Determinants of Antenatal Healthcare Utilisation by Pregnant Women in Third Trimester in Peri-Urban Ghana.
Authors: Akowuah JA, Agyei-Baffour P, Awunyo-Vitor D Abstract Access to quality healthcare still remains a major challenge in the efforts at reversing maternal morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of established maternal health interventions, the health of the expectant mother and the unborn child remains poor due to low utilisation of interventions. The study examined the socioeconomic determinants of antenatal care utilisation in peri-urban Ghana using pregnant women who are in their third trimester. Two-stage sampling technique was used to sample 200 pregnant women who were in their third trimester ...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 19, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Determinants of Chronic Respiratory Symptoms among Pharmaceutical Factory Workers.
Conclusion: Previous history of respiratory diseases, family history of chronic respiratory diseases, previous dusty working environment, smoking, and service years were determinants of chronic respiratory symptoms. Public health endeavors to prevent the burden of chronic respiratory symptoms among pharmaceutical factory workers should target the reduction of adverse workplace exposures and discouragement of smoking. PMID: 29666655 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 19, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Tanzania: Current Status and Challenges.
Authors: Kilonzo SB, Gunda DW, Mpondo BCT, Bakshi FA, Jaka H Abstract Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world with high prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa countries. The complexity in its diagnosis and treatment poses a significant management challenge in the resource-limited settings including Tanzania, where most of the tests and drugs are either unavailable or unaffordable. This mini review aims at demonstrating the current status of the disease in the country and discussing the concomitant challenges in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. PMID: 29666656 [PubMed] (Sourc...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 19, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

The Effects of Aloe vera Cream on the Expression of CD4+ and CD8+ Lymphocytes in Skin Wound Healing.
Authors: Prakoso YA, Kurniasih Abstract The aim of this study is to explore the effect of topical application of Aloe vera on skin wound healing. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150-200 grams were divided into four groups. All groups were anesthetized, shaved, and exposed to round full-thickness punch biopsy on the back: group I (control); group II (treated with 1% Aloe vera cream); group III (treated with 2% Aloe vera cream); and group IV (treated with madecassol®). The treatments were given once a day. Macroscopic and microscopic examination were observed at 5, 10, and 15 days after skin biopsy. ...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 19, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Phylogenetic Analysis of Dengue Virus in Bangkalan, Madura Island, East Java Province, Indonesia.
Authors: Sucipto TH, Kotaki T, Mulyatno KC, Churrotin S, Labiqah A, Soegijanto S, Kameoka M Abstract Dengue virus (DENV) infection is a major health issue in tropical and subtropical areas. Indonesia is one of the biggest dengue endemic countries in the world. In the present study, the phylogenetic analysis of DENV in Bangkalan, Madura Island, Indonesia, was performed in order to obtain a clearer understanding of its dynamics in this country. A total of 359 blood samples from dengue-suspected patients were collected between 2012 and 2014. Serotyping was conducted using a multiplex Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase C...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 19, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Health Related Quality of Life among TB Patients: Question Mark on Performance of TB DOTS in Pakistan.
Conclusion. The results of the present study concluded that TB patients had poor HRQoL in spite of the new therapeutic strategies and free availability of medicines. The disease had a negative impact on HRQoL of TB patients across all domains. PMID: 29623094 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 8, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Understanding Unlicensed Drug Vendor Practices Related to Childhood Malaria in One Rural District of Uganda: An Exploratory Study.
This study investigated unlicensed drug outlets' practices for the management of malaria in the rural district of Butaleja, Uganda. A qualitative design using semistructured interviews was used. Interviews were recorded, translated, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. A total of 75 vendors, representing 85% of the outlets in the study area, were interviewed. Most of the vendors were associated with a drug shop type of outfit. About three-quarters reported having completed some level of postsecondary education, but just one-tenth of the vendors had qualifications that made them eligible to apply for a license...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 8, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Repellent Activity of TRIG (N-N Diethyl Benzamide) against Man-Biting Mosquitoes.
Authors: Msangi S, Kweka E, Mahande A Abstract A study was conducted to assess efficacy of a new repellent brand TRIG (15% N-N Diethyl Benzamide) when compared to DEET (20% N-N Methyl Toluamide). The repellents were tested in laboratory and field. In the laboratory, the repellence was tested on human volunteers, by exposing their repellent-treated arms on starved mosquitoes in cages for 3 minutes at hourly intervals, while counting the landing and probing attempts. Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were used. Field evaluation was conducted by Human Landing Catch technique. During the night, the repelle...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - March 20, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Knowledge and Acceptability of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination among Women Attending the Gynaecological Outpatient Clinics of a University Teaching Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria.
This study was aimed at determining the knowledge and acceptability of HPV vaccine among women attending the gynaecology clinics of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH). Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 148 consecutively selected women attending the gynaecology clinic of LUTH. Relevant information was obtained from these women using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The data was analysed and then presented by simple descriptive statistics using tables and charts. Chi-square statistics were used to test the association between the sociodemographical variables and acceptan...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - February 9, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Performance Evaluation of Commercial Dengue Diagnostic Tests for Early Detection of Dengue in Clinical Samples.
Authors: Mat Jusoh TNA, Shueb RH Abstract The shattering rise in dengue virus infections globally has created a need for an accurate and validated rapid diagnostic test for this virus. Rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) diagnostic detection are useful tools for diagnosis of early dengue infection. We prospectively evaluated the diagnostic performance of nonstructural 1 (NS1) RDT and real-time RT-PCR diagnostic kits in 86 patient serum samples. Thirty-six samples were positive for dengue NS1 antigen while the remaining 50 were negative when tested with enzyme-lin...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - January 31, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

A Review on the Cosmeceutical and External Applications of Nigella sativa.
Authors: Eid AM, Elmarzugi NA, Abu Ayyash LM, Sawafta MN, Daana HI Abstract It is estimated by the World Health Organization (WHO) that most of the world's population depends on herbal medicine for their health care. Nigella sativa (N. sativa), also known as black-caraway and as "Kalonji," is a well-known seed all over the world. It is one of the most common medicinal plants worldwide and contains many useful chemical constituents that we can find in its fixed oil, such as thymoquinone, thymohydroquinone, dithymoquinone, thymol, nigellicine, carvacrol, nigellimine, nigellicine, nigellidine, and alpha-hede...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - January 25, 2018 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Synthesis, SAR, and Docking Studies Disclose 2-Arylfuran-1,4-naphthoquinones as In Vitro Antiplasmodial Hits.
Authors: Borgati TF, do Nascimento MFA, Bernardino JF, Martins LCO, Taranto AG, de Oliveira AB Abstract A total of 28 lapachol-related naphthoquinones with four different scaffolds were synthesized and spectroscopically characterized. In vitro antiplasmodial activity was assayed against the chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum W2 strain by the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) method. Cytotoxicity against Hep G2A16 cell was determined by the MTT assay. All compounds disclosed higher in vitro antiplasmodial activity than lapachol. Ortho- and para-naphthoquinones with a furan ring fused to the quinonoid mo...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - December 13, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Dengue Virus NS1 Protein as a Diagnostic Marker: Commercially Available ELISA and Comparison to qRT-PCR and Serological Diagnostic Assays Currently Used by the State of Florida".
Corrigendum to "Dengue Virus NS1 Protein as a Diagnostic Marker: Commercially Available ELISA and Comparison to qRT-PCR and Serological Diagnostic Assays Currently Used by the State of Florida". J Trop Med. 2017;2017:2046864 Authors: Ambrose JH, Sekaran SD, Azizan A Abstract [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2017/8072491.]. PMID: 29209371 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - December 8, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

The Burden and Trend of Blood-Borne Pathogens among Asymptomatic Adult Population in Akwatia: A Retrospective Study at the St. Dominic Hospital, Ghana.
Conclusion: Asymptomatic blood-borne pathogen burden was high among the adult population in Akwatia. Gender variations in HBV, HCV, and Syphilis infections in the cumulative four-year burden were observed. Awareness needs to be created, especially in the older generation. PMID: 29181037 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - November 29, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiases and Schistosomiasis in Preschool Age Children in Mwea Division, Kirinyaga South District, Kirinyaga County, and Their Potential Effect on Physical Growth.
Authors: Sakari SSW, Mbugua AK, Mkoji GM Abstract Intestinal parasitic infections can significantly contribute to the burden of disease, may cause nutritional and energetic stress, and negatively impact the quality of life in low income countries of the world. This cross-sectional study done in Mwea irrigation scheme, in Kirinyaga, central Kenya, assessed the public health significance of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH), schistosomiasis, and other intestinal parasitic infections, among 361 preschool age children (PSAC) through fecal examination, by measuring anthropometric indices, and through their parents/gu...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - November 16, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Naturally Acquired Antibody Responses to a Synthetic Malaria Antigen AS202.11.
Conclusion: We report a high degree of recognition of AS202.11 by IgG elicited by field P. falciparum strains, suggesting its close similarity to native P. falciparum antigens and possible suitability of the peptide as a future malaria vaccine candidate. PMID: 29138641 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - November 16, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Observation of Blood Donor-Recipient Malaria Parasitaemia Patterns in a Malaria Endemic Region.
Conclusion: In conclusion, the incidence of posttransfusion malaria parasitaemia appears low under the prevailing circumstances. PMID: 29138642 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - November 16, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Discovery of Antimalarial Drugs from Streptomycetes Metabolites Using a Metabolomic Approach.
Authors: Ahmad SJ, Abdul Rahim MBH, Baharum SN, Baba MS, Zin NM Abstract Natural products continue to play an important role as a source of biologically active substances for the development of new drug. Streptomyces, Gram-positive bacteria which are widely distributed in nature, are one of the most popular sources of natural antibiotics. Recently, by using a bioassay-guided fractionation, an antimalarial compound, Gancidin-W, has been discovered from these bacteria. However, this classical method in identifying potentially novel bioactive compounds from the natural products requires considerable effort and is a ti...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - November 12, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Liver Fibrosis and Hepatitis B Coinfection among ART Na ïve HIV-Infected Patients at a Tertiary Level Hospital in Northwestern Tanzania: A Cross-Sectional Study.
CONCLUSION: A remarkable number of HIV-infected patients present with liver fibrosis, predominantly those with hepatitis B infection. PMID: 28828009 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - August 24, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Predictors for Mortality among Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in Tanzania.
CONCLUSIONS: Cough was the commonest finding among these MDRTB patients, with 179 (92.75%) of them presenting with cough, followed by chest X-ray consolidation in 156 patients (80.83%) and history of previous TB treatment in 151 patients (78.24%). Cigarette smoking, HIV positivity, and low CD4 counts were significantly associated with MDRTB mortality, p values of 0.034, 0.044, and 0.048, respectively. Fever on the other hand was at the borderline with p value of 0.059. We conclude that cigarette smoking and HIV status are significant risk factors for mortality among MDRTB patients. HIV screening should continually be empha...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - August 18, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Dengue Virus NS1 Protein as a Diagnostic Marker: Commercially Available ELISA and Comparison to qRT-PCR and Serological Diagnostic Assays Currently Used by the State of Florida.
CONCLUSIONS: The NS1 ELISA performed as expected in known DENV qRT-PCR+ samples; however negative NS1 results for qRT-PCR+ and IgG+ sera seemingly reduced the usefulness of the NS1 ELISA for nonprimary cases. We therefore conclude that diagnosis obtained via DENV NS1 ELISA deserves further investigation. PMID: 28740517 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - July 27, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Interrelationship between Climatic, Ecologic, Social, and Cultural Determinants Affecting Dengue Emergence and Transmission in Puerto Rico and Their Implications for Zika Response.
CONCLUSION: Despite the public health burden of dengue limited investments have been made in research and surveillance. Future research is needed to develop models that integrate the multivariate effects of climatic, ecological, social, and cultural factors, which for Puerto Rico have mostly been examined independently. Such models have the potential to inform response to dengue, Zika, and other arboviruses. PMID: 28717366 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - July 21, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Delayed Sputum Conversion among Patients Treated for Smear Positive PTB in Northwestern Rural Tanzania: A Retrospective Cohort Study.
CONCLUSIONS: Delayed sputum conversion is prevalent in this study. These patients can potentially fail on treatment, develop drug resistance, and continue spreading TB. Strategies to reduce the rate of delayed sputum conversion could also reduce these potential unfavorable outcomes. PMID: 28694828 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - July 12, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Urinalysis and Clinical Correlations in Patients with P. vivax or P. falciparum Malaria from Colombia.
CONCLUSIONS: The most frequent alterations in the urinalysis were bilirubinuria, proteinuria, urobilinuria, and increased specific gravity, related to thrombocytopenia and liver, kidney, and neurological alterations. PMID: 28630631 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - June 22, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Antiviral Activity of Fridericia formosa (Bureau) L. G. Lohmann (Bignoniaceae) Extracts and Constituents.
Authors: Brandão GC, Kroon EG, Souza Filho JD, Oliveira AB Abstract A phytochemical study of Fridericia formosa (Bignoniaceae) ethanol extracts of leaves, stems, and fruits was guided by in vitro assays against vaccinia virus Western Reserve (VACV-WR), human herpes virus 1 (HSV-1), murine encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), and dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) by the MTT method. All the ethanol extracts were active against DENV-2, HSV-1, and VACV-WR with best results for the fruits extract against DENV-2 (SI> 38.2). For VACV-WR and HSV-1, EC50 values> 200 μg mL(-1) were determined, while no inhibi...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - June 22, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Distribution of Parasites Detected in Stool Samples of Patients in Le Dantec University Hospital of Dakar, Senegal, from 2011 to 2015.
This study shows increasing prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections over the years. So health education should be promoted in addition to the already begun mass treatment program. This would help to limit or even halt the spread of these diseases. PMID: 28588624 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - June 8, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Analysing the Influence of Health Insurance Status on Peoples' Health Seeking Behaviour in Rural Ghana.
Authors: Osei Asibey B, Agyemang S Abstract This paper examines the influence of health insurance status on healthcare use in rural Ghana using 286 sampled respondents from four rural communities in the Bekwai Municipality. Data were obtained using structured interview and Pearson's Chi square and bivariate regressions were used to analyse data. The results show low healthcare utilization among study participants, with most respondents having irregular use (43.5%) or rare use (43.3%). Respondents with health insurance utilized healthcare more than those without health insurance, the results being statistically sign...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - June 2, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Submicroscopic and Asymptomatic Congenital Infection by Plasmodium vivax or P. falciparum in Colombia: 37 Cases with Placental Histopathology and Cytokine Profile in Maternal and Placental Blood.
Conclusions. A total of 137 parturient women were studied. All cases of CPI were submicroscopic (TBS negative and qPCR positive) and asymptomatic infections. If the definition of CPI considers only detection of parasites in umbilical cord blood, regardless of what was found in peripheral or placental blood, the frequency of CPI was 27%. However, if that definition is stricter and includes simultaneous detection of parasites in maternal or placental blood with the same species, the frequency of CPI in this study was 13%. PMID: 28458694 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - May 3, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Epidemiological Characteristics of Dengue Disease in Latin America and in the Caribbean: A Systematic Review of the Literature.
Authors: Torres JR, Orduna TA, Piña-Pozas M, Vázquez-Vega D, Sarti E Abstract Dengue, an important mosquito-borne virus transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti, is a major public health issue in Latin America and the Caribbean. National epidemiological surveillance systems, usually based on passive detection of symptomatic cases, while underestimating the true burden of dengue disease, can provide valuable insight into disease trends and excess reporting and potential outbreaks. We carried out a systematic review of the literature to characterize the recent epidemiology of dengue disease in Latin America ...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 12, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

A Thermostabilized, One-Step PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae.
Authors: Khazani NA, Noor NZ, Yean Yean C, Hasan H, Suraiya S, Mohamad S Abstract Klebsiella pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are two common pathogens associated with respiratory tract infections. The identification of these pathogens using conventional molecular diagnostic tests requires trained personnel, cold-chain transportation, and storage-dependance, which does not render them user-friendly. The aim of this study was to develop a thermostabilized, cold-chain-free, one-step multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection of K. pneumoniae and H. influenzae. The multiplex PCR assay was designed to amplify the php...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - April 9, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Diversity of Leptospira spp. in Rats and Environment from Urban Areas of Sarawak, Malaysia.
This study was therefore conducted to detect Leptospira spp. in rats, soil, and water from urban areas of Sarawak using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. A total of 107 rats, 292 soil samples, and 324 water samples were collected from April 2014 to February 2015. Pathogenic Leptospira was present in 5.6% (6/107) of rats, 11.6% (34/292) of soil samples, and 1.9% (6/324) of water samples. Intermediate Leptospira was present in 2.7% (8/292) of soil samples and 1.9% (6/324) of water samples. Saprophytic Leptospira was present in 10.3% (11/107) of rats, 1.4% (4/292) of soil samples, and 0.3% (1/324) of water samples. ...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - March 31, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Incidence and Predictors of Antiretroviral Treatment Modification in HIV-Infected Adults: A Brazilian Historical Cohort from 2001 to 2010.
This study estimated the incidence of and time to first antiretroviral therapy (ART) modification. This longitudinal analysis comprised a sample of 236 patients from three HIV/AIDS referral centers in Belo Horizonte, Brazil-part of a major historical cohort. Inclusion criteria were as follows: having been treatment-naive patient ≥18 years old who initiated ART between 2001 and 2005 in these three referral centers. The main endpoint was time to first ART modification. Patients were followed up for five years, covering the period 2001-2010, during which time Pearson's chi-square test was performed to compare ART modificat...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - March 31, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Nitazoxanide in Acute Rotavirus Diarrhea: A Randomized Control Trial from a Developing Country.
Conclusions. Oral nitazoxanide is effective and safe in the management of acute rotavirus diarrhea in Indian children (CTRI REF/2016/10/012507). PMID: 28331496 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - March 24, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Ending Preventable Child Deaths from Pneumonia and Diarrhoea in Afghanistan: An Analysis of Intervention Coverage Scenarios Using the Lives Saved Tool.
Conclusion. Significant reductions in child mortality can be achieved through scale-up of essential interventions to prevent and treat pneumonia and diarrhoea. Strengthened primary health care functions and multisector collaboration on child health are suggested. PMID: 28298932 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - March 18, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Parasitological Indices of Malaria Transmission in Children under Fifteen Years in Two Ecoepidemiological Zones in Southwestern Burkina Faso.
The objective of this study was to determine and compare the parasitological parameters of malaria transmission by season, area, and age in the two zones (rice and savanna) in the northwest of Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Overall, the results showed that there was no significant difference in the parasitological indices of malaria transmission within children under fifteen years between the rice site and the savannah site and whatever the season (P> 0.05). The profound environmental modifications that occurred in the rice zone would have led to changes in vector behavior and consequently to changes in the epidemiologic...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - March 15, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Clinical Profile and Visual Outcome of Ocular Bartonellosis in Malaysia.
Conclusion. Ocular bartonellosis tends to present with neuroretinitis. Azithromycin is a viable option for treatment. Systemic corticosteroids may be considered in those with poor visual acuity on presentation. PMID: 28265290 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - March 9, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Assessment of Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence among Children Attending Care at a Tertiary Hospital in Southeastern Nigeria.
Conclusion. The adherence level in this study was good. Stigma was an important reason given by patient/caregivers for nonadherence. There is need for concerted effort in addressing this barrier to improve adherence and prevent the emergence of drug resistance and treatment failure. PMID: 28261274 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - March 8, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Use of Molecular Methods for the Rapid Mass Detection of Schistosoma mansoni (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) in Biomphalaria spp. (Gastropoda: Planorbidae).
Authors: Caldeira RL, Jannotti-Passos LK, Dos Santos Carvalho O Abstract The low stringency-polymerase chain reaction (LS-PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays were used to detect the presence of S. mansoni DNA in (1) Brazilian intermediate hosts (Biomphalaria glabrata, B. straminea, and B. tenagophila) with patent S. mansoni infections, (2) B. glabrata snails with prepatent S. mansoni infections, (3) various mixtures of infected and noninfected snails; and (4) snails infected with other trematode species. The assays showed high sensitivity and specificity and could detect S. mansoni DNA whe...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - March 3, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Development and Validation of a PCR-ELISA for the Diagnosis of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum.
Authors: Medeiros FA, Gomes LI, Oliveira E, de Souza CS, Mourão MV, Cota GF, Marques LH, Carneiro M, Rabello A Abstract A kDNA PCR enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (kDNA PCR-ELISA) for the diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) was developed. The detection limit of the reaction, precision measurements, and cut-off of the kDNA PCR-ELISA were defined in a proof-of-concept phase. A reference strain of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and a bank of 14 peripheral blood samples from immunocompetent patients with VL were characterized using techniques considered gold standards, and 11 blood samples obtain...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - February 8, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Potential Distribution of Chagas Disease Vectors (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in Colombia, Based on Ecological Niche Modeling.
In this study, we estimated the geographic distribution of triatomine species in Colombia and identified the relationship between landscape structure and climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 2451 records of 4 triatomine species (Panstrongylus geniculatus, Rhodnius pallescens, R. prolixus, and Triatoma maculata) were analyzed. The variables that provided more information to explain the ecologic niche of these vectors were related to precipitation, altitude, and temperature. We found that the species with the broadest potential geographic distribution were P. geniculatus, R. pallescens, and R. prolixus. ...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - January 25, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity of Norovirus in Young Children in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
This study investigated the genetic diversity of noroviruses identified from a previous surveillance study conducted at the National Pediatric Hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, from 2004 to 2006. In the previous study, 926 stool samples were collected from children aged 3-60 months with acute diarrhea (cases) and without diarrhea (controls) with reported 6.7% of cases and 3.2% of controls being positive for norovirus. The initial norovirus diagnostic assay was performed with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT PCR) which also distinguished between genogroups I and II (GI and GII). Norovi...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - January 25, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Associated Factors to Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia spp. in Dogs of Quintana Roo, Mexico.
In conclusion, seroprevalence of Ehrlichia spp. was high in the community of Xcalak and its associated factors were age, tick infestation, and thrombocytopenia. PMID: 28096818 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - January 19, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Urinary Schistosomiasis among Children in Murbai and Surbai Communities of Ardo-Kola Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria.
Conclusion. There is an urgent need to undertake a large scale deworming control programme using praziquantel in the area. PMID: 28096819 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - January 19, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Antimalarial Potential of Carica papaya and Vernonia amygdalina in Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei.
Authors: Okpe O, Habila N, Ikwebe J, Upev VA, Okoduwa SI, Isaac OT Abstract The study determined if administration of Vernonia amygdalina and Carica papaya plants provides synergistic effects in ameliorating plasmodium infection in mice. Thirty mice (17.88-25.3 g) were divided into 6 groups of 5 mice each. Group 1 was normal control, while groups 2-6 were intraperitoneally inoculated 2.5 × 10(7)Plasmodium berghei parasitized red blood cell, followed by daily administration of 350 mg/kg aqueous leaf extracts after establishment of infection. Group 2 was disease control, while group 6 was treated ...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - January 5, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Hydroelectric System Affected Area from Northern Amazonian Brazil: Further Insights into the Effects of Environmental Changes on Vector Ecology.
Authors: Furtado NV, Galardo AK, Galardo CD, Firmino VC, Vasconcelos Dos Santos T Abstract During 2012-2015, an entomological survey was conducted as part of a phlebotomine (Diptera: Psychodidae) monitoring program in an area influenced by the Santo Antônio do Jari hydroelectric system (Amapá State, Brazil). The purpose was to study aspects of Amazon/Guianan American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) vectors subjected to stresses by anthropogenic environmental changes. For sampling, CDC light traps were positioned 0.5, 1, and 20 m above ground at five capture locations along the Jari River Basin. Fl...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - January 5, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Current Epidemiological Assessment of Bancroftian Filariasis in Tanga Region, Northeastern Tanzania.
Conclusion. Our findings demonstrate a considerable reduction in filarial infection. However, there is clear evidence of ongoing transmission despite the 8 rounds of MDA. It is unlikely that the annual MDA would interrupt filarial transmission; therefore, additional strategies are needed to accelerate lymphatic filariasis control and elimination. PMID: 28050171 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - January 5, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Lipid Profile of Children with Malaria by Plasmodium vivax.
Conclusion. There are significant lipid abnormalities in children with low level of P. vivax infection and mild signs and symptoms of the disease, which are not associated with parasitaemia and previous episodes of disease. PMID: 28050172 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - January 5, 2017 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Clinical Profiles of Dengue Infection during an Outbreak in Northern India.
Conclusion. Knowledge of atypical presentations is a must for early diagnosis and timely intervention to prevent life-threatening complications. PMID: 28025597 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - December 29, 2016 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Antibacterial Action of Curcumin against Staphylococcus aureus: A Brief Review.
Authors: Teow SY, Liew K, Ali SA, Khoo AS, Peh SC Abstract Curcumin, the major constituent of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae family) or turmeric, commonly used for cooking in Asian cuisine, is known to possess a broad range of pharmacological properties at relatively nontoxic doses. Curcumin is found to be effective against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). As demonstrated by in vitro experiment, curcumin exerts even more potent effects when used in combination with various other antibacterial agents. Hence, curcumin which is a natural product derived from plant is believed to have profound medicinal benefits and...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - December 15, 2016 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research

Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in Wild Rodents of Southwestern Iran Using 18s rRNA Gene Nested-PCR-RFLP and Sequencing Techniques.
Conclusions. Our study showed rodents could be potential reservoir for C. parvum. So an integrated program for control and combat with them should be adopted and continued. PMID: 27956905 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine)
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - December 15, 2016 Category: Tropical Medicine Tags: J Trop Med Source Type: research