Assessment of Prevalence and Risk Factors for Intestinal Parasitosis, Malnutrition, and Anemia among School Children in Ghindae Area, Eritrea.
Conclusion: The prevalence of parasitic infection among school-age children in Ghindae area was high. Unsafe drinking water sources from streams and springs were among the core problems for increased prevalence along with decreased awareness on personal hygienic and sanitation practices. Undernutrition was widely prevalent among students in Ghindae area. Height for age and BMI for age scores of all participants were found to be below the WHO growth standards. Malnutrition was in higher prevalence in rural areas outside Ghindae, which is attributed to two times higher odds than their counterparts. The magnitude of anemia fo...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - November 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Expression of 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the Kidneys of Plasmodium berghei-Infected Mice.
Authors: Na-Ek P, Punsawad C Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most serious complications of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but the exact pathogenic mechanisms of AKI in P. falciparum infection have not been clearly elucidated. We hypothesized that oxidative stress is a potential mediator of acute tubular necrosis in P. falciparum-infected kidneys. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the histopathological changes and markers of oxidative stress in kidney tissues from mice with experimental malaria. DBA/2 mice were divided into two groups: the mice in the malaria-infected group (n&thinsp...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - November 7, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

The Impact of Insecticide Pre-Exposure on Longevity, Feeding Succession, and Egg Batch Size of Wild Anopheles gambiae s.l.
Conclusion: It can, therefore, be concluded that the wild An. gambiae s.l. had increased longevity, blood feeding, and small egg batch size compared to Kisumu susceptible colonies. PMID: 33061994 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - October 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Large Variations in Malaria Parasite Carriage by Afebrile School Children Living in Nearby Communities in the Central Region of Ghana.
Conclusions: The low prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasite carriage by the children living in the Cape Coast Metropolis suggests that the malaria control interventions in place in CCMA are highly effective and that additional malaria control interventions are required for the KEEA district to reduce the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasite carriers. No molecular evidence of P. ovale and P. vivax was identified in the afebrile children sampled from the selected schools. PMID: 33029151 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - October 9, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Utility of the Rose Bengal Test as a Point-of-Care Test for Human Brucellosis in Endemic African Settings: A Systematic Review.
Authors: Ekiri AB, Kilonzo C, Bird BH, VanWormer E, Wolking DJ, Smith WA, Masanja H, Kazwala RR, Mazet JAK Abstract In endemic African areas, such as Tanzania, Brucella spp. cause human febrile illnesses, which often go unrecognized and misdiagnosed, resulting in delayed diagnosis, underdiagnosis, and underreporting. Although rapid and affordable point-of-care tests, such as the Rose Bengal test (RBT), are available, acceptance and adoption of these tests at the national level are hindered by a lack of local diagnostic performance data. To address this need, evidence on the diagnostic performance of RBT as a human ...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - October 6, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Perceptions and Practices towards Anthrax in Selected Agricultural Communities in Arua District, Uganda.
Conclusion: This study shows that there is a knowledge gap about anthrax among the people in the affected communities. Key drivers for the anthrax outbreak such as poor cultural beliefs and practices and wildlife-livestock-human interactions were observed in all the three subcounties studied. All these findings could imply a high risk of outbreak of anthrax in Arua and Ugandan agricultural communities where the public health programs are less standardized and less effective. PMID: 33014075 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - October 6, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Performance Evaluation of Malaria Pf/Pv Combo Test Kit at Highly Malaria-Endemic Area, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.
Conclusion: The overall performance of the kit was below the WHO standard. Further study on a large sample size is recommended to be carried out in the study area to use the test kit instead of microscopy for malaria diagnosis. Providing training on quality malaria laboratory diagnosis and availing necessary supplies for malaria diagnosis shall also be considered. PMID: 32963553 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - September 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium in Snail Intermediate Hosts in Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Conclusion: This study revealed that nearly 6% of freshwater snails in Africa were infected by either S. haematobium or S. mansoni. The high prevalence of schistosomes among freshwater snails highlights the importance of appropriate snail control strategies in Africa. PMID: 32963554 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - September 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Soil Contamination with Toxocara Eggs in Public Schools in Rural Areas of Southern Thailand.
This study aimed at estimating the soil contamination with Toxocara eggs in public schools in Nakhon Si Thammarat province in southern Thailand. Soil samples were collected from 12 public schools between August and September 2017. At each site, ten soil samples were collected from the following five types of locations: (1) playgrounds, (2) football fields, (3) sidewalks, (4) schoolyards, and (5) areas around cafeterias. In total, 120 samples were examined for Toxocara eggs with a modified flotation method using a sucrose solution. Toxocara eggs were detected in 8 (66.7%) of the 12 studied public schools. Of the 120 soil sa...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - September 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Breeding Habitat Distribution of Medically Important Mosquitoes in Kurunegala, Gampaha, Kegalle, and Kandy Districts of Sri Lanka and Potential Risk for Disease Transmission: A Cross-Sectional Study.
In this study, the diversity and species composition of mosquitoes in four selected districts in Sri Lanka (Kurunegala, Gampaha, Kegalle, and Kandy) were investigated. Entomological surveys were conducted from a total of 160 temporary and permanent mosquito breeding habitats identified in the study area from June 2017 to October 2018. Mosquito immature stages were sampled using standard dipping, siphoning, or pipetting methods and identified up to the species level. Percentage relative abundance and habitat characteristics such as species richness, dominance, and Shannon-Weiner diversity were calculated for each surveyed h...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - September 18, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Molecular Characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates from Pregnant Women in Kathmandu City.
Conclusion: The isolates were sensitive towards some antibiotics such as linezolid and ceftriaxone 100%, whereas penicillin 50% and vancomycin 75% but were resistant to tetracycline and ertapenem. Serotype III was found to be predominant in the samples collected during the study period. The observed prevalence was significantly associated with the gestational period, whereas no relationship was found for other risk factors. PMID: 32908547 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - September 12, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Leishmania ITS1 Is Genetically Divergent in Asymptomatic and Symptomatic Visceral Leishmaniasis: Results of a Study in Southern Iran.
Authors: Rezaei Z, Azarang E, Shahabi S, Omidian M, Pourabbas B, Sarkari B Abstract It has been documented that the genotypic traits in symptomatic and asymptomatic cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) may be different. The current study aimed to find out and compare the genotype and intraspecies diversity of Leishmania Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) from asymptomatic and symptomatic VL cases in southern Iran. Methods. Buffy coat samples from seven VL patients, with clinical signs and symptoms, and seven asymptomatic VL cases, were evaluated in this study. Samples of asymptomatic individuals were obtained fro...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - September 12, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Is International Travel an Emerging Issue on Transmission of Beijing Lineage Mycobacterium tuberculosis?
Authors: Madamarandawala PS, Satyanarayana S, Timire C, Yaqoob A, Madegedara D, Magana-Arachchi DN Abstract Mycobacterium tuberculosis belonging to Beijing sublineage (BL) is associated with high tuberculosis (TB) transmission, multidrug resistance, and adverse treatment outcomes. Sri Lanka experiences an increase in the number of travellers/workers to and from high TB-burden countries, and there is risk of getting BL strains imported into the country. In this context, a cohort study was conducted to assess the prevalence of BL strains among pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients in the Kandy district of Sri Lanka (...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - September 12, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Antimalarial Activity of the Leaf Latex of Aloe weloensis (Aloaceae) against Plasmodium berghei in Mice.
Authors: Teka T, Awgichew T, Kassahun H Abstract Background: Emergence of drug resistance and lack of therapeutic efficacy of modern antimalarial drugs are the most triggering factors for the searching of new lead compounds with different mechanisms of action. Medicinal plants with documented traditional uses are a viable option for treatment of malaria. Traditionally, the leaf latex of Aloe weloensis has been used in the treatment of malaria in Ethiopia. Hence, this study was undertaken to investigate the antimalarial activity of the leaf latex of Aloe weloensis in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Methods: A ...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - August 30, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Determinants of Delay in Seeking Malaria Treatment for Under-Five Children at Gambella Town, Southwest Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study.
Conclusion and Recommendation. Comprehensive community-based malaria prevention and control education should be given for the caregivers in the town giving due emphasis to housewives, khat-chewers, and the caregivers with no story of child death to better promote early malaria treatment-seeking for under-five children. PMID: 32849881 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - August 29, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Cord Malaria Infection, Complement Activation, Oxidative Stress, Gestational Age, and Birth Weight, Characterized by High Plasmodium falciparum Prevalence in Bamenda, Cameroon.
Conclusion: Cord blood infection lowers the complement haemolytic titter, oxygen radicals and total antioxidant defense in neonates. This lowering of complement haemolytic titter and oxygen radical compounds in umbilical cord malaria are associated with low birth weight and preterm birth. PMID: 32849882 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - August 29, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Molecular Characterization of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase: Do Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Affect Hematological Parameters in HIV-Positive Patients?
Authors: Danquah KO, Mensah K, Nkansah C, Appiah SK, Noagbe M, Hardy Y, Ntiamoah DO, Boateng LA, Annani-Akollor ME, Owiredu EW, Debrah AY, Addai-Mensah O Abstract This descriptive, cross-sectional study aimed at evaluating the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and the 376A ⟶ G, 202G ⟶ A single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among HIV patients attending care at a teaching hospital in Ghana and determine how the SNPs affect haematological profile in HIV. A total of 200 HIV-positive Ghanaians were recruited. Venous blood samples were obtained and complete blood count, and G6PD screening an...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - August 19, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Infections with Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar as Hidden and Prevalent Conditions in Periurban Communities in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
This study aims to assess the prevalence, distribution, and etiological profile of intestinal parasitism in children living in periurban areas in Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A community-based cross-sectional survey (n = 479) was carried out. Prevalence of infection with G. duodenalis and E. histolytica/E. dispar was 8.6% (n = 41) and 13.4% (n = 64), respectively. Infection with G. duodenalis was significantly more frequent among children living in poor families (24/187 (12.8%) vs. 16/272 (5.9%); prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.18; 95% confidence interval (...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - August 2, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Reduced Duration of Postchikungunya Musculoskeletal Pain in Rheumatological Patients Treated with Biologicals.
This study was performed to evaluate the clinical course of the infection in 168 patients with autoimmune inflammatory disease using biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs), comparing this group with 56 household controls. Anti-CHIKV IgG serology was positive in 42 (25%) of the patients in the bDMARD group and in 15 (27%) of the controls (p=0.79). Of those with positive serology, 32 (76%) and 14 (93%) were symptomatic among subjects in the bDMARD and control groups, respectively (p=0.87). Persistence of musculoskeletal symptoms for more than three months occurred in 64% of the patients in the control gro...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - July 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Blood Lead Levels among Blood Donors and High-Risk Occupational Groups in a Mining Area in Ghana: Implications for Blood Transfusion among Vulnerable Populations.
This study compared blood lead levels (BLL) among selected occupations at risk of lead exposure with healthy blood donors in nonexposed occupations in a Ghanaian mining area. We enrolled 40 participants each from the following high-risk occupational groups: small scale miners, painters/sprayers, drivers/fuel station attendants, and auto-mechanics as well as 40 healthy blood donors (made up of teachers, traders, and office workers). One millilitre of blood was collected from each participant for determination of their BLL, haemoglobin concentration, and blood film morphology. A total of 200 participants made up of 186 (93%)...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - July 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Provincial Dwellers on Prevention and Control of Schistosomiasis: Evidence from a Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study in the Gambia.
Authors: Barrow A, Badjie M, Touray J, Kinteh B, Nget M, Touray E, Kinteh SLS, Sillah SO, Darboe L, Jallow Y, Badjan M, Gaye M, Jatta SPS Abstract Background: Socioeconomically disadvantaged and neglected communities were found to be the most affected groups for schistosomiasis as a result of inadequate safe water and sanitation facilities. In order to inform policies and practices, the present study examined the influence of sociodemographic factors and attitudes on the knowledge and practice in the prevention and control of schistosomiasis in eighteen endemic rural communities in the Gambia. Methods: In Janua...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - July 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Review on Major Food-Borne Zoonotic Bacterial Pathogens.
Authors: Abebe E, Gugsa G, Ahmed M Abstract Food-borne microorganisms are major pathogens affecting food safety and cause human illness worldwide as a result of consumption of foodstuff, mainly animal products contaminated with vegetative pathogens or their toxins. Most of these microbes have zoonotic importance resulting in significant impact on both public health and economic sectors. Bacteria are the causative agents of two-thirds of human food-borne diseases worldwide with high burden in developing countries. Hence, the objectives of this review paper are to highlight the background of food-borne bacterial path...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - July 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Kaempferol Addition Increases the Antimalarial Activity of Artesunate in Experimental Mice.
Authors: Ounjaijean S, Benjasak N, Sae-Lao S, Somsak V Abstract Kaempferol (KMF) is a member of flavonol widely found in tea, broccoli, apples, strawberries, and beans. It has been demonstrated to present several pharmacological properties with potent antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Hence, the search for a safe and new antimalarial compound with combinations to delay the development of resistance was the aim of this study. Thus, the therapeutic effect of the combination of KMF and artesunate (ART) in P. berghei-infected mice was evaluated. Combination of KMF and ART in P. berghei ANK...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - July 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Impacts of Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention on Malaria Burden among under Five-Year-Old Children in Borno State, Nigeria.
Authors: Ambe JP, Balogun ST, Waziri MB, Nglass IN, Saddiq A Abstract Malaria disproportionately affects all ages with a high burden among children below five years. Thus, control measures are deployed including Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC). The present study assessed the impacts of SMC on malaria burden among subjects aged 3-59 months in Borno State, Nigeria. Twenty (20) clusters were randomly selected from accessible 16 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Borno State, Nigeria, and SMC was deployed in 10 of the clusters by administering a full dose of amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine at monthly in...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - July 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

In Vitro Antibacterial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Fruits, Seeds, and Bark of Zanthoxylum armatum DC.
Authors: Phuyal N, Jha PK, Raturi PP, Rajbhandary S Abstract Crude methanol extracts of fruits, seeds, and bark of Zanthoxylum armatum were investigated in vitro for antimicrobial activities against 9 different bacterial strains: Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Staphylococcus epidermidis using agar well diffusion method, and the MBC values were determined. Only 5 bacteria, i.e., Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - June 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

A Study of Synergy of Combination of Eosin B with Chloroquine, Artemisinin, and Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine on Plasmodium falciparum In Vitro and Plasmodium berghei In Vivo.
Conclusion and Interpretation. It can be concluded that eosin B can be used in combination with antimalarial drugs with favorable results. PMID: 32565830 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - June 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Synthesis and In Vitro Antimicrobial and Anthelminthic Evaluation of Naphtholic and Phenolic Azo Dyes.
Authors: Adu JK, Amengor CDK, Mohammed Ibrahim N, Amaning-Danquah C, Owusu Ansah C, Gbadago DD, Sarpong-Agyapong J Abstract The antimicrobial activity of 2-naphtholic and phenolic azo compounds was determined against seven microbial species, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Streptococcus pyrogenes (clinical), and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Salmonella typhi (clinical), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Escherichia coli (ATCC 251922), and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), using the high-throughput spot culture growth inhibition assay (HT-SPOTi). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined ...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - June 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Is Schistosomiasis a Risk Factor for Bladder Cancer? Evidence-Based Facts.
Conclusion. There are some data to support the association between schistosomiasis and bladder cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. However, these have been limited by their design and may not sufficiently establish carcinogenesis. There is a need for more genomic and molecular research to better characterize S. haematobium and its effects on the bladder. Such goal will contribute immensely to Schistosoma bladder cancer prevention and control. PMID: 32565832 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - June 24, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

High Hepatitis B Seroprevalence, Low Knowledge, and Poor Attitude towards Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Market Women in Bolgatanga Metropolis in the Upper East Region of Ghana.
Authors: Helegbe GK, Tanko F, Aryee PA, Lotsu SA, Asaarik MJA, Anaba F Abstract The Bolgatanga Municipal Health Directorate has reported liver cirrhosis among the first three diseases causing mortality from 2013 to 2015. This implicates hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection considering its high prevalence among blood donors in the Upper East Region of Ghana. However, for a vulnerable group such as market women, there is not much information with regard to the prevalence, knowledge, and attitude towards HBV infection. Thus, this study sought to bridge this gap by determining the seroprevalence, knowledge, and attitude o...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - June 19, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

The Effect of Lymphoedema Exercises and Foot Elevation on the Quality of Life of Patients with Elephantiasis.
This study used a cluster sampling method, which is a nonprobability sampling technique. The samples in this study were 48 respondents divided into two groups: 24 respondents from the Nebe Village comprising the intervention group and 24 respondents from the Bangkoor Village comprising the control group. The intervention group conducted lymphoedema exercises and foot elevation three times a week for 15-20 min for 1 month and measured their quality of life using the LFSQQ questionnaire. Measurements of pitting edema and ankle diameter were also carried out. Paired t-test revealed an improvement in the quality of life...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - June 19, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Pattern of Animal Bites and Delays in Initiating Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis among Clients Receiving Care in Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital.
Discussion. Bites from suspected rabies infected animals remain a problem in southern Ghana. There are significant delays in initiating PEP for rabies prevention. Most animal bite victims are children ten years and below. Male gender and bites more than 5 km radius from the site of rabies PEP administration were most significant factors associated with delays in initiating rabies PEP. There is the need for adopting strategies to encourage prompt initiation and adherence to PEP. PMID: 32547622 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - June 19, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Possible Factors Influencing the Seroprevalence of Dengue among Residents of the Forest Fringe Areas of Peninsular Malaysia.
Authors: Abd-Jamil J, Ngui R, Nellis S, Fauzi R, Lim ALY, Chinna K, Khor CS, AbuBakar S Abstract Dengue is an endemic mosquito-borne viral disease prevalent in many urban areas of the tropic, especially the Southeast Asia. Its presence among the indigenous population of Peninsular Malaysia (Orang Asli), however, has not been well described. The present study was performed to investigate the seroprevalence of dengue among the Orang Asli (OA) residing at the forest fringe areas of Peninsular Malaysia and determine the factors that could affect the transmission of dengue among the OA. Eight OA communities consisting o...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - June 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Nutritional Status and Humoral Immune Response to Plasmodium falciparum in Children Aged 6-59 Months.
Authors: Tepa A, Abame I, Makamta V, Fongang B, Donkeu J, Ayong L, Pieme CA Abstract Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Children are mostly exposed to this disease; numerous studies have investigated the relationship between child malnutrition and either malaria morbidity or infection. Few studies demonstrated the interaction between child malnutrition and specific anti-Plasmodium falciparum immune responses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of nutritional status and iron on total anti-Plasmodium falciparum IgG levels in children living in the Gado-Badzér&...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - June 11, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Declining Trends in Childhood TB Notifications and Profile of Notified Patients in the City of Harare, Zimbabwe, from 2009 to 2018.
Authors: Nzombe P, Satyanarayana S, Tweya H, Timire C, Charambira K, Ncube RT, Zishiri C, Dlodlo RA, Duri C, Chonzi P, Mbiva F, Siziba N, Sandy C Abstract Globally, childhood tuberculosis (TB among those aged
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - June 11, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Associated Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Risk Factors among School Children in Mwea Irrigation Scheme, Kirinyaga County, Kenya.
Authors: Njambi E, Magu D, Masaku J, Okoyo C, Njenga SM Abstract School children bear a significant burden of intestinal parasitic infections. Because they spend most of their time at home and school, it is necessary to identify the key water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) factors associated with these infections in both environments. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted in Mwea West, Kirinyaga County. 180 primary school children aged 8-14 years were randomly selected from three schools (Mianya, Mbui Njeru, and Mukou primary schools). Questionnaires and checklists were administered and single stool samples ...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - May 28, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Hematological and Biochemical Profile of Patients Infected with Schistosoma mansoni in Comparison with Apparently Healthy Individuals at Sanja Town, Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.
Conclusion. Most hematological and biochemical profiles were significantly lower in the Schistosoma mansoni-positive group as compared with the control group. Most hematological and biochemical profiles decline significantly as the parasite density increased. Hence, with Schistosoma treatment, supportive treatment against hematological and biochemical disorders is recommended. PMID: 32454838 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - May 28, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Long-Lasting Insecticide-Treated Nets: Assessment of the Awareness and Utilization of Them among Antenatal Clinic Attendees in Abakaliki, Southeast Nigeria.
Conclusion: The level of awareness of LLITNs is high; however, its utilization was discouragingly low. Rural dwellers and those without appropriate knowledge of the aetiology of malaria were less likely to use LLITNs in pregnancy. PMID: 32411254 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - May 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Quinine Sulphate Microparticles as Treatment for Leishmaniasis.
Conclusion: Overall, quinine sulphate microparticles had better pharmacokinetic profile and showed higher efficacy against Leishmania donovani parasites in vivo. Thus, quinine sulphate microparticles have the potential, especially, in treating visceral leishmaniasis. PMID: 32411255 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - May 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

High Prevalence of Multidrug-Resistant and Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae: A Cross-Sectional Study at Arsho Advanced Medical Laboratory, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Conclusions: The present study demonstrated high prevalence rates of multidrug-resistant and extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. In order to combat these problems, infection control strategy and proper antibiotic policies should be formulated. PMID: 32411256 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - May 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Malaria Parasite Density as a Predictor of Hematological Parameter Changes among HIV Infected Adults Attending Two Antiretroviral Treatment Clinics in Kano, Northwest Nigeria.
Authors: Jegede FE, Oyeyi TI, Abdulrahman SA, Mbah HA Abstract Background: Despite public health significance of dual infections of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria in developing countries like Nigeria, information on the association between malaria parasite density count (MPDC) and hematological parameter changes among HIV-infected individuals is rarely available. Objectives: To evaluate burden of HIV and malaria dual infections and assess the predictive association of MPDC with hematological parameter changes among HIV infected adults attending two antiretroviral treatment clinics in Kano, Niger...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - May 14, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Intensity of Nematode Infection in Children Aged 3 to 5  Years Living in Mukuru Kwa Njenga Slum Settlement, Nairobi, Kenya.
This study evaluated the intensity of nematode infections and assessed the status of deworming in children aged 3 to 5 years living in Mukuru slum settlement, Nairobi County, Kenya. Methodology. A total of 172 children aged between 3 and 5 years were sampled across the 5 major villages of Mukuru Slum settlement: Kwa Njenga, Vietnum, Wapewape, Kwa Reuben, and Motomoto. Community health workers administered questionnaires on the deworming history of children. Stool samples were collected, macroscopically examined, and microscopically analysed using Kato-Katz technique to assess the intensity of infection. The intensities of ...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - May 1, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Chemical Synthesis, Efficacy, and Safety of Antimalarial Hybrid Drug Comprising of Sarcosine and Aniline Pharmacophores as Scaffolds.
Authors: Niyibizi JB, Kirira PG, Kimani FT, Oyatsi F, Ng'ang'a JK Abstract Malaria is a disease caused by protozoans transmitted to humans by infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. According to the WHO report of 2015, there were 214 million cases of malaria with 438,000 deaths worldwide. Ninety percent of world's malaria cases occur in Africa, where the disease is recognized as a serious impediment to economic and social development. Despite advancement in malaria research, the disease continues to be a global problem, especially in developing countries. Currently, there is no effective vaccine for malaria control. ...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Interaction of Ziziphus mucronata subsp. mucronata Methanol Extract and First-Line Antibiotics is Synergistic In Vitro through Production of Reactive Oxygen Species.
In this study, the antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of Ziziphus mucronata and its interactions with antibiotics against bacteria of clinical importance were investigated. While its phytochemicals and antioxidant activities were determined by free radical scavenging assays, the antibacterial activities of the extract and its interactions with the antibiotics were determined by macrobroth dilution and the checkerboard methods. From the results, total phenolic content was 29.67 ± 1.90 mg GAE/100 g, total flavonoid content was 8.72 ± 0.08 mg QE/100&thin...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 25, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Impact of an Irrigation Dam on the Transmission and Diversity of Plasmodium falciparum in a Seasonal Malaria Transmission Area of Northern Ghana.
Authors: Kyei-Baafour E, Tornyigah B, Buade B, Bimi L, Oduro AR, Koram KA, Gyan BA, Kusi KA Abstract Water bodies such as dams are known to alter the local transmission patterns of a number of infectious diseases, especially those transmitted by insects and other arthropod vectors. The impact of an irrigation dam on submicroscopic asexual parasite carriage in individuals living in a seasonal malaria transmission area of northern Ghana was investigated. A total of 288 archived DNA samples from two cross-sectional surveys in two communities in the Bongo District of Northern Ghana were analysed. Parasite density was d...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 21, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

The Current Insecticide Resistance in Main Malaria Vector Anopheles arabiensis in Yemen.
Authors: Al-Koleeby Z, El Aboudi A, Assada M, Al-Hadi M, Abdalr Ahman M, Awash A, Ahmed AS, Mohamedi H, Al Jarbany J, Faraj C Abstract Control of malaria vectors in Yemen relies on both indoor residual spraying using carbamate (bendiocarb) and long-lasting pyrethroids-treated nets. This paper reports the results of studies conducted to monitor the insecticide resistance of the main malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis, to the insecticides currently used in the vector control in four different locations. Susceptibility tests were performed following the WHO test procedures. Two pyrethroids (lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05% ...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Establishment of a Colony of Phlebotomus argentipes under Laboratory Conditions and Morphometric Variation between Wild-Caught and Laboratory-Reared Populations.
Authors: Wijerathna T, Gunathilaka N, Gunawardena K Abstract The field-based studies on sand flies are not adequate to uncover information required for the control of the leishmaniasis through reduction of vector populations. Therefore, establishment and maintenance of laboratory colonies of sand flies is an essential step in leishmaniasis research. In the current study, a colony of P. argentipes was established from wild-caught sand flies following standard procedures from the published literature. Morphological measurements of laboratory-reared and wild-caught individual sand flies were compared to assess the dif...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 17, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Diagnostic Performance between Histidine-Rich Protein 2 (HRP-2), a Rapid Malaria Diagnostic Test and Microscopic-Based Staining Techniques for Diagnosis of Malaria.
This study included a total of 150 study participants, 87 (58%) females and 63 (42%) males. The patients included in the study did not receive any antimalarial drug. The mean age of the study participants was 31.6 ± 12.4 with the majority of participants being between 25 and 44 years and the minority being above 65 years. The sensitivity of RDT (HRP-2) was calculated and found to be 95.0%, whereas the sensitivity of Giemsa microscopy was 100%. The specificity of RDT (HRP-2) was calculated and found to be 59.2%, whereas the specificity of Giemsa microscopy was 100%. Negative and positive predictive valu...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 15, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Prevalence of Intestinal Schistosomiasis and Associated Factors among School Children in Wondo District, Ethiopia.
This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of S. mansoni and its associated factors among primary schoolchildren in Wondo district, West Arsi Zone, Ethiopia, 2018. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and March 2018. Stool samples from 298 schoolchildren, who were selected by simple random sampling, were examined for the ova of S. mansoni using Kato-Katz technique. Information on sociodemographic factors and other risk factors was obtained using questionnaires. The data were cleaned, coded, and entered into SPSS 22.0 statistical software and analyzed. Bivariable and multivariable logis...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 15, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Epidemiological Distribution of Major Ectoparasites Species of Small Ruminant in the Case of Chemical Control Campaign in Welkait District, Tigray Region, Ethiopia.
Authors: Leul B, Berihun A, Etsay K Abstract A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2016 to May 2017 to identify the major ectoparasites species and potential risk factors in Welkait district western part of Tigray region. A total of 102 sheep and 324 goats were physically examined and samples were taken for laboratory analysis. Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi with a prevalence of 58 (56.86%), Amblyomma gemma 12 (11.76%), Amblyomma variegatum 27 (26.47%), Boophilus decoloratus 7 (6.86%), and Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum 1 (0.98%) in sheep and R. evertsi evertsi 108 (33.02%), A. gemma 8 (2.47%), A. var...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 8, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Adherence, Awareness, Access, and Use of Standard Diagnosis and Treatment Guideline for Malaria Case Management among Healthcare Workers in Meatu, Tanzania.
Conclusion: Half of healthcare worker's adhere to malaria diagnostic test and treatment guidelines. Most the healthcare workers are aware of the malaria diagnostic test and treatment guidelines. Continued education and assessment of the personal attitudes towards malaria diagnostic test and treatment guidelines are recommended. PMID: 32148524 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - March 11, 2020 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research