Long-Lasting Insecticide-Treated Nets: Assessment of the Awareness and Utilization of Them among Antenatal Clinic Attendees in Abakaliki, Southeast Nigeria.
Conclusion: The level of awareness of LLITNs is high; however, its utilization was discouragingly low. Rural dwellers and those without appropriate knowledge of the aetiology of malaria were less likely to use LLITNs in pregnancy. PMID: 32411254 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - May 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Quinine Sulphate Microparticles as Treatment for Leishmaniasis.
Conclusion: Overall, quinine sulphate microparticles had better pharmacokinetic profile and showed higher efficacy against Leishmania donovani parasites in vivo. Thus, quinine sulphate microparticles have the potential, especially, in treating visceral leishmaniasis. PMID: 32411255 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - May 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

High Prevalence of Multidrug-Resistant and Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae: A Cross-Sectional Study at Arsho Advanced Medical Laboratory, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Conclusions: The present study demonstrated high prevalence rates of multidrug-resistant and extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. In order to combat these problems, infection control strategy and proper antibiotic policies should be formulated. PMID: 32411256 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - May 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Malaria Parasite Density as a Predictor of Hematological Parameter Changes among HIV Infected Adults Attending Two Antiretroviral Treatment Clinics in Kano, Northwest Nigeria.
Authors: Jegede FE, Oyeyi TI, Abdulrahman SA, Mbah HA Abstract Background: Despite public health significance of dual infections of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria in developing countries like Nigeria, information on the association between malaria parasite density count (MPDC) and hematological parameter changes among HIV-infected individuals is rarely available. Objectives: To evaluate burden of HIV and malaria dual infections and assess the predictive association of MPDC with hematological parameter changes among HIV infected adults attending two antiretroviral treatment clinics in Kano, Niger...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - May 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Intensity of Nematode Infection in Children Aged 3 to 5  Years Living in Mukuru Kwa Njenga Slum Settlement, Nairobi, Kenya.
This study evaluated the intensity of nematode infections and assessed the status of deworming in children aged 3 to 5 years living in Mukuru slum settlement, Nairobi County, Kenya. Methodology. A total of 172 children aged between 3 and 5 years were sampled across the 5 major villages of Mukuru Slum settlement: Kwa Njenga, Vietnum, Wapewape, Kwa Reuben, and Motomoto. Community health workers administered questionnaires on the deworming history of children. Stool samples were collected, macroscopically examined, and microscopically analysed using Kato-Katz technique to assess the intensity of infection. The intensities of ...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - May 1, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Chemical Synthesis, Efficacy, and Safety of Antimalarial Hybrid Drug Comprising of Sarcosine and Aniline Pharmacophores as Scaffolds.
Authors: Niyibizi JB, Kirira PG, Kimani FT, Oyatsi F, Ng'ang'a JK Abstract Malaria is a disease caused by protozoans transmitted to humans by infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. According to the WHO report of 2015, there were 214 million cases of malaria with 438,000 deaths worldwide. Ninety percent of world's malaria cases occur in Africa, where the disease is recognized as a serious impediment to economic and social development. Despite advancement in malaria research, the disease continues to be a global problem, especially in developing countries. Currently, there is no effective vaccine for malaria control. ...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Interaction of Ziziphus mucronata subsp. mucronata Methanol Extract and First-Line Antibiotics is Synergistic In Vitro through Production of Reactive Oxygen Species.
In this study, the antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of Ziziphus mucronata and its interactions with antibiotics against bacteria of clinical importance were investigated. While its phytochemicals and antioxidant activities were determined by free radical scavenging assays, the antibacterial activities of the extract and its interactions with the antibiotics were determined by macrobroth dilution and the checkerboard methods. From the results, total phenolic content was 29.67 ± 1.90 mg GAE/100 g, total flavonoid content was 8.72 ± 0.08 mg QE/100&thin...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Impact of an Irrigation Dam on the Transmission and Diversity of Plasmodium falciparum in a Seasonal Malaria Transmission Area of Northern Ghana.
Authors: Kyei-Baafour E, Tornyigah B, Buade B, Bimi L, Oduro AR, Koram KA, Gyan BA, Kusi KA Abstract Water bodies such as dams are known to alter the local transmission patterns of a number of infectious diseases, especially those transmitted by insects and other arthropod vectors. The impact of an irrigation dam on submicroscopic asexual parasite carriage in individuals living in a seasonal malaria transmission area of northern Ghana was investigated. A total of 288 archived DNA samples from two cross-sectional surveys in two communities in the Bongo District of Northern Ghana were analysed. Parasite density was d...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

The Current Insecticide Resistance in Main Malaria Vector Anopheles arabiensis in Yemen.
Authors: Al-Koleeby Z, El Aboudi A, Assada M, Al-Hadi M, Abdalr Ahman M, Awash A, Ahmed AS, Mohamedi H, Al Jarbany J, Faraj C Abstract Control of malaria vectors in Yemen relies on both indoor residual spraying using carbamate (bendiocarb) and long-lasting pyrethroids-treated nets. This paper reports the results of studies conducted to monitor the insecticide resistance of the main malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis, to the insecticides currently used in the vector control in four different locations. Susceptibility tests were performed following the WHO test procedures. Two pyrethroids (lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05% ...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Establishment of a Colony of Phlebotomus argentipes under Laboratory Conditions and Morphometric Variation between Wild-Caught and Laboratory-Reared Populations.
Authors: Wijerathna T, Gunathilaka N, Gunawardena K Abstract The field-based studies on sand flies are not adequate to uncover information required for the control of the leishmaniasis through reduction of vector populations. Therefore, establishment and maintenance of laboratory colonies of sand flies is an essential step in leishmaniasis research. In the current study, a colony of P. argentipes was established from wild-caught sand flies following standard procedures from the published literature. Morphological measurements of laboratory-reared and wild-caught individual sand flies were compared to assess the dif...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Diagnostic Performance between Histidine-Rich Protein 2 (HRP-2), a Rapid Malaria Diagnostic Test and Microscopic-Based Staining Techniques for Diagnosis of Malaria.
This study included a total of 150 study participants, 87 (58%) females and 63 (42%) males. The patients included in the study did not receive any antimalarial drug. The mean age of the study participants was 31.6 ± 12.4 with the majority of participants being between 25 and 44 years and the minority being above 65 years. The sensitivity of RDT (HRP-2) was calculated and found to be 95.0%, whereas the sensitivity of Giemsa microscopy was 100%. The specificity of RDT (HRP-2) was calculated and found to be 59.2%, whereas the specificity of Giemsa microscopy was 100%. Negative and positive predictive valu...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 15, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Prevalence of Intestinal Schistosomiasis and Associated Factors among School Children in Wondo District, Ethiopia.
This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of S. mansoni and its associated factors among primary schoolchildren in Wondo district, West Arsi Zone, Ethiopia, 2018. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and March 2018. Stool samples from 298 schoolchildren, who were selected by simple random sampling, were examined for the ova of S. mansoni using Kato-Katz technique. Information on sociodemographic factors and other risk factors was obtained using questionnaires. The data were cleaned, coded, and entered into SPSS 22.0 statistical software and analyzed. Bivariable and multivariable logis...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 15, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Epidemiological Distribution of Major Ectoparasites Species of Small Ruminant in the Case of Chemical Control Campaign in Welkait District, Tigray Region, Ethiopia.
Authors: Leul B, Berihun A, Etsay K Abstract A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2016 to May 2017 to identify the major ectoparasites species and potential risk factors in Welkait district western part of Tigray region. A total of 102 sheep and 324 goats were physically examined and samples were taken for laboratory analysis. Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi with a prevalence of 58 (56.86%), Amblyomma gemma 12 (11.76%), Amblyomma variegatum 27 (26.47%), Boophilus decoloratus 7 (6.86%), and Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum 1 (0.98%) in sheep and R. evertsi evertsi 108 (33.02%), A. gemma 8 (2.47%), A. var...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 8, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Adherence, Awareness, Access, and Use of Standard Diagnosis and Treatment Guideline for Malaria Case Management among Healthcare Workers in Meatu, Tanzania.
Conclusion: Half of healthcare worker's adhere to malaria diagnostic test and treatment guidelines. Most the healthcare workers are aware of the malaria diagnostic test and treatment guidelines. Continued education and assessment of the personal attitudes towards malaria diagnostic test and treatment guidelines are recommended. PMID: 32148524 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - March 11, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

LC-MS Analysis, 15-Lipoxygenase Inhibition, Cytotoxicity, and Genotoxicity of Dissotis multiflora (Sm) Triana (Melastomataceae) and Paullinia pinnata Linn (Sapindaceae).
This study aims to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity activities of Dissotis multiflora (Sm) Triana and Paullinia pinnata Linn used traditionally in Cameroon to treat infectious diseases. Phytochemical screening was carried out using the LC-MS procedure. The ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX) assay was used to determine the 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) inhibitory activity of the plant samples. The tetrazolium-based colorimetric (MTT) assay was performed using Vero cells. The Ames test was carried out using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 tester strains. LC-MS chromatogram of D. multiflora ...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - March 11, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Antimalarial Activity of Aqueous and 80% Methanol Crude Seed Extracts and Solvent Fractions of Schinus molle Linnaeus (Anacardiaceae) in Plasmodium berghei-Infected Mice.
Authors: Habte G, Nedi T, Assefa S Abstract Background: Malaria is among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity. Moreover, the emergence of resistance to antimalarial drugs is a major problem in controlling the disease. This makes the development of novel antimalarial drugs a necessity. Medicinal plants are important sources in discovering antimalarial drugs. Schinus molle is claimed for its antimalarial effect in Ethiopian folkloric medicine and endowed with in vitro antiplasmodial activity. In the present study, the in vivo antimalarial activity of the plant was investigated. Methods: Acute toxicity wa...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - March 11, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Detection of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen among Febrile Patients in Ankpa, Kogi State, Nigeria.
Conclusion: This study reaffirms the endemicity of HBV in a part of sub-Saharan African country. Public health practitioners should focus attention on apparently healthy patients in developing countries. We suggest inclusion of HBsAg screening for patients coming for routine hospital care. PMID: 32095141 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - February 27, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Prevalence of Asymptomatic Malaria among Children in the Tamale Metropolis: How Does the PfHRP2 CareStart ™ RDT Perform against Microscopy?
Prevalence of Asymptomatic Malaria among Children in the Tamale Metropolis: How Does the PfHRP2 CareStart™ RDT Perform against Microscopy? J Trop Med. 2019;2019:6457628 Authors: Kanwugu ON, Helegbe GK, Aryee PA, Abdul-Karim A, Anaba F, Ziblim Z, Amevi ED Abstract Background: Asymptomatic carriage of the malaria parasites, likewise its misdiagnosis, especially false negatives, due to the use of substandard rapid diagnosis tests (RDTs) has been shown to hinder the progress of the fight against malaria. Method: The study assessed the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria as well as the performance ...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - January 15, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Resistance Modulation Action, Time-Kill Kinetics Assay, and Inhibition of Biofilm Formation Effects of Plumbagin from Plumbago zeylanica Linn.
Authors: Adusei EBA, Adosraku RK, Oppong-Kyekyeku J, Amengor CDK, Jibira Y Abstract Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a threat to the prevention and treatment of the increasing range of infectious diseases. There is therefore the need for renewed efforts into antimicrobial discovery and development to combat the menace. The antimicrobial activity of plumbagin isolated from roots of Plumbago zeylanica against selected organisms was evaluated for resistance modulation antimicrobial assay, time-kill kinetics assay, and inhibition of biofilm formation. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of plumbagin and stand...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - January 1, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Malaria-Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in Guinea.
Authors: Touré AA, Doumbouya A, Diallo A, Loua G, Cissé A, Sidibé S, Beavogui AH Abstract Introduction: Malaria is the leading cause of consultation in Guinea health facilities. During pregnancy, it remains a major health concern causing considerable risks for mother, fetus, and newborn. However, little is known about the epidemiology of malaria among pregnant women in Guinea. We aimed to provide information on malaria-associated factors in parturients. Methods: It was a cross-sectional survey in two regional hospitals and two district hospitals. 1000 parturients and their newborns were sur...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - January 1, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Efficacy of Ivermectin, Liquid Paraffin, and Carbaryl against Mange of Farmed Rabbits in Central Kenya.
Authors: Ogolla KO, Chebet J, Waruiru RM, Gathumbi PK, Okumu PO, Aboge GO Abstract Mange is a common disease of rabbits globally, and knowledge of efficacy of drugs used in its treatment is critical for effective disease control. The current study evaluated the efficacy of three commonly used therapeutic agents in Kenya against mange. In a controlled laboratory trial, 20 adult rabbits were recruited for the study (16 of which were infested with mange, while 4 were mange-free). The 16 mange-infested rabbits were randomly allocated into 4 treatment groups each consisting of 4 rabbits, while 4 mange-free rabbits forme...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - January 1, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Evaluation of Buruli Ulcer Disease Surveillance System in the Ga West Municipality, Ghana, 2011-2015.
Conclusion: The Buruli ulcer surveillance system is meeting its set objectives, and the data generated are used to reliably describe the epidemiologic situation and evaluate the results for actions and plan future interventions. There is a need for timely submission of data. We recommend that the National Buruli Ulcer Control Program (NBUCP) provides logistical support to treatment centres. PMID: 31781253 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - November 30, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Circulating Monocytes, Tissue Macrophages, and Malaria.
We describe their potential roles in modulating outcomes from infection and areas for future investigation. PMID: 31662766 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - November 1, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

The Epidemiology of Bloodstream Infections and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns: A Nine-Year Retrospective Study at St. Dominic Hospital, Akwatia, Ghana.
Conclusion: Bloodstream infection and antimicrobial resistance are high in patients seeking healthcare in Akwatia. This therefore calls for concerted efforts aimed at reducing the incidence in the study area. PMID: 31641359 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - October 24, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Antimalarial Activity of Tinospora baenzigeri against Plasmodium berghei-Infected Mice.
Authors: Ounjaijean S, Kotepui M, Somsak V Abstract Plant species of the genus Tinospora (Menispermaceae) possess several pharmacological properties, and T. crispa has been reported to have antimalarial activity. T. baenzigeri (Chingcha Chalee) is a rich source of terpenes and quinoline alkaloids; however, it still has not yet been investigated the antimalarial activity of this plant extract. Hence, this study was aimed to evaluate the antimalarial activity of T. baenzigeri stem extract against Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. The aqueous crude extract of T. baenzigeri stem was prepared using a microwave-assisted ...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - October 6, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Impact of Submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum Parasitaemia on Maternal Anaemia and Low Birth Weight in Blue Nile State, Sudan.
Authors: Omer SA, Noureldein AN, Eisa H, Abdelrahim M, Idress HE, Abdelrazig AM, Adam I Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of submicroscopic infections and to assess its impact on maternal anaemia and low birth weight. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 1149 consented pregnant women who delivered at 3 main hospitals in the Blue Nile State, between January 2012 and December 2015. From a matched maternal peripheral, placental maternal side, and cord blood sample, blood films and dried spots were prepared for microscopic examination and nested polymerase chain reaction (n...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - September 7, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Chemical Constituents of Root Barks of Gnidia involucrata and Evaluation for Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities.
Authors: Kalbessa A, Dekebo A, Tesso H, Abdo T, Abdissa N, Melaku Y Abstract The genus Gnidia, with species close to 152, is traditionally used to treat wide ranges of ailments in humans and animals. Gnidia involucrata is one of the species found in Ethiopia and traditionally used as a laxative, antirheumatic agent, insecticide, antibacterial agent, and antimalarial agent. In view of its traditional use, the root bark was sequentially extracted with n-hexane, EtOAc, and MeOH to afford 0.78%, 4%, and 6% crude extracts, respectively. The chromatographic separation of the EtOAc extract using silica gel column chromato...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - September 7, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Factors Associated with Uptake of Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Study in Private Health Facilities in Tema Metropolis, Ghana.
Authors: Amankwah S, Anto F Abstract Introduction: Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy with sulfadoxine pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) is effective in preventing the adverse consequences of malaria on birth outcomes. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among antenatal and postnatal women and midwives at private health facilities in Tema using the mixed method to investigate factors associated with uptake of IPTp-SP. Antenatal and postnatal women were consecutively enrolled and data on their sociodemographic characteristics and antenatal service utilization collected using a question...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - August 31, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Surfactant Protein D Is Altered in Experimental Malaria-Associated Acute Lung Injury/Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
Authors: Punsawad C, Viriyavejakul P, Techarang T Abstract Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is in the collectin family of C-type lectins and plays an important role in the regulation of inflammation and the innate immune defense against pathogens. This protein has been proposed as a biomarker for acute lung injury. However, the expression of SP-D in the lung and the circulating levels of SP-D during malaria infection have received limited attention. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the location and expression of the SP-D protein in lung tissue and to measure the plasma level of SP-D in experimental mala...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - August 31, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Prevalence of Malaria and TB Coinfection at a National Tuberculosis Treatment Centre in Uganda.
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria/TB coinfection among bacteriologically confirmed adult TB patients at a national TB treatment centre in Uganda. Using a cross-sectional study design we enrolled 363 bacteriologically confirmed adult TB patients, and data on demographics and medical history was collected. Blood samples were tested for malaria blood smear, rapid malaria diagnostic test (RDT), complete blood count, haematological film analysis, HIV serology, and CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts. Malaria was defined as either a positive blood smear or RDT. The study participants were mostly male (...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - August 21, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

First Evidence for Two Independent and Different Leishmaniasis Transmission Foci in Sri Lanka: Recent Introduction or Long-Term Existence?
Authors: Siriwardana Y, Deepachandi B, Weliange SS, Udagedara C, Wickremarathne C, Warnasuriya W, Ranawaka RR, Kahawita I, Chandrawansa PH, Karunaweera ND Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by a genetic variant of L. donovani is being reported from Sri Lanka since year 2001. Patients presented from different geographical locations (600 patients from North or South and a minority of cases from other foci, 2001-2013) were studied. Analysis revealed two different sociodemographic and clinical profiles of leishmaniasis in Northern and Southern Sri Lanka. Also, the same different profiles were present in these foci...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - August 21, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Qualitative and Quantitative Microbiological Studies of Paediatric Artemether-Lumefantrine Dry Powders and Paracetamol Syrups Obtained from Selected Drug Stores in Accra, Ghana.
This study has revealed the existence of substandard paediatric pharmaceutical products in the Ghanaian market, hence the need for regulatory bodies to intensify monitoring and postmarketing surveillance programmes to help get rid of these products from the market. PMID: 31379951 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - August 7, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Oxidative Stress and Hemoglobin Level of Complicated and Uncomplicated Malaria Cases among Children: A Cross-Sectional Study in Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana.
Authors: Nsiah K, Bahaah B, Oppong Afranie B, Koffie S, Akowuah E, Donkor S Abstract Introduction: Malaria is a leading cause of mortality among children below 5 years in Ghana. Its parasites are known to cause the degradation of hemoglobin, resulting in the production of reactive oxygen species and hence oxidant stress. Therefore, this study was carried out to compare the levels of oxidative stress between children with complicated and uncomplicated malaria infection in Kumasi, Ghana. Method: Subjects were recruited from hospitals in the Kumasi Metropolis. This was a cross-sectional study, involving 17 complic...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - August 1, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

The Incidence of Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria in Infants in Kenya.
The objective of this study was to document the incidence and diversity of NTM disease or colonisation in sputum specimens from infants with presumptive TB, the risk factors, and clinical characteristics, in a high TB and HIV burden setting in Western Kenya. A cohort of 2900 newborns was followed for 1-2 years to assess TB incidence. TB investigations included collection of induced sputa and gastric aspirates for culture and speciation by HAIN®, Tuberculin Skin Testing (TST), HIV testing, and chest radiography. The American Thoracic Society Criteria (ATS) were applied to identify NTM disease. Among 927 (32% of 2900) wi...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - July 31, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

An Assessment of Malaria Parasite Density among HIV/AIDS-Subjects at Different Levels of CD4 T-Cells Prior to Antimalarial Therapy at Chulaimbo Sub-County Hospital, Western Kenya.
Conclusion: The study was able to establish higher parasite density among individuals with ≤200 cells/μL than their counterparts with>200 cells/μL of CD4 T-cell levels in PLWHA resident in Western Kenya. Secondly, males significantly had a higher geometrical mean parasite density than females regardless of their CD4 status. It is anticipated that the results from this study could be used/applied in developing interventional measures to address malaria/HIV-AIDS coinfections aimed at saving life, particularly in the sub-Saharan African region where the two infections are rampant. PMID: 31354844 [PubMed] (Sour...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - July 31, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

The Immunological Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Characteristics of Children in Tajikistan Republic.
Conclusions. Plasmodium falciparum malaria was characterized by depression of cellular and humoral immunity, the degree of which depended on the severity of the pathological process. PMID: 31308850 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - July 18, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Related to Malaria Diagnosis among Healthcare Workers in Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey.
This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice related to malaria diagnosis for early detection among healthcare workers in the laboratories of hospitals in Thailand. The design of the study was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out between January 2016 and March 2017 at 11 hospitals in Thailand. The interviewees included any scientists who were currently working in a medical laboratory. Mean scores for knowledge, attitude, and practice for each healthcare group were calculated and compared between groups. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS version 11.5 software package (SPSS Inc., Chica...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - July 11, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Spectrum of Fungi in Patients with Onychomycosis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Prospective Study.
Conclusions: The prevalence rate of onychomycosis in the present study was high. The isolation rate of nondermatophyte molds was comparable with that of dermatophytes. Further studies on the prevalence of onychomycosis, fungal etiological agents, and changes in species distribution of the etiological agents of nail infection in Ethiopia are important. PMID: 31275400 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - July 7, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy: Assessment of the Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine Three-Dose Policy on Birth Outcomes in Rural Northern Ghana.
This study determined the level of uptake of SP and its association with birth outcomes in rural northern Ghana. Methods: A survey was carried out at the War Memorial Hospital in Navrongo, Ghana, among mothers who had delivered within ten weeks and were seeking postnatal care. Data on time of first ANC, number of visits, receipt of IPTp-SP, and birth outcomes were extracted from the antenatal records of 254 mothers. Mothers were interviewed on their background characteristics and obstetric history. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were carried out to determine association between antenatal indicators, uptake of...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - July 7, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Leishmania donovani Induced Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: An Insight into Atypical Clinical Variants in Sri Lanka.
Authors: Siriwardana Y, Deepachandi B, Gunasekara C, Warnasooriya W, Karunaweera ND Abstract Sri Lanka is a recent focus having Leishmania donovani induced cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) as the main clinical entity. A separate clinical entity within profile of CL was described in this study. Laboratory confirmed cases of CL (n= 950, 2002-2014) were analysed. Most lesions showed known classical developmental stages of CL (CCL) observed in other CL endemic settings while few cases (13%, 122/950) showed atypical skin manifestations (ACL). Clinical, geographical, and treatment response patterns of ACL were different from...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - July 4, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Livelihood Risk, Culture, and the HIV Interface: Evidence from Lakeshore Border Communities in Buliisa District, Uganda.
Conclusion: The susceptibility of lakeshore communities to HIV is attributable to a complex combination of geo-socio, the available (health) services, economic, and cultural factors which converged around the fishing livelihood. This study reveals that HIV risk assessment is an interplay of plural rationalities within the circumstances and constraints that impinge on the daily lives by different actors. A lack of cohesion in a multiethnic setting with large numbers of outsiders and a large transient population made the available HIV interventions less effective. PMID: 31223313 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - June 22, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Acute Severe Anaphylaxis in Nepali Patients with Neurotoxic Snakebite Envenoming Treated with the VINS Polyvalent Antivenom.
Authors: Sharma SK, Alirol E, Ghimire A, Shrestha S, Jha R, Parajuli SB, Shrestha D, Shrestha SJ, Bista A, Warrell D, Kuch U, Chappuis F, Taylor WRJ Abstract Diagnosing and treating acute severe and recurrent antivenom-related anaphylaxis (ARA) is challenging and reported experience is limited. Herein, we describe our experience of severe ARA in patients with neurotoxic snakebite envenoming in Nepal. Patients were enrolled in a randomised, double-blind trial of high vs. low dose antivenom, given by intravenous (IV) push, followed by infusion. Training in ARA management emphasised stopping antivenom and giving intra...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - June 18, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Long Term School Based Deworming against Soil-Transmitted Helminths Also Benefits the Untreated Adult Population: Results from a Community-Wide Cross Sectional Survey.
Conclusion: This study shows very low prevalence of STH among all age groups in Mwea, suggesting that long term SBD may also be benefitting the untreated groups in the community and thus the potential to achieve STH elimination in such endemic areas. PMID: 31186652 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - June 14, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Late Onset of Antiretroviral Therapy in Adults Living with HIV in an Urban Area in Brazil: Prevalence and Risk Factors.
This study aimed to analyze characteristics and factors associated with late initiation of ART among HIV-infected treatment-naïve patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study included PLHIV older than 17 years who initiated ART at two public health facilities from 2009 to 2012, in a city located in Midwestern Brazil. Pregnant women were excluded. Data were collected from medical records, antiviral dispensing forms, and the Logistics Control of Medications System (SICLOM) of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Late initiation of ART was defined as CD4+ cell count
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - May 15, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants against Human Pathogenic Bacteria.
This study is focused on exploring the antimicrobial properties of the plants that are commonly being used as traditional medicines. The antimicrobial potential of four different plant extracts was screened against twelve pathogenic microorganisms and two reference bacterial strains. Methanolic extracts of Oxalis corniculata, Artemisia vulgaris, Cinnamomum tamala, and Ageratina adenophora were subjected to a test of their antimicrobial properties by agar well diffusion method. The result indicated that most of the extracts exhibited antimicrobial properties. The highest potential was observed in the extract of O. cornicula...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - May 9, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Adherence to Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine Treatment among Patients with Uncomplicated Malaria in Northern Ghana.
Authors: Oduro AR, Chatio S, Beeri P, Anyorigiya T, Baiden R, Adongo P, Akweongo P Abstract Treatment adherence has been described as the process whereby patients take medications, follow diet, and effect other lifestyle changes that relate to agreed recommendations from healthcare providers. The determinants of such treatment adherence include patient, the health condition, therapy type, socioeconomic conditions, and the healthcare system. The study examined adherence in malaria patients treated with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in routine clinical care in northern Ghana. The study was conducted in Navrongo Heal...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - May 8, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Transfusional Malaria and Associated Factors at the National Blood Transfusion Center of Niamey-Niger.
Conclusion: The transmission of transfusional malaria during the rainy season is a fact in Niger. Such risks were independent of the ABO blood type and positivity for the rhesus antigen. Pretransfusion diagnosis or posttransfusion therapy should be instituted to prevent it. PMID: 31057629 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - May 8, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Prevalence, Intensity of Soil-Transmitted Helminths, and Factors Associated with Infection: Importance in Control Program with Ivermectin and Albendazole in Eastern C ôte d'Ivoire.
Prevalence, Intensity of Soil-Transmitted Helminths, and Factors Associated with Infection: Importance in Control Program with Ivermectin and Albendazole in Eastern Côte d'Ivoire. J Trop Med. 2019;2019:7658594 Authors: Loukouri A, Méité A, Kouadio OK, Djè NN, Trayé-Bi G, Koudou BG, N'Goran EK Abstract Evaluation of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) and implementation of additional interventions are required in the region of a filariasis control program, given that antifilariasis drugs also have a beneficial effect on STHs. Thus, this study determines the extensive epid...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 26, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Helicobacter pylori Infection among Children Aged 1 to 15 Years at Holy Innocents Children's Hospital, Mbarara, South Western Uganda.
Authors: Aitila P, Mutyaba M, Okeny S, Ndawula Kasule M, Kasule R, Ssedyabane F, Okongo B, Onyuthi Apecu R, Muwanguzi E, Oyet C Abstract Background: Helicobacter pylori infection affects more than half of the world's population. The infection is generally acquired during childhood but can remain asymptomatic, with long-term clinical sequelae including gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and stomach cancer. Methods: The study was approved by Institutional Review Committee of Mbarara University of Science and Technology. After obtaining informed consent from parents/legal guardians, illegible children who presented ...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 16, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Doxycycline Usage for Prevention of Leptospirosis among Farmers and Reasons for Failure to Use Chemoprophylaxis: A Descriptive Study from Southern Sri Lanka.
Conclusions: Awareness of leptospirosis is better among farmers compared to the general population. Usage of chemoprophylaxis among farmers was highly inadequate. Individual and health system related hypotheses and myths exist for non-usage of chemoprophylaxis. Thus, an urgent concerted campaign aimed at increasing awareness within the target group through education and making medicines effectively distributed is essential for better prevention of the disease. PMID: 30941181 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 5, 2019 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research