Impact of a borderless sample transport network for scaling up viral load monitoring: results of a geospatial optimization model for Zambia.
CONCLUSIONS: An efficient STN that optimizes sample transport on the basis of geography and test volume, rather than political boundaries, can cut the cost of sample transport by more than half, providing a cost savings opportunity for countries that face significant resource constraints. PMID: 30515997 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - December 6, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Incorporating digital anorectal examinations for anal cancer screening into routine HIV care for men who have sex with men living with HIV: a prospective cohort study.
CONCLUSION: Incorporation of an early anal cancer detection programme into routine HIV clinical care for MSM living with HIV showed high patient acceptability, uncommon adverse outcomes and specialist referral patterns similar to other cancer screening programmes. PMID: 30516346 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - December 6, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

The importance of serostatus awareness in arresting the spread of HIV.
Authors: Mayer KH, Kippax S, Sohn AH, Bras M PMID: 30499224 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - December 2, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

The importance of local epidemic conditions in monitoring progress towards HIV epidemic control in Kenya: a modelling study.
CONCLUSIONS: Target setting should be appropriate for the local epidemic and what can feasibly be achieved. There is no one universally reliable indicator to predict future HIV incidence across settings. Thus, the signature of epidemic control must contain indications of success across a wide range of interventions and outcomes. PMID: 30485720 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - November 30, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Retention in clinic versus retention in care during the first year of HIV care in Nairobi, Kenya: a prospective cohort study.
The objectives of this study were to quantify retention in clinic versus retention in care and determine risk factors associated with attrition from care in low-income settings in Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: Between April 2013 and June 2015, adults testing positive for HIV were recruited at two comprehensive care clinics in informal urban settlements. Participants were followed from the time of a positive HIV test for up to 14 months. Participants who did not return to the clinic for their 12-month appointment between 10 and 14 months after their baseline visit were traced by telephone or community outreach to d...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - November 30, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Neonatal and infant diagnostic HIV-PCR uptake and associations during three sequential policy periods in Cape Town, South Africa: a longitudinal analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Over all policy periods, EID guidelines were incompletely implemented across all levels of care but especially in primary care. Birth HIV-PCR reduced return for follow-up testing, such follow-up testing is critical for the effectiveness of the programme. PMID: 30480373 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - November 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Clinical exigencies, psychosocial realities: negotiating HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis beyond the cascade among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men in Canada.
CONCLUSIONS: An expanded PrEP cascade should consider alternate trajectories of use based on dynamic relationships and behavioural risks that may call for seasonal or intermittent use; systemic barriers in access to and sustaining PrEP; and multiple end goals including PrEP maintenance and discontinuation. Incorporating GBM's lived experiences, evolving preferences, and psychosocial and community-level challenges into PrEP implementation models, rather than a circumscribed biomedical approach, may more effectively support HIV prevention and GBM's broader sexual and psychological health. PMID: 30474351 [PubMed - in proc...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - November 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Previous incarceration impacts access to hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment among HIV-HCV co-infected patients in Canada.
Authors: Kronfli N, Nitulescu R, Cox J, Moodie EE, Wong A, Cooper C, Gill J, Walmsley S, Martel-Laferrière V, Hull MW, Klein MB, Canadian Co-Infection Cohort Study Abstract INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is far higher in prison settings than in the general population; thus, micro-elimination strategies must target people in prison to eliminate HCV. We aimed to examine incarceration patterns and determine whether incarceration impacts HCV treatment uptake among Canadian HIV-HCV co-infected individuals in the direct-acting antiviral (DAA) era. METHODS: The Canadian Co-Infection Coh...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - November 23, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

90-90-90 by 2020? Estimation and projection of the adult HIV epidemic and ART programme in Zimbabwe - 2017 to 2020.
CONCLUSIONS: Our model was able to produce outputs that are simultaneously consistent with an array of observed data and predicted that while the 90-90-90 targets are within reach in Zimbabwe, increased efforts are required in diagnosing men in particular. Calculation of the HIV transition metrics suggest increased efforts are needed to bring the HIV epidemic under control. PMID: 30465689 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - November 23, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Retention in care among clinically stable antiretroviral therapy patients following a six-monthly clinical consultation schedule: findings from a cohort study in rural Malawi.
CONCLUSION: After five years, retention among patients attending SMCC was high, especially among women and older patients, and its scale-up could facilitate universal access to ART. PMID: 30450699 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - November 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Predictive factors associated with liver fibrosis and steatosis by transient elastography in patients with HIV mono-infection under long-term combined antiretroviral therapy.
Authors: Perazzo H, Cardoso SW, Yanavich C, Nunes EP, Morata M, Gorni N, da Silva PS, Cardoso C, Almeida C, Luz P, Veloso VG, Grinsztejn B Abstract INTRODUCTION: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by the presence of hepatic steatosis and can be associated with fibrosis progression, development of cirrhosis and liver-related complications. Data on the prevalence of liver fibrosis and steatosis in HIV patients remain contradictory in resource-limited settings. We aimed to describe the prevalence and factors associated with liver fibrosis and steatosis in patients with HIV mono-infection under long-ter...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - November 6, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Repeated rectal application of a hyperosmolar lubricant is associated with microbiota shifts but does not affect PrEP drug concentrations: results from a randomized trial in men who have sex with men.
CONCLUSIONS: Repeated rectal application of a hyperosmolar lubricant does not affect mucosal PrEP drug concentrations but is associated with changes in the rectal microbiome. PMID: 30378274 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - November 2, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Development of sensitive ddPCR assays to reliably quantify the proviral DNA reservoir in all common circulating HIV subtypes and recombinant forms.
CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate the need for a careful validation of proviral reservoir quantification assays prior to investigations into non-B subtype reservoirs. The LTR and JO assays can sensitively and reliably quantify HIV DNA in a panel that represents the worldwide most prevalent subtypes and CRFs (A, B, C, D, AE, F, G and AG), justifying their application in future trials aimed at global HIV cure. PMID: 30375818 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - October 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Internalized HIV stigma, ART initiation and HIV-1 RNA suppression in South Africa: exploring avoidant coping as a longitudinal mediator.
CONCLUSIONS: Internalized stigma experienced soon after HIV diagnosis predicted lower likelihood of ART initiation and HIV-1 RNA suppression over the first year following HIV diagnosis. Avoidant coping played a role in these associations, suggesting that PLWH who internalize stigma engage in greater avoidant coping, which in turn worsens medication- and health-related outcomes. Interventions are needed to address internalized stigma and avoidant coping soon after HIV diagnosis to enhance treatment efforts during the first year after HIV diagnosis. PMID: 30362662 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - October 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

HIV Glasgow 2018, 28-31 October 2018, Glasgow, UK.
Authors: PMID: 30362663 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - October 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Bioinformatic data processing pipelines in support of next-generation sequencing-based HIV drug resistance testing: the Winnipeg Consensus.
CONCLUSIONS: While NGS is being adopted more broadly in HIVDR testing laboratories, data processing is often a bottleneck hindering its generalized application. The proposed standardization of NGS read QC/QA, read alignment and reference mapping, variant calling and QC, HIVDR reporting and relevant data management strategies in this "Winnipeg Consensus" may serve as a starting guideline for NGS HIVDR data processing that informs the refinement of existing pipelines and those yet to be developed. Moreover, the bioinformatic strategies presented here may apply more broadly to NGS data analysis of microbes harbourin...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - October 24, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Successes and challenges in optimizing the viral load cascade to improve antiretroviral therapy adherence and rationalize second-line switches in Swaziland.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients on ART with high VLs were more likely to re-suppress if they received EAC. Failure to re-suppress after counselling was predictive of genotypically confirmed resistance patterns requiring treatment switching. Delays in switching were significant despite the ability of the WHO algorithm to predict treatment failure. Despite significant progress in recent years, enhanced focus on quality care along the VL cascade in resource-limited settings is crucial. PMID: 30350392 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - October 24, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Regional differences between people who inject drugs in an HIV prevention trial integrating treatment and prevention (HPTN 074): a baseline analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: While regional differences in risk structure exist, PWID particularly in Ukraine need immediate attention for risk reduction strategies. Substantial regional differences in risk structure will require flexible, tailored treatment as prevention interventions for distinct PWID populations. PMID: 30350406 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - October 24, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Stakeholder engagement to inform HIV clinical trials: a systematic review of the evidence.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identify important directions for future stakeholder engagement research and suggestions for policy. Most notably, we found that stakeholder engagement was more frequently conducted to inform early stages of HIV clinical trials compared to later stages. In order to meet recommendations established in the GPP guidelines, greater stakeholder engagement across all clinical trial stages is needed. PMID: 30334358 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - October 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Village community mobilization is associated with reduced HIV incidence in young South African women participating in the HPTN 068 study cohort.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that having strong community social resources will reduce AGYW's risk of HIV acquisition. Work to mobilize communities, focusing on building social cohesion, shared concerns, critical consciousness, and effective and accountable leadership, can fortify prevention programming for AGYW. PMID: 30334377 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - October 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Qualitative research on community experiences in large HIV research trials: what have we learned?
CONCLUSIONS: We advocate for the integration of qualitative with clinical and survey research methods in pragmatic clinical and community-level trials and implementation studies, and for increasing visibility of qualitative and mixed methods research in medical journals. Qualitative research from trials ideally should be published along with clinical outcome data, either integrated into the "main" trial papers or published concurrently in the same journal issue. Integration of qualitative research within trials can help not only to understand the why behind success or failure of interventions in different context...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - October 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Building effective multilevel HIV prevention partnerships with Black men who have sex with men: experience from HPTN 073, a pre-exposure prophylaxis study in three US cities.
Authors: Wheeler DP, Lucas J, Wilton L, Nelson LE, Hucks-Ortiz C, Watson CC, Hutchinson C, Mayer KH, Kuo I, Magnus M, Beauchamp G, Shoptaw S, Emel LM, Chen YQ, Hightow-Weidman L, Fields SD PMID: 30334600 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - October 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Using theory of change frameworks to develop evaluation strategies for research engagement: results of a pre-pilot study.
CONCLUSIONS: Brief, targeted surveys of trial sites to characterize use of broad strategies, specific practices and some outcomes are a feasible option for evaluating good participatory practice. Additional testing is warranted to assess and enhance validity, reliability and predictive value of indicators. Options for collecting outcome measures through additional objective means should be explored. PMID: 30334601 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - October 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Strengthening stakeholder engagement through ethics review in biomedical HIV prevention trials: opportunities and complexities.
CONCLUSIONS: As evidence-informed engagement strategies emerge, these should inform the ethics submission and review process. Both parties in the review process should strive to avoid a superficial, check-list type approach that caricatures what should be a thorough, nuanced ethics review of a rich, responsive engagement process. PMID: 30334604 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - October 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

It is not just about "the trial": the critical role of effective engagement and participatory practices for moving the HIV research field forward.
It is not just about "the trial": the critical role of effective engagement and participatory practices for moving the HIV research field forward. J Int AIDS Soc. 2018 Oct;21 Suppl 7:e25179 Authors: MacQueen KM, Auerbach JD PMID: 30334608 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - October 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Power to participants: a call for person-centred HIV prevention services and research.
CONCLUSIONS: HIV prevention is situated at the intersection of unprecedented opportunity and crisis. Person-centred approaches to HIV prevention and research shift power dynamics, and have the potential to ensure a more sustainable response with each individual actively participating in their own care and meaningfully contributing to the production of knowledge on HIV prevention. This approach taps into the resourcefulness, resilience and knowledge of the person and their communities, to strengthen research and programmes, making them more relevant, appropriate and effective. PMID: 30334609 [PubMed - in process] (Sourc...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - October 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Collateral benefits: how the practical application of Good Participatory Practice can strengthen HIV research in sub-Saharan Africa.
CONCLUSIONS: Thanks to a growing global network of GPP practitioners and a burgeoning GPP Community of Practice, there has been substantive progress in making GPP an integral component of clinical HIV prevention research. The Wits RHI experience highlights the possibilities and the challenges to translating the GPP principles into concrete practices within specific clinical trials and across a research institute. Realizing the full potential of GPP, including direct and indirect - 'collateral benefits' will require the collective buy-in and support from sponsors, implementers and community stakeholders across the research ...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - October 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

HIV, 95-95-95 and the allocative efficiency fallacy: why treating everyone makes sense from a humanitarian, clinical, economic and disease control perspective.
Authors: Granich R, Gupta S, Williams BG PMID: 30318715 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - October 17, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

"My future is bright …I won't die with the cause of AIDS": ten-year patient ART outcomes and experiences in South Africa.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the complexities of long-term chronic HIV treatment with declining all-cause mortality and increasing LTF over ten years. Barriers to long-term retention still present a significant challenge. As more people become eligible for ART in South Africa under "treatment for all," new healthcare delivery challenges will arise; interventions are needed to ensure long-term programme successes continue. PMID: 30318848 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - October 17, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

"Optima attempts to objectively and pragmatically assist countries meet their targets most efficiently and effectively".
"Optima attempts to objectively and pragmatically assist countries meet their targets most efficiently and effectively". J Int AIDS Soc. 2018 Oct;21(10):e25190 Authors: Wilson DP, Gorgens M, Wilson DJ, Optima HIV study team PMID: 30318851 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - October 17, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Older people with HIV are an essential part of the continuum of HIV care.
Authors: Siegler EL, Burchett CO, Glesby MJ PMID: 30303293 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - October 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Barriers to mental healthcare and treatment for people living with HIV in the Asia-Pacific.
Authors: Sohn AH, Ross J, Wainberg ML PMID: 30289626 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - October 7, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

STACKing the odds for adolescent survival: health service factors associated with full retention in care and adherence amongst adolescents living with HIV in South Africa.
CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies key intervention points for adolescent retention in HIV care. A basic package of clinic and community services has the potential to STACK the odds for health and survival for HIV-positive adolescents. PMID: 30240121 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 23, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Adolescent pregnancy at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation: a critical barrier to retention on ART.
CONCLUSIONS: Older adolescents experienced higher risk of LTFU compared to YA and adults. Interventions to prevent LTFU among older adolescents are critically needed, particularly for female and/or pregnant adolescents. PMID: 30225908 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Sexually transmitted infections and HIV RNA levels in blood and anogenital compartments among Thai men who have sex with men before and after antiretroviral therapy: implication for Treatment as Prevention programme.
CONCLUSIONS: STIs were extremely common among HIV-positive MSM prior to and after ART. ART effectively reduced HIV RNA in all compartments. The correlation between STIs and anogenital HIV RNA, especially prior to ART and likely until complete HIV RNA suppression from ART is achieved, points to the importance of integrating asymptomatic STIs screening into Treatment as Prevention programme for MSM. PMID: 30225927 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Retention on ART and predictors of disengagement from care in several alternative community-centred ART refill models in rural Swaziland.
Authors: Pasipamire L, Nesbitt RC, Ndlovu S, Sibanda G, Mamba S, Lukhele N, Pasipamire M, Kabore SM, Rusch B, Ciglenecki I, Kerschberger B Abstract INTRODUCTION: A broad range of community-centred care models for patients stable on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) have been proposed by the World Health Organization to better respond to patient needs and alleviate pressure on health systems caused by rapidly growing patient numbers. Where available, often a single alternative care model is offered in addition to routine clinical care. We operationalized several community-centred ART delivery care models in one public s...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

A Commitment to HIV Diagnostic Accuracy - a comment on "Towards more accurate HIV testing in sub-Saharan Africa: a multi-site evaluation of HIV RDTs and risk factors for false positives 'and' HIV misdiagnosis in sub-Saharan Africa: a performance of diagnostic algorithms at six testing sites".
A Commitment to HIV Diagnostic Accuracy - a comment on "Towards more accurate HIV testing in sub-Saharan Africa: a multi-site evaluation of HIV RDTs and risk factors for false positives 'and' HIV misdiagnosis in sub-Saharan Africa: a performance of diagnostic algorithms at six testing sites". J Int AIDS Soc. 2018 Aug;21(8):e25177 Authors: Kravitz Del Solar AS, Parekh B, Douglas MO, Edgil D, Kuritsky J, Nkengasong J Abstract As part of the global response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is committed to the provision of high-quality service...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Perspectives of South African youth in the development of an implant for HIV prevention.
CONCLUSIONS: This study offers preliminary insights into an implant for HIV prevention that provides long-lasting protection may be well received among young South Africans. Additionally, flexibility, discreetness, and biodegradability may increase acceptability of the implant. Such end-user feedback is being incorporated into current implant designs in the hope of creating an effective long-acting PrEP product that is likely to achieve high uptake and adherence in target populations. PMID: 30152004 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - August 30, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Detection of hypermethylated genes as markers for cervical screening in women living with HIV.
CONCLUSIONS: Hypermethylation analysis of ASCL1 or LHX8 in cervical scrape material of WLHIV detects all cervical carcinomas with an acceptable sensitivity and good specificity for CIN3+ , warranting further exploration of these methylation markers as a stand-alone test for cervical screening in low-resource settings. PMID: 30101434 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - August 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

FAME-04: A Phase 1 trial to assess the safety, acceptability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of film and gel formulations of tenofovir.
Authors: Bunge KE, Dezzutti CS, Hendrix CW, Marzinke MA, Spiegel HML, Moncla BJ, Schwartz JL, Meyn LA, Richardson-Harman N, Rohan LC, Hillier SL Abstract INTRODUCTION: Fast-dissolving vaginal film formulations release antiretroviral drugs directly into vaginal fluid and may be as efficient at drug delivery yet more acceptable to women than gels. In this Phase 1 vaginal film study, the safety, acceptability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of two doses of tenofovir (TFV) film and TFV 1% gel were compared to corresponding placebo formulations. METHODS: Seventy-eight healthy HIV negative women were randomize...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - August 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

HIV viral suppression and longevity among a cohort of children initiating antiretroviral therapy in Eastern Cape, South Africa.
We examined VS in a cohort of children initiating ART in routine HIV care in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. METHODS: The Pediatric Enhanced Surveillance Study enrolled HIV-infected ART eligibility children zero to twelve years at five health facilities from 2012 to 2014. All children received routine HIV care and treatment services and attended quarterly study visits for up to 24 months. Time to VS among those starting treatment was measured from ART start date to first viral load (VL) result
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - August 11, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

High HIV and active tuberculosis prevalence and increased mortality risk in adults with symptoms of TB: a systematic review and meta-analyses.
CONCLUSIONS: Adults with TB symptoms have extremely high prevalence of HIV infection, even when identified through community surveys. TB prevalence and mortality increased substantially at primary care and inpatient level respectively. Strategies to expand symptom-based TB screening combined with HIV and TB testing for all symptomatic individuals should be of the highest priority for both disease programmes in LMICs with generalized HIV epidemics. Interventions to reduce short-term mortality are urgently needed. PMID: 30063287 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - August 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

HIV knowledge trends during an era of rapid antiretroviral therapy scale-up: an analysis of 33 sub-Saharan African countries.
Authors: Chan BT, Tsai AC Abstract INTRODUCTION: Population-level improvements in knowledge about HIV may reduce the stigma attached to HIV and ensure maximal uptake of HIV prevention initiatives. The extent to which levels of HIV knowledge in the general population of sub-Saharan Africa have changed in the current era of antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up remains unknown. METHODS: Data on HIV knowledge in the general population were drawn from the 2003 to 2015 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and AIDS Indicator Surveys (AIS) of 33 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The DHS/AIS contain five questions on HI...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - August 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Oral abstracts of the 22nd International AIDS Conference, 23-27 July 2018, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Authors: PMID: 30051631 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - July 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Addressing HIV criminalization: science confronts ignorance and bias.
Authors: Mayer KH, Sohn A, Kippax S, Bras M PMID: 30044056 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - July 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Expert consensus statement on the science of HIV in the context of criminal law.
CONCLUSIONS: The application of up-to-date scientific evidence in criminal cases has the potential to limit unjust prosecutions and convictions. The authors recommend that caution be exercised when considering prosecution, and encourage governments and those working in legal and judicial systems to pay close attention to the significant advances in HIV science that have occurred over the last three decades to ensure current scientific knowledge informs application of the law in cases related to HIV. PMID: 30044059 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - July 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Using safe, affordable and accessible non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce the number of HIV target cells in the blood and at the female genital tract.
CONCLUSION: Together, these data indicate that taking low-dose ASA daily was associated with significant reduction in HIV target cells at the FGT. This study provides proof-of-concept for a novel HIV-prevention approach that reducing inflammation using safe, affordable and globally accessible non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents is associated with significant reduction in the proportion of HIV-target cells at the FGT. PMID: 30047573 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - July 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Can a national government implement a violence prevention and response strategy for key populations in a criminalized setting? A case study from Kenya.
We describe a violence prevention and response strategy led by the national KP programme in Kenya and examine trends in reports of and responses to violence (provision of support to an individual who reports violence within 24 hours of receiving the report). METHODS: Quarterly programme monitoring data on the number of reports of violence and the number of responses to violence from 81 implementing partners between October 2013 and September 2017 were aggregated annually and analysed using simple trend analysis. Reports of violence relative to KP members reached, expressed as a percentage, and the percentage of re...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - July 25, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Blue-Ribbon Boys: factors associated with PrEP use, ART use and undetectable viral load among gay app users across six regions of the world.
CONCLUSIONS: Study findings underscore the importance of STI testing and treatment as well as information about HIV transmissibility for encouraging PrEP and ART use. Our findings also reveal age disparities, which can undermine incidence reduction among gay men. Gay social networking apps can be effectively used for rapid data collection and sexual health promotion with men who have sex with men. STI testing and treatment programmes offer important opportunities for encouraging PrEP and ART use. Information about HIV transmissibility with consistent ART use should be incorporated into prevention messaging tailored to vari...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - July 25, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Think global, act local: the experience of Global Fund and PEPFAR joint cascade assessments to harmonize and strengthen key population HIV programmes in eight countries.
CONCLUSIONS: The assessment teams and country stakeholders viewed the assessments as a best practice for coordinating donor-funded programmes that may overlap or inefficiently serve KPs. Global and national HIV programmes need investments of time, resources, and commitment from stakeholders to continually course-correct to align and improve programmes for sustained impact. The type of continued partnership demonstrated by the joint assessments is key to address HIV among KPs globally. PMID: 30033537 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - July 25, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research