Universal test and treat is not associated with sub-optimal antiretroviral therapy adherence in rural South Africa: the ANRS 12249 TasP trial.
Authors: Iwuji C, McGrath N, Calmy A, Dabis F, Pillay D, Newell ML, Baisley K, Porter K Abstract INTRODUCTION: HIV treatment guidelines now recommend antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation regardless of CD4 count to maximize benefit both for the individual and society. It is unknown whether the initiation of ART at higher CD4 counts would affect adherence levels. We investigated whether initiating ART at higher CD4 counts was associated with sub-optimal adherence (
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - June 12, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Testing the efficacy of an HIV stigma reduction intervention with medical students in Puerto Rico: the SPACES project.
Authors: Abstract [This retracts the article DOI: 10.7448/IAS.16.3.18670.]. PMID: 29874325 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - June 9, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Including the criminal justice-involved at the HIV policy, research and service delivery table.
Authors: Ndlovu DT, Hoffmann CJ PMID: 29878719 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - June 9, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Optimal timing of HIV home-based counselling and testing rounds in Western Kenya.
CONCLUSIONS: Countries implementing HBCT can reduce costs by optimally timing rounds and generate greater health outcomes through improving linkage, coverage, and retention. Tailoring HBCT campaigns to individual settings can enhance patient outcomes for minimal cost. PMID: 29883052 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - June 9, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Evidence of synergistic relationships between HIV and Human Papillomavirus (HPV): systematic reviews and meta-analyses of longitudinal studies of HPV acquisition and clearance by HIV status, and of HIV acquisition by HPV status.
CONCLUSIONS: These results provide evidence for synergistic HIV and HPV interactions of clinical and public health relevance. HPV vaccination may directly benefit PLHIV, and help control both HPV and HIV at the population level in high prevalence settings. Our estimates of association are useful for mathematical modelling. Although observational studies can never perfectly control for residual confounding, the evidence presented here lends further support for the presence of biological interactions between HIV and HPV that have a strong plausibility. PMID: 29873885 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - June 8, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Investments in implementation science are needed to address the harms associated with the sexualized use of substances among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men.
Authors: Knight R PMID: 29870128 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - June 6, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Integrated delivery of antiretroviral treatment and pre-exposure prophylaxis to HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in East Africa: a qualitative evaluation study in Uganda.
CONCLUSIONS: Various strategies for delivering antiretrovirals for HIV prevention are being evaluated. Understanding how and why these strategies work will improve evaluation processes and strengthen implementation platforms. We highlight the role of service organization in shaping couples' experiences of and responses to ART and PrEP in the context of the integrated strategy. Organizing services to promote positive care experiences will strengthen delivery and contribute to positive outcomes as antiretrovirals for prevention are rolled out. PMID: 29851436 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - June 2, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Targeted HIV testing at birth supported by low and predictable mother-to-child transmission risk in Botswana.
Authors: Ibrahim M, Maswabi K, Ajibola G, Moyo S, Hughes MD, Batlang O, Sakoi M, Auletta-Young C, Vaughan L, Lockman S, Jean-Philippe P, Yu X, Lichterfeld M, Kuritzkes DR, Makhema J, Shapiro RL Abstract INTRODUCTION: Most African countries perform infant HIV testing at 6 weeks or later. The addition of targeted testing at birth may improve retention in care, treatment outcomes and survival for HIV-infected infants. METHODS: HIV-exposed infants were screened as part of the Early Infant Treatment (EIT) study in Botswana. Screened infants were ≥35 weeks gestational age and ≥2000 g at birth. Ri...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - June 2, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Five year neurodevelopment outcomes of perinatally HIV-infected children on early limited or deferred continuous antiretroviral therapy.
In this study, 28 ART-Def, 35 ART-40W, 33 ART-96W CHER children, and 34 HEU and 39 HU controls were enrolled. GMDS scores over five years were similar between the five groups in all subscales except locomotor and general Griffiths (interaction p 
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - May 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Bridging the HIV treatment gap in Nigeria: examining community antiretroviral treatment models.
CONCLUSION: Both community-models had similar population-level effectiveness for rapidly identifying people living with HIV but differed in effectively transitioning them to treatment. Comprehensiveness, integration and attention to barriers to care are important in the design of community antiretroviral treatment delivery. PMID: 29675995 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - April 22, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

The 2016 HIV diagnosis and care cascade in New South Wales, Australia: meeting the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets.
DISCUSSION: We estimated that 10,110 PLHIV resided in NSW in 2016 (range 8400 to 11,720), among whom 9230 (91.3%) were diagnosed, and 8490 (92.0% of those diagnosed) were receiving ART. Among PLDHIV receiving ART, 8020 (94.5%) had suppressed viral load (
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - April 22, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

HIV & Hepatitis in the Americas 19-21 April 2018, Mexico City, Mexico.
HIV & Hepatitis in the Americas 19-21 April 2018, Mexico City, Mexico. J Int AIDS Soc. 2018 Apr;21 Suppl 3:e25093 Authors: PMID: 29671462 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - April 20, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Optimal breastfeeding durations for HIV-exposed infants: the impact of maternal ART use, infant mortality and replacement feeding risk.
CONCLUSIONS: In settings with high RRRF and long maternal ART durations, HFS is maximized when mothers breastfeed longer than the previously-recommended 12 months. In settings with low RRRF or short maternal ART durations, shorter breastfeeding durations optimize HFS. If mothers are supported to use ART for longer periods of time, it is possible to reduce transmission risks and gain the benefits of longer breastfeeding durations. PMID: 29667336 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - April 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Monitoring progress towards the first UNAIDS target: understanding the impact of people living with HIV who re-test during HIV-testing campaigns in rural Mozambique.
CONCLUSION: More than one-third of individuals testing HIV-positive did not disclose their previous positive HIV-diagnosis to counsellors. This proportion varied according to testing modality and age. In the absence of an efficient and non-anonymous tracking system for HIV-testers, repeat testing of non-disclosures leads to wasted resources and may distort programmatic indicators. Developing interventions that ensure appropriate psychosocial support are needed to encourage this population to disclose their status and optimize scarce resources. PMID: 29652098 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - April 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

How should HIV resources be allocated? Lessons learnt from applying Optima HIV in 23 countries.
CONCLUSIONS: Greater epidemiological impact would be possible through better targeting of existing resources, but additional resources would still be required to meet targets. Allocative efficiency models have proven valuable in improving the HIV planning and budgeting process. PMID: 29652100 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - April 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Undiagnosed HIV infections among gay and bisexual men increasingly contribute to new infections in Australia.
Authors: Gray RT, Wilson DP, Guy RJ, Stoové M, Hellard ME, Prestage GP, Lea T, de Wit J, Holt M Abstract INTRODUCTION: We determined the contribution of undiagnosed HIV to new infections among gay and bisexual men (GBM) over a 12-year period in Australia where there has been increasing focus on improving testing and HIV treatment coverage. METHODS: We generated annual estimates for each step of the HIV cascade and the number of new HIV infections for GBM in Australia over 2004 to 2015 using relevant national data. Using Bayesian melding we then fitted a quantitative model to the cascade and incidence est...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - April 13, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

How far are we from viral hepatitis elimination service coverage targets?
CONCLUSIONS: The prevention component of elimination is on track with respect to hepatitis B vaccination, blood safety, and injection safety. However, coverage of the hepatitis B vaccine timely birth dose requires a substantial increase, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, and harm reduction needs to be taken to scale as injecting drug use accounts for a third of mortality from HCV infection. A promising but limited start in hepatitis testing and treatment needs to be followed by immediate and sustained action so that we reach the service coverage targets required to achieve elimination by 2030. Treating persons coinfected...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - April 12, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

What do clinicians need to watch for with direct-acting antiviral therapy?
CONCLUSIONS: Patients who start antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C require a thorough clinical evaluation. There is a need for assessing factors that impact on the treatment schedule and duration or affect the pharmacokinetics of direct-acting antivirals. PMID: 29633552 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - April 12, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

The Rocky Road to viral hepatitis elimination: assuring access to antiviral therapy for ALL coinfected patients from low- to high-income settings.
Authors: Lacombe K, Klein MB PMID: 29633554 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - April 12, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Linkage and retention in HCV care for HIV-infected populations: early data from the DAA era.
CONCLUSIONS: Early results from emerging research on HCV elimination in HIV-infected populations suggest that HCV treatment uptake is higher than reported levels prior to DAA treatment availability, but approximately half of patients remain untreated. These results are among diagnosed populations and additional effort is required to increase diagnosis rates. Among those who have initiated treatment, completion and SVR rates are promising. More data are required in order to evaluate the effectiveness of these elimination programmes in the long term, assess which intervention components are effective, and whether they need t...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - April 12, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Is hepatitis C virus elimination possible among people living with HIV and what will it take to achieve it?
CONCLUSIONS: Achieving WHO HCV Elimination targets is potentially achievable among HIV-infected populations. Among HIV+ PWID, it likely requires HCV treatment scale-up combined with harm reduction for both HIV+ and HIV- populations. Among HIV+ MSM, elimination likely requires both HCV treatment and behaviour risk reduction among the HIV+ MSM population, the latter of which to date has not been observed. Lower HCV diagnostic and treatment costs will be key to ensuring scale-up of HCV testing and treatment without restriction, enabling elimination. PMID: 29633560 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - April 12, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Approaches for simplified HCV diagnostic algorithms.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite relevant advances in HCV screening and diagnosis, the overall diagnosis package is still too expensive today and efforts must be made to allow generalized implementation of reliable tests in low and middle income countries. These efforts will be key factors to foster a real public health approach to HCV elimination. PMID: 29633561 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - April 12, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Hep-CORE: a cross-sectional study of the viral hepatitis policy environment reported by patient groups in 25 European countries in 2016 and 2017.
CONCLUSIONS: The patient-led Hep-CORE study offers a unique perspective on the readiness of study countries to undertake comprehensive viral hepatitis elimination efforts. Viral hepatitis monitoring should be expanded to address policy issues more comprehensively and to incorporate civil society perspectives, as is the case with global HIV monitoring. Policy components should also be explicitly added to the WHO framework for monitoring country-level progress against viral hepatitis. PMID: 29633562 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - April 12, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Research gaps in viral hepatitis.
CONCLUSIONS: There are certainly effective tools to combat the spread of viral hepatitis and treat infected individuals - yet how they are able to reach key populations, and the infrastructure required to do so, continue to represent the largest research gap when evaluating the progress towards elimination. Continuously adapted and informed research is required to establish the priorities in achieving elimination goals. PMID: 29633564 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - April 12, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Treatment advocate tactics to expand access to antiviral therapy for HIV and viral hepatitis C in low- to high-income settings: making sure no one is left behind.
CONCLUSIONS: The HIV example provides helpful parallels for addressing challenges to expanding access to HCV DAAs. HCV treatment access - and harm reduction - should be massively scaled-up to meet the needs of PWID, and efforts should be made to tackle stigma and discrimination, and stop criminalization of drug use and possession. PMID: 29633580 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - April 12, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Revealing geographical and population heterogeneity in HIV incidence, undiagnosed HIV prevalence and time to diagnosis to improve prevention and care: estimates for France.
Authors: Marty L, Cazein F, Panjo H, Pillonel J, Costagliola D, Supervie V, HERMETIC Study Group Abstract INTRODUCTION: To close gaps in HIV prevention and care, knowledge about locations and populations most affected by HIV is essential. Here, we provide subnational and sub-population estimates of three key HIV epidemiological indicators, which have been unavailable for most settings. METHODS: We used surveillance data on newly diagnosed HIV cases from 2004 to 2014 and back-calculation modelling to estimate in France, at national and subnational levels, by exposure group and country of birth: the numbers of ne...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - April 2, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

The cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact of a dolutegravir-based regimen as first-line treatment of HIV infection in India.
CONCLUSIONS: A generic DTG-based regimen is likely to be cost-effective and should be recommended for initial therapy of HIV infection in India. PMID: 29603882 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - April 2, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Screening and management of mental health and substance use disorders in HIV treatment settings in low- and middle-income countries within the global IeDEA consortium.
CONCLUSIONS: Significant gaps exist in the management of MSDs in HIV care settings in LMICs, particularly in rural settings. Identification and evaluation of optimal implementation strategies to scale and sustain integrated MSDs and HIV care is needed. PMID: 29603887 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - April 2, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

The cost-effectiveness of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in men who have sex with men and transgender women at high risk of HIV infection in Brazil.
We examined the clinical and economic outcomes of implementing a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) programme in these populations. METHODS: We used the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC)-International model of HIV prevention and treatment to evaluate two strategies: the current standard of care (SOC) in Brazil, including universal ART access (No PrEP strategy); and the current SOC plus daily tenofovir/emtracitabine PrEP (PrEP strategy) until age 50. Mean age (31 years, SD 8.4 years), age-stratified annual HIV incidence (age ≤ 40 years: 4.3/100 PY; age >&nb...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - April 2, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Men who have sex with men more often chose daily than event-driven use of pre-exposure prophylaxis: baseline analysis of a demonstration study in Amsterdam.
CONCLUSIONS: The majority of participants preferred daily versus event-driven use. Within this majority, a high number of CAS episodes before PrEP initiation was reported and we observed a high prevalence of STI. Determinants of choosing event-driven PrEP were older age, fewer CAS episodes, no other daily medication use, and involved in a steady relationship. PMID: 29603900 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - April 2, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

The Tablets, Ring, Injections as Options (TRIO) study: what young African women chose and used for future HIV and pregnancy prevention.
We examined demographic and behavioural correlates of choice and, reciprocally, unwillingness to use in the future with logistic regression models. RESULTS: 277 women enrolled, 249 completed stage 1 and 246 completed stage 2. Median age was 23 years, 49% were Kenyan and 51% were South African. Three participants became pregnant during the study and one participant HIV-seroconverted. There were 18 product-related adverse events, six tablets-related, 11 ring-related, and one injection-related. After trying each product, 85% preferred a TRIO product over condoms. Injections were chosen most (64%, 95% confidence inter...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - March 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Virologic failure and mortality in older ART initiators in a multisite Latin American and Caribbean Cohort.
In this study, HIV treatment outcomes and corresponding risk factors were compared between older ART initiators and those who were younger using data from the Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV Epidemiology (CCASAnet). METHODS: HIV-positive adults (≥18 years) initiating ART at nine sites in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico and Peru were included. Patients were classified as older (≥50 years) or younger (
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - March 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Pressured HIV testing "in the name of love": a mixed methods analysis of pressured HIV testing among men who have sex with men in China.
CONCLUSION: Pressured HIV testing was reported among Chinese MSM, especially from men with low education levels and men who received HIV self-testing. However, in some circumstances, pressure to test helped MSM in several ways, challenging our understanding of the role of agency in the setting of HIV testing. PMID: 29577598 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - March 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Skating on thin ice: stimulant use and sub-optimal adherence to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis.
CONCLUSIONS: Stimulant use is a risk factor for sub-optimal PrEP adherence in the month following PrEP initiation. Comprehensive prevention approaches that reduce stimulant use may optimize PrEP adherence. Creating adherence plans that specifically address PrEP dosing in the context of ongoing stimulant use should also be considered. PMID: 29577616 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - March 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

A time-motion study of cardiovascular disease risk factor screening integrated into HIV clinic visits in Swaziland.
Authors: Palma AM, Rabkin M, Simelane S, Gachuhi AB, McNairy ML, Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha H, Bongomin P, Okello VN, Bitchong RA, El-Sadr WM Abstract INTRODUCTION: Screening of modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors is recommended but not routinely provided for HIV-infected patients, especially in low-resource settings. Potential concerns include limited staff time and low patient acceptability, but little empirical data exists. As part of a pilot study of screening in a large urban HIV clinic in Swaziland, we conducted a time-motion study to assess the impact of screening on patient flow and HIV service d...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - March 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

HIV incidence among people who inject drugs in the Middle East and North Africa: mathematical modelling analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable HIV incidence among PWID in MENA. Of all new infections ultimately due to injecting drug use, about 75% are among PWID and the rest among sexual partners. Of all prevalent infections ultimately attributed to injecting drug use as epidemic driver, about half are among PWID, 30% among ex-PWID and 20% among sexual partners of PWID and ex-PWID. These findings call for scale-up of services for PWID, including harm reduction as well as testing and treatment services. PMID: 29577623 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - March 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Multiple strategies to identify HIV-positive black men who have sex with men and transgender women in New York City: a cross-sectional analysis of recruitment results.
Authors: Franks J, Mannheimer SB, Hirsch-Moverman Y, Hayes-Larson E, Colson PW, Ortega H, El-Sadr WM Abstract INTRODUCTION: Black men who have sex with men and transgender women are at high risk for HIV infection, but are more likely to be unaware of their infection or not in care for diagnosed HIV compared to other races. Respondent driven sampling has been advanced as a method to reach stigmatized and hidden populations for HIV testing. We compared strategies to recruit black, substance-using men who have sex with men and transgender women to identify newly diagnosed HIV infection, or those previously diagnosed b...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - March 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

A pragmatic approach to monitor and evaluate implementation and impact of differentiated ART delivery for global and national stakeholders.
CONCLUSIONS: These proposed outcomes are useful markers for the effectiveness and efficiency of the health system's attempts to deliver quality treatment to those who need it-and still reserve as much of the available resource pool as possible for other key elements of the HIV response. PMID: 29537628 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - March 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

The cost-effectiveness of multi-purpose HIV and pregnancy prevention technologies in South Africa.
CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a range of potential MPTs; suggesting that MPTs will be cost-effective among higher incidence FSWs or young women, but not among lower incidence older women. More work is needed to make attractive MPTs available to potential users who could use them effectively. PMID: 29537654 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - March 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Gender equality is crucial to the fight for better HIV treatment access and outcomes in the MENA region.
Authors: Madani N PMID: 29504249 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - March 7, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Brazilian network for HIV Drug Resistance Surveillance (HIV-BresNet): a survey of treatment-naive individuals.
CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first TDR study conducted in Brazil with nationwide representative sampling. The TDR prevalence revealed a moderate rate in the five Brazilian geographical regions, although some cities presented higher TDR prevalence rates, reaching 14% in São Paulo, for example. These results further illustrate the importance of surveillance studies for designing future strategies in primary antiretroviral therapy, aiming to mitigate TDR, as well as for predicting future trends in other regions of the globe where mass antiretroviral (ARV) treatment was implemented. PMID: 2...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - March 7, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

A tale of two countries: progress towards UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets in Botswana and Australia.
Authors: Marukutira T, Stoové M, Lockman S, Mills LA, Gaolathe T, Lebelonyane R, Jarvis JN, Kelly SL, Wilson DP, Luchters S, Crowe SM, Hellard M Abstract UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets and Fast-Track commitments are presented as precursors to ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030, through effecting a 90% reduction in new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths from 2010 levels (HIV epidemic control). Botswana, a low to middle-income country with the third-highest HIV prevalence, and Australia, a low-prevalence high-income country with an epidemic concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM), have made significant s...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - March 7, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Gender differences in the use of cardiovascular interventions in HIV-positive persons; the D:A:D Study.
CONCLUSION: The use of most CVD interventions was lower among women than men. Interventions are needed to ensure that all HIV-positive persons, particularly women, are appropriately monitored for CVD and, if required, receive appropriate CVD interventions. PMID: 29509305 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - March 7, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Frontloading HIV financing maximizes the achievable impact of HIV prevention.
CONCLUSIONS: Ensuring that funding arrangements are in place to support long-term prevention strategies will make spending most impactful. Greater prevention spending now will bring considerable returns through reductions in new infections, greater population health and reductions in the burden on health services in the future. PMID: 29498234 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - March 4, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Identification and validation of a multi-assay algorithm for cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation in populations with subtype C infection.
Authors: Laeyendecker O, Konikoff J, Morrison DE, Brookmeyer R, Wang J, Celum C, Morrison CS, Abdool Karim Q, Pettifor AE, Eshleman SH Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cross-sectional methods can be used to estimate HIV incidence for surveillance and prevention studies. We evaluated assays and multi-assay algorithms (MAAs) for incidence estimation in subtype C settings. METHODS: We analysed samples from individuals with subtype C infection with known duration of infection (2442 samples from 278 adults; 0.1 to 9.9 years after seroconversion). MAAs included 1-4 of the following assays: Limiting Antigen Avidity assay (...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - March 2, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Where have all the children gone? High HIV prevalence in infants attending nutrition and inpatient entry points.
This study assessed HIV prevalence in infants and children receiving care at various service entry points in primary healthcare facilities in Uganda. METHODS: A total of 3600 infants up to 24 months of age were systematically enrolled and tested at four regional hospitals across Uganda. Six hundred infants were included and tested from six facility entry points: PMTCT, immunization, inpatient, nutrition, outpatient and community outreach services. FINDINGS: The traditional EID entry point, PMTCT, had a prevalence of 3.8%, representing 19.6% of the total HIV-positive infants identified in the study. Fifty perce...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - February 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Retention and mortality on antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: collaborative analyses of HIV treatment programmes.
CONCLUSIONS: Improving long-term retention on ART will be crucial to attaining the 90% on ART target. Naïve analyses of HIV cohort studies, which do not account for undocumented mortality and self-transfer of patients, may severely underestimate both mortality and retention on ART. PMID: 29479867 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - February 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

HIV risks and needs related to the Sustainable Development Goals among female sex workers who were commercially sexually exploited as children in Lesotho.
This study's objective is to examine the prevalence and correlates of experiencing sexual exploitation as a child among FSW in Lesotho. METHODS: FSW (≥18 years) recruited through respondent-driven sampling in Maseru and Maputsoe from February to September 2014 completed HIV and syphilis testing and an interviewer-administered survey, including a question about the age at which they started providing sex for money. This study examined correlates of experiencing sexual exploitation as a child (
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - February 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of community-based support for adolescents receiving antiretroviral treatment: an operational research study in South Africa.
Authors: Fatti G, Jackson D, Goga AE, Shaikh N, Eley B, Nachega JB, Grimwood A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Adolescents and youth receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa have high attrition and inadequate ART outcomes, and evaluations of interventions improving ART outcomes amongst adolescents are very limited. Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target 3c is to substantially increase the health workforce in developing countries. We measured the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of community-based support (CBS) provided by lay health workers for adolescents and youth receiving ART in South Africa...
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - February 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research

Inequality in outcomes for adolescents living with perinatally acquired HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: a Collaborative Initiative for Paediatric HIV Education and Research (CIPHER) Cohort Collaboration analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Results highlight probable inequality in mortality according to CIG in SSA even when ART was received. These findings highlight that without attention towards SDG 10 (to reduce inequality within and among countries), progress towards ensuring healthy lives and promoting wellbeing for all at all ages (SDG 3) will be hampered for APH in LIC and LMIC. PMID: 29485724 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - February 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research