HIV testing services in healthcare facilities in South Africa: a missed opportunity.
Authors: Mabuto T, Hansoti B, Kerrigan D, Mshweshwe-Pakela N, Kubeka G, Charalambous S, Hoffmann C Abstract INTRODUCTION: South Africa (SA) has the world's highest burden of HIV infection (approximately 7.2 million), yet it is estimated that 23.5% women and 31.5% of men are unaware that they are living with HIV. The 2015 national South African HIV testing guidelines mandate the universal offer of HIV testing services (HTS) in all healthcare facilities. METHODS: A multi-prong approach was used from January 2017 to June 2017 to evaluate the current implementation of HTS in ten facilities in the Ekurhuleni Di...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - October 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Lack of health insurance is associated with delays in PrEP initiation among young black men who have sex with men in Atlanta, US: a longitudinal cohort study.
DISCUSSION: The median delay between receipt of a PrEP prescription and taking a first dose was 12 days (IQR 3 to 32). Compared to uninsured participants, the adjusted hazard ratio for PrEP initiation for those with insurance was 2.72 (95% CI 1.82 to 4.06). The adjusted median time to initiation for insured participants was 5 days versus 21 days for those without insurance (p 
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - October 10, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Retention in care and factors critical for effectively implementing antiretroviral adherence clubs in a rural district in South Africa.
CONCLUSIONS: This study showed good clinical outcomes, positive patient experiences and healthcare worker perceptions of the adherence club model. Factors associated with successful adherence club implementation, highlighted in this study, can be used to guide implementers in the scale-up of adherence club services across varied high-burden settings. PMID: 31588668 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - October 8, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Factors associated with the informal use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in Germany: a cross-sectional study.
CONCLUSIONS: Informal PrEP use was associated with a higher risk of not getting tested before and during PrEP use, which could lead to HIV infections resistant to tenofovir and emtricitabine if people with undiagnosed HIV use PrEP. Health insurance plans that cover PrEP and the accompanying routine tests could ensure adequate medical supervision of PrEP users and reduce barriers to PrEP use. Our findings strongly support the implementation of PrEP programmes in countries with similar patterns of informal PrEP use. PMID: 31583823 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - October 5, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Ageing with and without HIV: will advanced age bring equity or greater disparity?
Authors: Justice AC, Tate JP PMID: 31571414 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - October 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

High risk and low uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV acquisition in a national online sample of transgender men who have sex with men in the United States.
Authors: Reisner SL, Moore CS, Asquith A, Pardee DJ, Sarvet A, Mayer G, Mayer KH Abstract INTRODUCTION: Trans masculine people who have sex with cisgender ("cis") men ("trans MSM") may be at-risk for HIV infection when they have cis MSM partners or share needles for hormone or recreational drug injection. Limited data are available characterizing indications and uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in trans MSM. The aim of this study was to assess PrEP indication and uptake as a means of primary HIV prevention for adult trans MSM in the U.S. METHODS: Between November and December 2017, ...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Liver cirrhosis in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals is related to NK cell dysfunction and exhaustion, but not to an impaired NK cell modulation by CD4+ T-cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of NK and CD4+ T-cells in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals with advanced liver fibrosis have been previously described. Here, we show that advanced liver fibrosis in coinfected individuals is associated to a defective function of NK cells and an increased expression of the exhaustion/senescence marker PD-1. This NK signature could not be attributed to changes in the ability of CD4+ T-cells to modulate NK cell function. PMID: 31536177 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

The impact, cost and cost-effectiveness of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis in sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping review of modelling contributions and way forward.
CONCLUSIONS: Updated modelling which more appropriately captures PrEP programme delivery, uses current intervention scenarios, and is parameterized with data from demonstration and implementation projects is needed in support of more conclusive findings and actionable recommendations for programmes and policy. Future analyses should address these issues, aligning with countries to support the needs of programme planners and decision makers for models to more directly inform programme planning and policy. PMID: 31538407 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Inclusion of pregnant women in antiretroviral drug research: what is needed to move forwards?
CONCLUSIONS: A formalized step-wise approach to including pregnant women in antiretroviral drug research should become the new norm. Systematic implementation of this approach would yield more timely and higher quality pregnancy dosing, safety and efficacy data. Through more vigorous action, regulatory bodies could responsibly overcome reluctance to include pregnant women in drug trials. Funders, researchers and programme implementers need to be galvanized to progressively include pregnant women in research - the use of newer, more effective drugs in women is at stake (349). PMID: 31529598 [PubMed - in process] (Source...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Anti-retroviral therapy scale-up and its impact on sex-stratified tuberculosis notification trends in Uganda.
CONCLUSIONS: Although ART scale-up was temporally associated with a decline in TB notification rates, the achieved rates of decline are below those required to achieve the End TB Targets. Additional investments in tuberculosis control should include efforts to promote earlier care seeking and ART initiation among HIV-positive persons. PMID: 31529618 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 20, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Monitoring viral load for the last mile: what will it cost?
CONCLUSIONS: Providing sample transport services to the most remote clinics in low- and middle-income countries is likely to be cost-prohibitive. Other strategies are needed to reduce the cost and increase the feasibility of making viral load monitoring available to the last 10% of patients. The cost of alternative methods, such as optimal point-of-care viral load equipment placement and usage, dried blood/plasma spot specimen utilization, or use of drones in geographically remote facilities, should be evaluated. PMID: 31515967 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Who is seeking antiretroviral treatment for HIV now? Characteristics of patients presenting in Kenya and South Africa in 2017-2018.
We describe demographic, socioeconomic and clinical characteristics of patients randomized to the same-day initiation arm for both studies. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A total of 240 and 296 participants were enrolled in Kenya and South Africa. The majority were female (59% and 64% respectively), with a median age of 35 years. In both countries, most subjects were newly diagnosed with HIV on the day of enrolment (62%, 55%), believed they already had adequate knowledge to begin ART (78%, 68%), and preferred to start ART immediately (same-day) (98% in both countries). About 40% of all patients had at least one symptom r...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 14, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Diagnosis and clinical outcomes of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in antiretroviral therapy programmes in low- and middle-income countries: a multicohort study.
CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of EPTB and PTB at ART programmes in LMIC was mainly based on clinical criteria. Greater availability and usage of TB diagnostic tests would improve the diagnosis and clinical outcomes of both EPTB and PTB. PMID: 31507083 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Integrated provision of topical pre-exposure prophylaxis in routine family planning services in South Africa: a non-inferiority randomized controlled trial.
CONCLUSIONS: Provision of topical PrEP as part of an integrated FP service achieved higher adherence, and was as feasible, acceptable and effective in preventing HIV as provision through a research setting. This provides useful evidence for scale-up of oral PrEP in urban and rural high burden communities. PMID: 31507088 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 13, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

HIV viral suppression among pregnant and breastfeeding women in routine care in the Kinshasa province: a baseline evaluation of participants in CQI-PMTCT study.
Authors: Yotebieng M, Mpody C, Ravelomanana NL, Tabala M, Malongo F, Kawende B, Ntangu P, Behets F, Okitolonda E, CQI-PMTCT study team Abstract INTRODUCTION: Published data on viral suppression among pregnant and breastfeeding women in routine care settings are scarce. Here, we report provincial estimates of undetectable and suppressed viral load among pregnant or breastfeeding women in HIV care in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and associated risk factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted as part of a baseline assessment for the CQI-PMTCT study: an ongoing cluster randomized tria...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Perinatal outcomes following maternal pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use during pregnancy: results from a large PrEP implementation program in Kenya.
CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy outcomes and early infant growth did not differ by PrEP exposure. PMID: 31498563 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

The cascade of care for children and adolescents with HIV in the UK and Ireland, 2010 to 2016.
Authors: Chappell E, Lyall H, Riordan A, Thorne C, Foster C, Butler K, Prime K, Bamford A, Peters H, Judd A, Collins IJ, Collaborative HIV Paediatric Study Steering Committee Abstract INTRODUCTION: The UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets for the cascade of care are widely used to monitor the success of HIV care programmes but there are few studies in children. We assessed the cascade for children and adolescents living with HIV in the national Collaborative HIV Paediatric Study (CHIPS) in the UK and Ireland. METHODS: Utilizing longitudinal data from CHIPS we compared the cascade of care for 2010, 2013 and 2016. Among child...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 11, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Predominance of the heterozygous CCR5 delta-24 deletion in African individuals resistant to HIV infection might be related to a defect in CCR5 addressing at the cell surface.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that hCCR5Δ24 is not expressed at the cell surface. This could explain the higher prevalence of the heterozygous hCCR5Δ24 in LTS and HIV-1 exposed seronegative members from serodiscordant couples. Our data suggest an East-African localization of this deletion, which needs to be confirmed in larger cohorts from African and non-African countries. PMID: 31486251 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Similar, but different: drivers of the disproportionate HIV and sexually transmitted infection burden of key populations.
Authors: Mayer KH, Allan-Blitz LT PMID: 31468653 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Mechanisms of sexually transmitted infection-induced inflammation in women: implications for HIV risk.
CONCLUSIONS: STIs and other microbes can induce inflammation in the genital tract, perturbing the normal robust function of the mucosal barrier against HIV. While the impact of STIs on the mucosal immune system and HIV acquisition is often under-appreciated, understanding their interactions of the infections with the immune responses play an important role in improving treatment and reducing the risk of HIV acquisition. The frequent sub-clinical inflammation associated with STIs underscores the need for better STI diagnostics to reverse the immunological consequences of infection. PMID: 31468677 [PubMed - in process] (...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Diagnosing sexually transmitted infections in resource-constrained settings: challenges and ways forward.
CONCLUSIONS: The WHO syndromic case management guidelines should be updated to raise the quality of STI management through the integration of laboratory tests. STI screening strategies are needed to address asymptomatic STIs. POCTs that are accurate, rapid, simple and affordable are urgently needed in resource-constrained settings to support the uptake of aetiological diagnosis and treatment. PMID: 31468679 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Current challenges in the clinical management of sexually transmitted infections.
Authors: de Vries HJ PMID: 31468689 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus infections: current trends, and recent advances in understanding the spread in men who have sex with men.
CONCLUSIONS: High-risk sexual behaviour, network characteristics, co-infection with sexually transmitted infections like HIV-1 and other concomitant bacterial and viral sexually transmitted infections are important factors that lead to HCV spread. Targeted and combined prevention efforts including effective behavioural interventions and scale-up of HCV testing and treatment are required to halt HCV transmission in MSM. PMID: 31468692 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Give PrEP a chance: moving on from the "risk compensation" concept.
CONCLUSIONS: RC remains a frequent argument against the availability and provision of prevention methods for vulnerable populations. Individuals should be able to benefit from the full panel of BIs options available, to find and adapt methods according to their needs. Current, past and future PrEP users, with other stakeholders, may provide valuable insight into innovative solutions and programmes to control HIV and other STIs. PMID: 31468693 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Community engagement in the provision of culturally competent HIV and STI prevention services: lessons from the French experience in the era of PrEP.
Authors: Rojas Castro D, Delabre RM, Morel S, Michels D, Spire B PMID: 31468710 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Transforming and integrating STI surveillance to enhance global advocacy and investment in STI control.
Authors: Taylor MM, Wi TE PMID: 31468726 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

The role of saliva in gonorrhoea and chlamydia transmission to extragenital sites among men who have sex with men: new insights into transmission.
CONCLUSIONS: Substantial transmission of gonorrhoea may occur with practices other than the established routes of condomless oral and/or anal sex and hence condoms may not be effective in preventing gonorrhoea transmission to extragenital sites. In contrast, condoms are effective for chlamydia control because it is mainly transmitted through condomless penile-anal sex. Novel interventions for gonorrhoea that reduce the risk of transmission at extragenital site are required. PMID: 31468730 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

HIV and sexually transmitted infections: reconciling estranged bedfellows in the U  = U and PrEP era.
HIV and sexually transmitted infections: reconciling estranged bedfellows in the U = U and PrEP era. J Int AIDS Soc. 2019 Aug;22 Suppl 6:e25357 Authors: Mayer KH, de Vries HJ PMID: 31468731 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Sexually transmitted infections and HIV in the era of antiretroviral treatment and prevention: the biologic basis for epidemiologic synergy.
CONCLUSIONS: STIs remain pandemic, and the availability of ART may have led to an increase in STIs, as fear of HIV has diminished. Classical STIs present a huge worldwide health burden that cannot be separated from HIV, and they deserve far more attention than they currently receive. PMID: 31468737 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Improving care for sexually transmitted infections.
CONCLUSIONS: A tailored practice improvement plan can be envisioned to achieve an optimally functioning STI care continuum. PMID: 31468743 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - September 1, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

The rollout of Community ART Refill Groups in Zimbabwe: a qualitative evaluation.
CONCLUSIONS: We found that healthcare workers and clients overwhelmingly perceive CARGs as beneficial. This evaluation demonstrates that the CARG model can be successfully implemented on a national scale. These early results suggest that CARGs may be able to simultaneously improve clinical outcomes and reduce the workload of healthcare workers distributing ART. PMID: 31454178 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - August 29, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Global implementation of PrEP for HIV prevention: setting expectations for impact.
CONCLUSIONS: While many challenges to PrEP implementation exist, we focused on the three key steps of uptake, adherence and persistence as measurable processes that can lead to improved coverage and decreased HIV incidence. PMID: 31456348 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - August 29, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Multisystem impairment in South African adolescents with Perinatally acquired HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART).
CONCLUSIONS: Despite relatively early ART initiation, there is a substantial burden of multisystem chronic impairment among PHIV+ adolescents. This phenomenon needs to be further explored as this population ages and begins to engage in adult lifestyle factors that may compound these impairments. PMID: 31441211 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - August 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Trends in medication adherence in HIV patients in the US, 2001 to 2012: an observational cohort study.
CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to ART substantially improved between 2001 and 2012. Nevertheless, the absolute rates of>90% implementation were low for all groups examined. Substantial disparities by age, sex and race were present, drawing attention to the need to continue to enhance medication adherence. Further studies are required to examine whether these trends and disparities persist in the most recent period. PMID: 31441221 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - August 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Why interventions to prevent intimate partner violence and HIV have failed young women in southern Africa.
CONCLUSIONS: In order to move beyond the status quo of current approaches, and to support real innovation, IPV/HIV prevention interventions need to be co-developed with youth as part of a meaningful participatory process of research, intervention design, youth involvement in development and implementation. This process of co-development needs to be radical and break with the current focus on adapting existing interventions to meet the needs of young people, which are not well understood and often do not directly reflect their priorities. Broader social contexts and compound lenses are needed to avoid narrow approaches and ...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - August 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

HIV-1 DNA decay is faster in children who initiate ART shortly after birth than later.
DISCUSSION: At six months of continuous suppressive ART, the HIV-1 DNA t½ (95% CI) was shorter in Group-1 (n = 7): 2.7 months (2.1 to 3.8), than 9.2 months (7.4 to 12.1) in Group-2 (n = 8); and 9.6 months (7.6 to 12.6) in Group-3 (n = 23) (p 
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - August 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Point-of-care viral load monitoring: outcomes from a decentralized HIV programme in Malawi.
DISCUSSION: Among 21,400 eligible patients, VL-testing coverage was 85% and VL suppression was found in 89% of those tested. In the decentralized clinics, 88% of test results were reviewed on the same day as blood collection, whereas in the district hospital the median turnaround-time for results was 85 days. Among first-line ART patients with suspected failure (N = 1544), 30% suppressed (VL
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - August 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Mortality from suicide among people living with HIV and the general Swiss population: 1988-2017.
CONCLUSIONS: Suicide rates have decreased substantially among people living with HIV in the last three decades but have remained about three times higher than in the general population since the introduction of cART. Continued emphasis on suicide prevention among men and women living with HIV is important. PMID: 31423727 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - August 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Performance of fracture risk assessment tool in HIV-positive male individuals aged ≥45 years on suppressive antiretroviral therapy.
Performance of fracture risk assessment tool in HIV-positive male individuals aged ≥45 years on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. J Int AIDS Soc. 2019 Aug;22(8):e25383 Authors: Tsai MS, Zhang JY, Sun HY, Liu WC, Wu PY, Yang CJ, Hung CC Abstract INTRODUCTION: An age-specific evaluation and management algorithm for reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is suggested for HIV-positive patients without major risk factors. Whether combination of BMD and the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) may detect more individuals for therapeutic interventions remains unclear. We aimed to determine the prevalenc...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - August 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Long-term retention in pre-exposure prophylaxis care among men who have sex with men and transgender women in the United States.
CONCLUSIONS: Measuring retention in PrEP care using three-month follow-up intervals may underestimate true retention. Nevertheless, retention in PrEP care is suboptimal in real-world settings and should be the focus of future interventions. PMID: 31423756 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - August 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Longitudinal trajectories of emotional problems and unmet mental health needs among people newly diagnosed with HIV in China.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite the obvious need people newly diagnosed with HIV in China rarely seek professional help. Integrating depression and anxiety screening and referral into HIV care settings is warranted. PMID: 31424617 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - August 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Estimates of the HIV undiagnosed population in Belgium reveals higher prevalence for MSM with foreign nationality and for geographic areas hosting big cities.
CONCLUSIONS: Geographic areas hosting the biggest cities in Belgium accounted for the vast majority of undiagnosed HIV infections and individuals with foreign nationality were the most affected, especially MSM with non-European nationality. This should be accounted for when tailoring prevention and testing programs. Furthermore, MSM with foreign nationality require more attention in Belgium, and certainly more generally in Europe. PMID: 31424626 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - August 21, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Competing biomedical HIV prevention strategies: potential cost-effectiveness of HIV vaccines and PrEP in Seattle, WA.
CONCLUSIONS: Access to an HIV vaccine is desirable as it could increase the overall effectiveness of combination HIV prevention efforts and improve population health. Planning for the rollout and scale-up of HIV vaccines should carefully consider the design of policies that guide interactions between vaccine and PrEP utilization and potential competition. PMID: 31402591 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - August 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Assessment of service refinement and its impact on repeat HIV testing by client's access to Australia's universal healthcare system: a retrospective cohort study.
We describe client characteristics, STI testing uptake and HIV/STI positivity among Medicare eligible and ineligible clients. Repeat HIV testing, assessed as the percentage of HIV tests with a return test within six months, was compared pre-integration (August 2014-June 2016) and post-integration(July 2016-March 2018) of STI testing using segmented linear regression of monthly aggregate data for Medicare eligible and ineligible clients. RESULTS: Analyses included 9134 HIV tests among 4753 individuals. Medicare ineligible clients were younger (p 
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - August 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Mobilizing civil society for the HIV treatment cascade: a global analysis on democracy and its association with people living with HIV who know their status.
This study explores the relationship between measures of democracy and its association with diagnosis rates among people living with HIV (PLHIV). METHODS: This study analyses 2016 data derived from the Economist Intelligence Unit's Democracy Index (EIUDI), UNAIDS country estimates for PLHIV and PLHIV who knew their status in 2016, World Bank's 2016 data on nominal gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and country population, HIV Justice Network's 2016 data on HIV criminalization, and country-level estimates for PLHIV, PLHIV who know their status, and expenditure on HIV prevention from other independent sources. An es...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - August 7, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Adverse events in a large-scale VMMC programme in Tanzania: findings from a case series analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: In a programme with robust AE monitoring methodologies, AE rates reported in these three regions were very low and declined over time. While these findings support the safety of VMMC services, challenges in reporting of AEs in a large-scale VMMC programme are acknowledged. International and national standards of AE reporting in VMMC programmes are clear. As VMMC programmes transition to national ownership, challenges, strengths and learning from AE reporting systems are needed to support safety and quality of services. PMID: 31368235 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - August 2, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Getting youth PrEPared: adolescent consent laws and implications for the availability of PrEP among youth in countries outside of the United States.
CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents' access to PrEP without parental consent remains limited or uncertain in many countries where this biomedical intervention is needed. Observational and qualitative studies are needed to determine if and how adolescent consent laws are followed in relation to adolescent PrEP provisions. Intensified efforts to amend laws that limit adolescent access to PrEP and restrict the establishment of national guidelines supporting adolescent PrEP are also needed to address the epidemic in this group. PMID: 31369211 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - August 2, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Near full genome characterization of HIV-1 unique recombinant forms in Cameroon reveals dominant CRF02_AG and F2 recombination patterns.
CONCLUSIONS: This study identified novel mosaic patterns in URFs in Cameroon. In line with the regional predominance of CRF_02AG and the increased prevalence of clade F2, prominent CRF_02AG and F2 background patterns were observed underlying the URFs. In the context of the novel mosaic genomes, the impact of the identified accessory DRMs and Env epitope variations on treatment and immune control remains elusive. The evolving diversity of HIV-1 URFs in Cameroon requires continuous monitoring to respond to the increasing challenges for diagnosis, antiretroviral treatment and prevention. PMID: 31353798 [PubMed - in proces...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - July 30, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Assessing risk for HIV infection among adolescent girls in South Africa: an evaluation of the VOICE risk score (HPTN 068).
CONCLUSIONS: The VOICE risk score demonstrated low utility to predict HIV incidence in the HPTN 068 sample. Findings highlight the need for an age and developmentally appropriate tool for assessing risk for HIV infection among adolescents. Use of the VOICE risk score for determining PrEP eligibility in younger populations should be carefully considered. PMID: 31353814 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - July 30, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

HIV, antiretroviral therapy and non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa: empirical evidence from 44 countries over the period 2000 to 2016.
CONCLUSIONS: An ageing HIV-infected population on ART is associated with a significant increase in the prevalence of diabetes and obesity in sub-Saharan Africa. The increasing prevalence of these cardiovascular risk factors emphasizes the need for comprehensive healthcare programmes that screen and treat both HIV and non-communicable diseases to decrease the associated morbidity and mortality rates. PMID: 31353831 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - July 30, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research