mL. Univariate analysis identified age and vaccination as statistically significant risk factors in individuals from the Southeast Region. The absence of detectable antibodies in vaccinated indivi...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Figueiredo Pde O, Silva-Fernandes AT, Mota BE, Costa GB, Borges IA, Ferreira PC, Abrahão JS, Braga EM, Kroon EG, Trindade Gde S Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Whole-genome sequencing of a Plasmodium vivax isolate from the China-Myanmar border area.
Abstract Currently, there is a trend of an increasing number of Plasmodium vivaxmalaria cases in China that are imported across its Southeast Asia border, especially in the China-Myanmar border area (CMB). To date, little is known about the genetic diversity of P. vivaxin this region. In this paper, we report the first genome sequencing of a P. vivaxisolate (CMB-1) from a vivax malaria patient in CMB. The sequencing data were aligned onto 96.43% of the P. vivaxSalvador I reference strain (Sal I) genome with 7.84-fold coverage as well as onto 98.32% of 14 Sal I chromosomes. Using the de novoassembly approach, we ge...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shen HM, Chen SB, Wang Y, Chen JH Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Genomic analysis of a nontoxigenic, invasive Corynebacterium diphtheriae strain from Brazil.
We report the complete genome sequence and analysis of an invasive Corynebacterium diphtheriae strain that caused endocarditis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It was selected for sequencing on the basis of the current relevance of nontoxigenic strains for public health. The genomic information was explored in the context of diversity, plasticity and genetic relatedness with other contemporary strains. PMID: 26517665 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Encinas F, Marin MA, Ramos JN, Vieira VV, Mattos-Guaraldi AL, Vicente AC Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Parvovirus B19 1A complete genome from a fatal case in Brazil.
ccedil;a MC Abstract Parvovirus B19 (B19V) infects individuals worldwide and is associated with an ample range of pathologies and clinical manifestations. B19V is classified into three distinct genotypes, all identified in Brazil. Here, we report a complete sequence of a B19V genotype 1A that was obtained by high-throughput metagenomic sequencing. This genome provides information that will contribute to the studies on B19V epidemiology and evolution. PMID: 26517666 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Conteville LC, Zanella L, Marín MA, Filippis AM, Nogueira RM, Vicente AC, Mendonça MC Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Draft genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis 147, a Brazilian strain with high insecticidal activity.
We report here the draft genome sequence ofB. thuringiensis147, a strain isolated from Brazil and with high insecticidal activity. The assembled genome contained 6,167,994 bp and was distributed in seven replicons (a chromosome and 6 plasmids). We identified 12 coding regions, located in two plasmids, which encode insecticidal proteins. PMID: 26517667 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - September 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Barbosa LC, Farias DL, Silva Ide M, Melo FL, Ribeiro BM, Aguiar RW Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Molecular identification of Saint Louis encephalitis virus genotype IV in Colombia.
o-Gómez JC Abstract Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a member of the Japanese-encephalitis virus serocomplex of the genus Flavivirus. SLEV is broadly distributed in the Americas and the Caribbean Islands, where it is usually transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Culex and primarily to birds and mammalian-hosts. Humans are occasionally infected by the virus and are dead-end hosts. SLEV causes encephalitis in temperate regions, while in tropical regions of the Americas, several human cases and a wide biological diversity of SLEV-strains have been reported. The phylogenetic analysis of the envelope (E...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - August 21, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hoyos-López R, Soto SU, Rúa-Uribe G, Gallego-Gómez JC Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Effects of penicillin and erythromycin on adherence of invasive and noninvasive isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes to laminin.
This study investigated the possible relationship between the invasiveness of group A Streptococcus (GAS) strains and their abilities to adhere to laminin and assessed the effects of subinhibitory concentrations of penicillin and erythromycin on the ability of GAS to adhere to laminin. The adherence of noninvasive and highly invasive isolates of GAS to laminin was significantly higher than the adherence displayed by isolates of low invasiveness. Antibiotic treatment caused significant reductions in adherence to laminin in all three groups of strains. Penicillin was more successful in reducing the adherence abilities of the...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - August 4, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Šmitran A, Vuković D, Gajić I, Marinković J, Ranin L Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Urban Chagas disease in children and women in primary care centres in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
, Altcheh J Abstract The primary objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of this disease in women of childbearing age and children treated at health centres in underserviced areas of the city of Buenos Aires. Demographic and Chagas disease status data were collected. Samples for Chagas disease serology were obtained on filter paper and the reactive results were confirmed with conventional samples. A total of 1,786 subjects were screened and 73 positive screening results were obtained: 17 were from children and 56 were from women. The Trypanosoma cruzi infection risk was greater in those individuals ...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - July 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Moscatelli G, Berenstein A, Tarlovsky A, Siniawski S, Biancardi M, Ballering G, Moroni S, Schwarcz M, Hernández S, García-Bournissen F, Cozzi AE, Freilij H, Altcheh J Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Evaluation of four colourimetric susceptibility tests for the rapid detection of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates.
In this study, while the specificities of the REMA, MGDA and CVDA were 100%, the specificity of the MNRA was lower than the others (93.3% for INH and 90.9% for RIF). In addition, while the sensitivity of the MNRA was 100%, the sensitivities of the others were lower than that of the MNRA (from 94.1-95%). The results were reported on the seventh-10th day of the incubation. All methods are reliable, easy to perform, inexpensive and easy to evaluate and do not require special equipment. PMID: 26222021 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz)
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - July 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Coban AY, Akbal AU, Uzun M, Durupinar B Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Activation and cytokine profile of monocyte derived dendritic cells in leprosy: in vitro stimulation by sonicated Mycobacterium leprae induces decreased level of IL-12p70 in lepromatous leprosy.
Abstract Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in the connection of innate and adaptive immunity of hosts to mycobacterial infection. Studies on the interaction of monocyte-derived DCs (MO-DCs) using Mycobacterium leprae in leprosy patients are rare. The present study demonstrated that the differentiation of MOs to DCs was similar in all forms of leprosy compared to normal healthy individuals. In vitro stimulation of immature MO-DCs with sonicated M. leprae induced variable degrees of DC maturation as determined by the increased expression of HLA-DR, CD40, CD80 and CD86, but not CD83, in all studied groups. Th...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - July 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Braga AF, Moretto DF, Gigliotti P, Peruchi M, Vilani-Moreno FR, Campanelli AP, Latini AC, Iyer A, Das PK, Souza VN Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

pTcGW plasmid vectors 1.1 version: a versatile tool for Trypanosoma cruzi gene characterisation.
Abstract The functional characterisation of thousands of Trypanosoma cruzi genes remains a challenge. Reverse genetics approaches compatible with high-throughput cloning strategies can provide the tool needed to tackle this challenge. We previously published the pTcGW platform, composed by plasmid vectors carrying different options of N-terminal fusion tags based on Gateway® technology. Here, we present an improved 1.1 version of pTcGW vectors, which is characterised by a fully flexible structure allowing an easy customisation of each element of the vectors in a single cloning step. Additionally, both N and C-...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - July 21, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kugeratski FG, Batista M, Inoue AH, Ramos BD, Krieger MA, Marchini/ FK Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Biocontrol evaluation of extracts and a major component, clusianone, from Clusia fluminensis Planch. & Triana against Aedes aegypti.
Biocontrol evaluation of extracts and a major component, clusianone, from Clusia fluminensis Planch. & Triana against Aedes aegypti. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2015 Jul 17; Authors: Anholeti MC, Duprat RC, Figueiredo MR, Kaplan MA, Santos MG, Gonzalez MS, Ratcliffe NA, Feder D, Paiva SR, Mello CB Abstract Studies evaluated the effects of hexanic extracts from the fruits and flowers of Clusia fluminensis and the main component of the flower extract, a purified benzophenone (clusianone), against Aedes aegypti. The treatment of larvae with the crude fruit or flower extracts from C. fluminensis did not af...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - July 17, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Anholeti MC, Duprat RC, Figueiredo MR, Kaplan MA, Santos MG, Gonzalez MS, Ratcliffe NA, Feder D, Paiva SR, Mello CB Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Full-length infectious clone of a low passage dengue virus serotype 2 from Brazil.
il LH Abstract Full-length dengue virus (DENV) cDNA clones are an invaluable tool for many studies, including those on the development of attenuated or chimeric vaccines and on host-virus interactions. Furthermore, the importance of low passage DENV infectious clones should be highlighted, as these may harbour critical and unique strain-specific viral components from field-circulating isolates. The successful construction of a functional Brazilian low passage DENV serotype 2 full-length clone through homologous recombination reported here supports the use of a strategy that has been shown to be highly useful by ou...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - July 17, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Santos JJ, Magalhães T, Silva Junior JV, Silva AN, Cordeiro MT, Gil LH Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research

Influence of breeding site availability on the oviposition behaviour of Aedes aegypti.
ute;E Abstract Despite the importance of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in the transmission of arboviruses, such as yellow fever, Chikungunya fever and dengue fever, some aspects of their behaviour remain unknown. In the present study, the oviposition behaviour of Ae. aegypti females that were exposed to different densities of breeding sites (2, 4, 8 and 16) was evaluated in laboratory and semi-field conditions. The number of breeding sites that were used was proportional to the number available, but tended towards stabilisation. Females used four-six breeding sites on average, with a maximum of 11. A high percentage ...
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - July 7, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Abreu FV, Morais MM, Ribeiro SP, Eiras ÁE Tags: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Source Type: research