High-throughput synchrotron X-ray diffraction for combinatorial phase mapping
Discovery of new materials drives the deployment of new technologies. Complex technological requirements demand precisely tailored material functionalities, and materials scientists are driven to search for these new materials in compositionally complex and often non-equilibrium spaces containing three, four or more elements. The phase behavior of these high-order composition spaces is mostly unknown and unexplored. High-throughput methods can offer strategies for efficiently searching complex and multi-dimensional material genomes for these much needed new materials and can also suggest a processing pathway for synthesizi...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - October 7, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Gregoire, J.M.Van Campen, D.G.Miller, C.E.Jones, R.J.R.Suram, S.K.Mehta, A. Tags: combinatorial materials science high-throughput phase mapping X-ray diffraction X-ray fluorescence research papers Source Type: research

Generalized Titarenko's algorithm for ring artefacts reduction
A fast algorithm for ring artefact reduction in high-resolution micro-tomography with synchrotron radiation is presented. The new method is a generalization of the one proposed by Titarenko and collaborators, with a complete sinogram restoration prior to reconstruction with classical algorithms. The generalized algorithm can be performed in linear time and is easy to implement. Compared with the original approach, with an explicit solution, this approach is fast through the use of the conjugate gradient method. Also, low/high-resolution sinograms can be restored using higher/lower-order derivatives of the projections. Usin...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - October 7, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Miqueles, E.X.Rinkel, J.O'Dowd, F.Bermúdez, J.S.V. Tags: tomography rings Titarenko generalized research papers Source Type: research

Visualization of microvessels by angiography using inverse-Compton scattering X-rays in animal models
The fundamental performance of microangiography has been evaluated using the S-band linac-based inverse-Compton scattering X-ray (iCSX) method to determine how many photons would be required to apply iCSX to human microangiography. ICSX is characterized by its quasi-monochromatic nature and small focus size which are fundamental requirements for microangiography. However, the current iCSX source does not have sufficient flux for microangiography in clinical settings. It was determined whether S-band compact linac-based iCSX can visualize small vessels of excised animal organs, and the amount of X-ray photons required for r...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - October 7, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Fujii, T.Fukuyama, N.Tanaka, C.Ikeya, Y.Shinozaki, Y.Kawai, T.Atsumi, T.Shiraishi, T.Sato, E.Kuroda, R.Toyokawa, H.Yamada, K.Ikari, Y.Mori, H. Tags: inverse-Compton scattering X-rays spatial resolution microangiography research papers Source Type: research

Ultra-thin optical grade scCVD diamond as X-ray beam position monitor
Results of measurements made at the SIRIUS beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron for a new X-ray beam position monitor based on a super-thin single crystal of diamond grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are presented. This detector is a quadrant electrode design processed on a 3 µm-thick membrane obtained by argon–oxygen plasma etching the central area of a CVD-grown diamond plate of 60 µm thickness. The membrane transmits more than 50% of the incident 1.3 keV energy X-ray beam. The diamond plate was of moderate purity (∼1 p.p.m. nitrogen), but the X-ray beam induced current (XBIC) measureme...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - October 4, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Desjardins, K.Pomorski, M.Morse, J. Tags: ultra-thin optical-grade single-crystal CVD diamond X-ray beam position monitor XBIC XBPM research papers Source Type: research

Scientific data exchange: a schema for HDF5-based storage of raw and analyzed data
Data Exchange is a simple data model designed to interface, or `exchange', data among different instruments, and to enable sharing of data analysis tools. Data Exchange focuses on technique rather than instrument descriptions, and on provenance tracking of analysis steps and results. In this paper the successful application of the Data Exchange model to a variety of X-ray techniques, including tomography, fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence tomography and photon correlation spectroscopy, is described. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - October 4, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: De Carlo, F.Gürsoy, D.Marone, F.Rivers, M.Parkinson, D.Y.Khan, F.Schwarz, N.Vine, D.J.Vogt, S.Gleber, S.-C.Narayanan, S.Newville, M.Lanzirotti, T.Sun, Y.Hong, Y.P.Jacobsen, C. Tags: data storage provenance HDF5 research papers Source Type: research

IDATEN and G-SITENNO: GUI-assisted software for coherent X-ray diffraction imaging experiments and data analyses at SACLA
Using our custom-made diffraction apparatus KOTOBUKI-1 and two multiport CCD detectors, cryogenic coherent X-ray diffraction imaging experiments have been undertaken at the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free electron LAser (SACLA) facility. To efficiently perform experiments and data processing, two software suites with user-friendly graphical user interfaces have been developed. The first is a program suite named IDATEN, which was developed to easily conduct four procedures during experiments: aligning KOTOBUKI-1, loading a flash-cooled sample into the cryogenic goniometer stage inside the vacuum chamber of KOTOBUKI-1, adjust...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - October 3, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Sekiguchi, Y.Yamamoto, M.Oroguchi, T.Takayama, Y.Suzuki, S.Nakasako, M. Tags: coherent X-ray diffraction imaging X-ray free-electron laser structural analysis of non-crystalline particles computer programs Source Type: research

Quantifying phosphoric acid in high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell components by X-ray tomographic microscopy
Synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy is investigated for imaging the local distribution and concentration of phosphoric acid in high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Phosphoric acid fills the pores of the macro- and microporous fuel cell components. Its concentration in the fuel cell varies over a wide range (40–100 wt% H3PO4). This renders the quantification and concentration determination challenging. The problem is solved by using propagation-based phase contrast imaging and a referencing method. Fuel cell components with known acid concentrations were used to correlate greyscale values and ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - October 3, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Eberhardt, S.H.Marone, F.Stampanoni, M.Büchi, F.N.Schmidt, T.J. Tags: high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (HT-PEFC) X-ray tomographic microscopy phosphoric acid concentration research papers Source Type: research

Full-field X-ray reflection microscopy of epitaxial thin-films
Novel X-ray imaging of structural domains in a ferroelectric epitaxial thin film using diffraction contrast is presented. The full-field hard X-ray microscope uses the surface scattering signal, in a reflectivity or diffraction experiment, to spatially resolve the local structure with 70 nm lateral spatial resolution and sub-nanometer height sensitivity. Sub-second X-ray exposures can be used to acquire a 14 µm × 14 µm image with an effective pixel size of 20 nm on the sample. The optical configuration and various engineering considerations that are necessary to achieve optimal imaging resolution ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - October 3, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Laanait, N.Zhang, Z.Schlepütz, C.M.Vila-Comamala, J.Highland, M.J.Fenter, P. Tags: X-ray surface diffraction X-ray microscopy interfaces and thin films materials science research papers Source Type: research

A new detector for sub-millisecond EXAFS spectroscopy at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility
A new FReLoN (Fast-Readout Low-Noise) high-frame-rate detector adopted for the fast continuous collection of X-ray absorption spectra is presented. The detector is installed on the energy-dispersive X-ray absorption beamline ID24 at the ESRF and is capable of full time-resolved EXAFS spectra collection with over 4 kHz repetition rate and 0.2 ms exposure time. An example of the in situ kinetic study of the high-temperature oxidation of metallic iron is presented. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - October 3, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Kantor, I.Labiche, J.-C.Collet, E.Siron, L.Thevenin, J.-J.Ponchut, C.Borrel, J.Mairs, T.Marini, C.Strohm, C.Mathon, O.Pascarelli, S. Tags: pixel array detectors charge-coupled devices EXAFS research papers Source Type: research

A high-precision instrument for mapping of rotational errors in rotary stages
A rotational stage is a key component of every X-ray instrument capable of providing tomographic or diffraction measurements. To perform accurate three-dimensional reconstructions, runout errors due to imperfect rotation (e.g. circle of confusion) must be quantified and corrected. A dedicated instrument capable of full characterization and circle of confusion mapping in rotary stages down to the sub-10 nm level has been developed. A high-stability design, with an array of five capacitive sensors, allows simultaneous measurements of wobble, radial and axial displacements. The developed instrument has been used for charact...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - October 2, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Xu, W.Lauer, K.Chu, Y.Nazaretski, E. Tags: high-precision instrument rotational errors rotary stages short communications Source Type: research

Photon statistics and speckle visibility spectroscopy with partially coherent X-rays
A new approach is proposed for measuring structural dynamics in materials from multi-speckle scattering patterns obtained with partially coherent X-rays. Coherent X-ray scattering is already widely used at high-brightness synchrotron lightsources to measure dynamics using X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, but in many situations this experimental approach based on recording long series of images (i.e. movies) is either not adequate or not practical. Following the development of visible-light speckle visibility spectroscopy, the dynamic information is obtained instead by analyzing the photon statistics and calculating t...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - October 2, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Li, L.Kwaśniewski, P.Orsi, D.Wiegart, L.Cristofolini, L.Caronna, C.Fluerasu, A. Tags: photon statistics speckle visibility spectroscopy partially coherent X-rays research papers Source Type: research

Revisit to diffraction anomalous fine structure
This study makes the DAFS method more convenient and saves a large amount of measurement time in comparison with the conventional DAFS method with a single crystal. The improved DAFS method has been applied to some model samples, Ni foil and Fe3O4 powder, to demonstrate the validity of the measurement and the analysis of the present DAFS method. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - October 2, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Kawaguchi, T.Fukuda, K.Tokuda, K.Shimada, K.Ichitsubo, T.Oishi, M.Mizuki, J.Matsubara, E. Tags: diffraction anomalous fine structure powder diffraction site specification logarithmic dispersion relation non-iterative method research papers Source Type: research

Biological soft X-ray tomography on beamline 2.1 at the Advanced Light Source
Beamline 2.1 (XM-2) is a transmission soft X-ray microscope in sector 2 of the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. XM-2 was designed, built and is now operated by the National Center for X-ray Tomography as a National Institutes of Health Biomedical Technology Research Resource. XM-2 is equipped with a cryogenic rotation stage to enable tomographic data collection from cryo-preserved cells, including large mammalian cells. During data collection the specimen is illuminated with `water window' X-rays (284–543 eV). Illuminating photons are attenuated an order of magnitude more strongly by ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - October 1, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Le Gros, M.A.McDermott, G.Cinquin, B.P.Smith, E.A.Do, M.Chao, W.L.Naulleau, P.P.Larabell, C.A. Tags: cell biology cellular imaging cryo-preservation cryogenic fluorescence tomography cryostage three-dimensional reconstruction beamlines Source Type: research

Collateral circulation prevents masticatory muscle impairment in rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model
This study was aimed at investigating the effect of ECA transection on the hemodynamic alterations using a novel synchrotron radiation (SR) angiography technique and magnetic resonance imaging in live animals. Fifteen male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Animals underwent MCAO, in which the ECA was transected. SR angiography was performed before and after MCAO. Rats then underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect the tissue lesion both intra- and extra-cranially. Animals with SR angiography without other manipulations were used as control. High-resolution cerebrovascular morphology was analyzed...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - October 1, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Yuan, F.Lin, X.Guan, Y.Mu, Z.Chen, K.Wang, Y.Yang, G.-Y. Tags: angiography collateral circulation masticatory muscle middle cerebral artery   occlusion research papers Source Type: research

Characteristics of a tapered undulator for the X-ray absorption fine-structure technique at PLS-II
An in-vacuum undulator (IVU) with a tapered configuration was installed in the 8C nanoprobe/XAFS beamlime (BL8C) of the Pohang Light Source in Korea for hard X-ray nanoprobe and X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) experiments. It has been operated in planar mode for the nanoprobe experiments, while gap-scan and tapered modes have been used alternatively for XAFS experiments. To examine the features of the BL8C IVU for XAFS experiments, spectral distributions were obtained theoretically and experimentally as functions of the gap and gap taper. Beam profiles at a cross section of the X-ray beam were acquired using a slit ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - October 1, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Sung, N.-E.Lee, I.-J.Jeong, S.-Kang, S.-W. Tags: undulator high-order harmonic X-ray absorption fine structure gap-scan mode tapered mode research papers Source Type: research

An unconventional method for measuring the Tc L3-edge of technetium compounds
Tc L3-edge XANES spectra have been collected on powder samples of SrTcO3 (octahedral Tc4+) and NH4TcO4 (tetrahedral Tc7+) immobilized in an epoxy resin. Features in the Tc L3-edge XANES spectra are compared with the pre-edge feature of the Tc K-edge as well as other 4d transition metal L3-edges. Evidence of crystal field splitting is obvious in the Tc L3-edge, which is sensitive to the coordination number and oxidation state of the Tc cation. The Tc L3 absorption edge energy difference between SrTcO3 (Tc4+) and NH4TcO4 (Tc7+) shows that the energy shift at the Tc L3-edge is an effective tool for studying changes in the oxi...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - October 1, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Blanchard, P.E.R.Reynolds, E.Kennedy, B.J.Ling, C.D.Zhang, Z.Thorogood, G.Cowie, B.C.C.Thomsen, L. Tags: XANES Tc L3-edge technetium oxides radioactive materials crystal field splitting research papers Source Type: research

Radiation dose and image quality in K-edge subtraction computed tomography of lung in vivo
K-edge subtraction computed tomography (KES-CT) allows simultaneous imaging of both structural features and regional distribution of contrast elements inside an organ. Using this technique, regional lung ventilation and blood volume distributions can be measured experimentally in vivo. In order for this imaging technology to be applicable in humans, it is crucial to minimize exposure to ionizing radiation with little compromise in image quality. The goal of this study was to assess the changes in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of KES-CT lung images as a function of radiation dose. The experiments were performed in anesthetize...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - October 1, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Strengell, S.Keyriläinen, J.Suortti, P.Bayat, S.Sovijärvi, A.R.A.Porra, L. Tags: dosimetry computed tomography K-edge subtraction image quality lung imaging research papers Source Type: research

Path degeneracy and EXAFS analysis of disordered materials
Analysis of EXAFS data measured on a material with a disordered local configuration environment around the absorbing atom can be challenging owing to the proliferation of photoelectron scattering paths that must be considered in the analysis. In the case where the absorbing atom exists in multiple inequivalent sites, the problem is compounded by having to consider each site separately. A method is proposed for automating the calculation of theory for inequivalent sites, then averaging the contributions from sufficiently similar scattering paths. With this approach, the complexity of implementing a successful fitting model ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - September 30, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Ravel, B. Tags: EXAFS real-space multiple scattering data analysis research papers Source Type: research

Prospects of high-resolution resonant X-ray inelastic scattering studies on solid materials, liquids and gases at diffraction-limited storage rings
The spectroscopic technique of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) will particularly profit from immensely improved brilliance of diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs). In RIXS one measures the intensities of excitations as a function of energy and momentum transfer. DLSRs will allow for pushing the achievable energy resolution, signal intensity and the sampled spot size to new limits. With RIXS one nowadays probes a broad range of electronic systems reaching from simple molecules to complex materials displaying phenomena like peculiar magnetism, two-dimensional electron gases, superconductivity, photovoltaic en...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 31, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Schmitt, T.de Groot, F.M.F.Rubensson, J.-E. Tags: X-ray emission resonant inelastic X-ray scattering X-ray absorption diffraction-limited storage rings molecules, correlated materials transition metal ions research papers Source Type: research

microARPES and nanoARPES at diffraction-limited light sources: opportunities and performance gains
The scientific opportunities for microARPES and nanoARPES techniques are discussed, and the benefits to these techniques at diffraction-limited light sources are presented, in particular the impact on spectromicroscopic ARPES (angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy) of upgrading the Advanced Light Source to diffraction-limited performance. The most important consideration is whether the space-charge broadening, impacting the energy and momentum resolution, will limit the possible benefits for ARPES. Calculations of energy broadening due to space-charge effects will be presented over a wide range of parameters, and optim...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 31, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Rotenberg, E.Bostwick, A. Tags: ARPES nanoARPES photoemission space-charge broadening research papers Source Type: research

Pixel detectors for diffraction-limited storage rings
This article summarizes the current state of the art, developments underway worldwide, and challenges that diffraction-limited storage ring sources present for detectors. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 31, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Denes, P.Schmitt, B. Tags: detectors hybrid pixel detectors monolithic pixel detectors diffraction-limited storage rings RIXS XPCS CXDI research papers Source Type: research

Diffraction-limited storage rings – a window to the science of tomorrow
This article summarizes the contributions in this special issue on Diffraction-Limited Storage Rings. It analyses the progress in accelerator technology enabling a significant increase in brightness and coherent fraction of the X-ray light provided by storage rings. With MAX IV and Sirius there are two facilities under construction that already exploit these advantages. Several other projects are in the design stage and these will probably enhance the performance further. To translate the progress in light source quality into new science requires similar progress in aspects such as optics, beamline technology, detectors an...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 30, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Eriksson, M.Veen, J. F. van derQuitmann, C. Tags: diffraction-limited storage rings new science opportunities research papers Source Type: research

Hard X-ray nanofocusing at low-emittance synchrotron radiation sources
X-ray scanning microscopy relies on intensive nanobeams generated by imaging a highly brilliant synchrotron radiation source onto the sample with a nanofocusing X-ray optic. Here, using a Gaussian model for the central cone of an undulator source, the nanobeam generated by refractive X-ray lenses is modeled in terms of size, flux and coherence. The beam properties are expressed in terms of the emittances of the storage ring and the lateral sizes of the electron beam. Optimal source parameters are calculated to obtain efficient and diffraction-limited nanofocusing. With decreasing emittance, the usable fraction of the beam ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 29, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Schroer, C.G.Falkenberg, G. Tags: X-ray nanofocus X-ray optics diffraction-limited storage ring research papers Source Type: research

New challenges in beamline instrumentation for the ESRF Upgrade Programme Phase II
This article aims at providing a comprehensive review of some of the challenges encountered by the ESRF, in the context of the preparation of Phase II of its upgrade programme. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 29, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Susini, J.Barrett, R.Chavanne, J.Fajardo, P.Götz, A.Revol, J.-L.Zhang, L. Tags: ESRF upgrade ultra-low emittance heat-load optics X-ray detectors data   management synchrotron instrumentation research papers Source Type: research

Current events
(Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 27, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: , Tags: current events Source Type: research

X-ray spectroscopy for chemical and energy sciences: the case of heterogeneous catalysis
Heterogeneous catalysis is the enabling technology for much of the current and future processes relevant for energy conversion and chemicals synthesis. The development of new materials and processes is greatly helped by the understanding of the catalytic process at the molecular level on the macro/micro-kinetic time scale and on that of the actual bond breaking and bond making. The performance of heterogeneous catalysts is inherently the average over the ensemble of active sites. Much development aims at unravelling the structure of the active site; however, in general, these methods yield the ensemble-average structure. A...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 27, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Frenkel, A.I.Bokhoven, J.A.van Tags: heterogeneous catalysis diffraction-limited storage rings single-particle spectroscopy time resolved X-ray absorption X-ray emission research papers Source Type: research

High-pressure X-ray science on the ultimate storage ring
The advent of the ESRF, APS and SPring-8 third-generation synchrotron sources in the mid-1990s heralded a golden age of high-pressure X-ray science. The high-energy monochromatic micro-focused X-ray beams from these storage rings, combined with the new high-pressure diffraction and spectroscopy techniques developed in the late 1980s, meant that researchers were immediately able to make detailed structural studies at pressures comparable with those at the centre of the Earth, studies that were simply not possible only five years previously. And new techniques, such as X-ray inelastic scattering and X-ray nuclear scattering,...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 27, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: McMahon, M.I. Tags: high-pressure diffraction diffraction-limited storage rings extreme conditions research papers Source Type: research

X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy
This article briefly reviews the basic principles of XPCS as well as some of its recent applications, and discusses some novel approaches to XPCS analysis. It concludes with a discussion of the future impact of diffraction-limited storage rings on new types of XPCS experiments, pushing the temporal resolution to nanosecond and possibly even picosecond time scales. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 27, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Shpyrko, O.G. Tags: coherence DLSR XPCS dynamics nanoscale research papers Source Type: research

X-ray nanoprobes and diffraction-limited storage rings: opportunities and challenges of fluorescence tomography of biological specimens
X-ray nanoprobes require coherent illumination to achieve optic-limited resolution, and so will benefit directly from diffraction-limited storage rings. Here, the example of high-resolution X-ray fluorescence tomography is focused on as one of the most voracious demanders of coherent photons, since the detected signal is only a small fraction of the incident flux. Alternative schemes are considered for beam delivery, sample scanning and detectors. One must consider as well the steps before and after the X-ray experiment: sample preparation and examination conditions, and analysis complexity due to minimum dose requirements...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 27, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: de Jonge, M.D.Ryan, C.G.Jacobsen, C.J. Tags: X-ray fluorescence microscopy fluorescence tomography nanotomography scanning X-ray microscopy diffraction-limited storage rings research papers Source Type: research

Spectromicroscopy and coherent diffraction imaging: focus on energy materials applications
Current and future capabilities of X-ray spectromicroscopy are discussed based on coherence-limited imaging methods which will benefit from the dramatic increase in brightness expected from a diffraction-limited storage ring (DLSR). The methods discussed include advanced coherent diffraction techniques and nanoprobe-based real-space imaging using Fresnel zone plates or other diffractive optics whose performance is affected by the degree of coherence. The capabilities of current systems, improvements which can be expected, and some of the important scientific themes which will be impacted are described, with focus on energy...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 27, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Hitchcock, A.P.Toney, M.F. Tags: scanning X-ray microscopy coherent diffraction imaging ptychography resonant X-ray scattering energy materials lithium batteries polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells research papers Source Type: research

Coherent imaging at the diffraction limit
X-ray ptychography, a scanning coherent diffractive imaging technique, holds promise for imaging with dose-limited resolution and sensitivity. If the foreseen increase of coherent flux by orders of magnitude can be matched by additional technological and analytical advances, ptychography may approach imaging speeds familiar from full-field methods while retaining its inherently quantitative nature and metrological versatility. Beyond promises of high throughput, spectroscopic applications in three dimensions become feasible, as do measurements of sample dynamics through time-resolved imaging or careful characterization of ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 27, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Thibault, P.Guizar-Sicairos, M.Menzel, A. Tags: diffraction-limited synchrotron sources coherent diffraction imaging ptychography research papers Source Type: research

Optics for coherent X-ray applications
Developments of X-ray optics for full utilization of diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs) are presented. The expected performance of DLSRs is introduced using the design parameters of SPring-8 II. To develop optical elements applicable to manipulation of coherent X-rays, advanced technologies on precise processing and metrology were invented. With propagation-based coherent X-rays at the 1 km beamline of SPring-8, a beryllium window fabricated with the physical-vapour-deposition method was found to have ideal speckle-free properties. The elastic emission machining method was utilized for developing reflective mirr...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 27, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Yabashi, M.Tono, K.Mimura, H.Matsuyama, S.Yamauchi, K.Tanaka, T.Tanaka, H.Tamasaku, K.Ohashi, H.Goto, S.Ishikawa, T. Tags: X-ray optics X-ray beamline coherence research papers Source Type: research

On the characterization of ultra-precise X-ray optical components: advances and challenges in ex situ metrology
To fully exploit the ultimate source properties of the next-generation light sources, such as free-electron lasers (FELs) and diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs), the quality requirements for gratings and reflective synchrotron optics, especially mirrors, have significantly increased. These coherence-preserving optical components for high-brightness sources will feature nanoscopic shape accuracies over macroscopic length scales up to 1000 mm. To enable high efficiency in terms of photon flux, such optics will be coated with application-tailored single or multilayer coatings. Advanced thin-film fabrication of today ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 27, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Siewert, F.Buchheim, J.Zeschke, T.Störmer, M.Falkenberg, G.Sankari, R. Tags: synchrotron optics X-ray optics metrology for synchrotron optics slope   measurement NOM multilayer focusing mirrors research papers Source Type: research

Generation of picosecond electron bunches in storage rings
Approaches to generating short X-ray pulses in synchrotron light sources are discussed. In particular, the method of using a superconducting harmonic cavity to generate simultaneously long and short bunches in storage rings and the approach of injecting short bunches from a linac injector into a storage ring for multi-turn circulation are emphasized. If multi-cell superconducting RF (SRF) cavities with frequencies of ∼1.5 GHz can be employed in storage rings, it would be possible to generate stable, high-flux, short-pulse X-ray beams with pulse lengths of 1–10 ps (FWHM) in present or future storage rings. How...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 27, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Huang, X.Rabedeau, T.Safranek, J. Tags: short pulse picosecond storage ring research papers Source Type: research

Collective effects in a diffraction-limited storage ring
This paper gives an overview of collective effects that are likely to appear and possibly limit the performance in a diffraction-limited storage ring (DLSR) that stores a high-intensity ultra-low-emittance beam. Beam instabilities and other intensity-dependent effects that may significantly impact the machine performance are covered. The latter include beam-induced machine heating, Touschek scattering, intra-beam scattering, as well as incoherent tune shifts. The general trend that the efforts to achieve ultra-low emittance result in increasing the machine coupling impedance and the beam sensitivity to instability is revie...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 27, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Nagaoka, R.Bane, K.L.F. Tags: diffraction-limited storage ring beam instability collective effects wake   function impedance low emittance light source research papers Source Type: research

Lattice design challenges for fourth-generation storage-ring light sources
Third-generation low-emittance storage-ring light sources based on double- and triple-bend cells and undulator magnets have been in operation around the world for more than two decades. On the horizon is a new generation based on the multi-bend achromat (MBA) lattice concept promising two to three orders of magnitude higher brightness than is available in today's sources. In this paper, the challenges inherent in designing MBA lattices, as well as potential solutions, are described. Topics covered include lattice concepts, scaling of storage-ring performance, brightness optimization, nonlinear dynamics, beam lifetime and i...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 27, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Borland, M.Decker, G.Emery, L.Sajaev, V.Sun, Y.Xiao, A. Tags: lattice storage ring beam dynamics brightness research papers Source Type: research

The Sirius project
The lattice design and beam dynamics optimization for Sirius, a new low-emittance synchrotron light source presently under construction at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas, Brazil, is presented. The electron storage ring is based on a five-bend achromat (5BA) design achieving a bare lattice emittance of 0.28 nm rad for a 3 GeV beam. The circumference of 518 m contains 20 achromatic straight sections of alternating 7 m and 6 m in length. An innovative approach is adopted to enhance the performance of the storage ring dipoles by combining low-field (0.58 T) magnets for the main beam...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 27, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Liu, L.Milas, N.Mukai, A.H.C.Resende, X.R.de Sá, F.H. Tags: multi-bend achromat superbend diffraction-limited storage ring research papers Source Type: research

Magnet design for a low-emittance storage ring
This article presents practical engineering details of implementing this magnet design solution, and mechanical + magnetic field measurement results from the magnet production series. At the time of writing (spring 2014), the production series, which is totally outsourced to industry, is roughly half way through, with mechanical/magnetic QA conforming to specifications. It is the conclusion of the authors that the MAX IV magnet block concept, which has sometimes been described as new or innovative, is from a manufacturing point of view simply a collection of known mature production methods and measurement procedures, whi...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 27, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Johansson, M.Anderberg, B.Lindgren, L.-J. Tags: accelerator magnet magnet block multi-bend achromat low emittance research papers Source Type: research

Diffraction-limited storage-ring vacuum technology
Some of the characteristics of recent ultralow-emittance storage-ring designs and possibly future diffraction-limited storage rings are a compact lattice combined with small magnet apertures. Such requirements present a challenge for the design and performance of the vacuum system. The vacuum system should provide the required vacuum pressure for machine operation and be able to handle the heat load from synchrotron radiation. Small magnet apertures result in the conductance of the chamber being low, and lumped pumps are ineffective. One way to provide the required vacuum level is by distributed pumping, which can be reali...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 27, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Al-Dmour, E.Ahlback, J.Einfeld, D.Fernandes Tavares, P.F.Grabski, M. Tags: vacuum NEG coating DLSR copper vacuum chambers research papers Source Type: research

The MAX IV storage ring project
The MAX IV facility, currently under construction in Lund, Sweden, features two electron storage rings operated at 3 GeV and 1.5 GeV and optimized for the hard X-ray and soft X-ray/VUV spectral ranges, respectively. A 3 GeV linear accelerator serves as a full-energy injector into both rings as well as a driver for a short-pulse facility, in which undulators produce X-ray pulses as short as 100 fs. The 3 GeV ring employs a multibend achromat (MBA) lattice to achieve, in a relatively short circumference of 528 m, a bare lattice emittance of 0.33 nm rad, which reduces to 0.2 nm rad as insertion devices a...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 27, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Tavares, P.F.Leemann, S.C.Sjöström, M.Andersson, Å. Tags: storage ring synchrotron light source multibend achromat research papers Source Type: research

First multi-bend achromat lattice consideration
By the beginning of 1990, three third-generation synchrotron light sources had been successfully commissioned in Grenoble, Berkeley and Trieste (ESRF, ALS and ELETTRA). Each of these new machines reached their target specifications without any significant problems. In parallel, already at that time discussions were underway regarding the next generation, the `diffraction-limited light source (DLSR)', which featured sub-nm rad electron beam emittance, photon beam brilliance exceeding 1022 and the potential to emit coherent radiation. Also, at about that time, a first design for a 3 GeV DLSR was developed, based on a mod...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 27, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Einfeld, D.Plesko, M.Schaper, J. Tags: synchrotron light source beam optics lattice DLSR MAX IV research papers Source Type: research

DLSR design and plans: an international overview
It has been known for decades that the emittance of multi-GeV storage rings can be reduced to very small values using multi-bend achromat (MBA) lattices. However, a practical design of a ring having emittance approaching the diffraction limit for multi-keV photons, i.e. a diffraction-limited storage ring (DLSR), with a circumference of order 1 km or less was not possible before the development of small-aperture vacuum systems and other accelerator technology, together with an evolution in the understanding and accurate simulation of non-linear beam dynamics, had taken place. The 3-GeV MAX IV project in Sweden has initi...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 26, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Hettel, R. Tags: storage rings light sources accelerator technology research papers Source Type: research

Linear fitting of multi-threshold counting data with a pixel-array detector for spectral X-ray imaging
Experiments and modeling are described to perform spectral fitting of multi-threshold counting measurements on a pixel-array detector. An analytical model was developed for describing the probability density function of detected voltage in X-ray photon-counting arrays, utilizing fractional photon counting to account for edge/corner effects from voltage plumes that spread across multiple pixels. Each pixel was mathematically calibrated by fitting the detected voltage distributions to the model at both 13.5 keV and 15.0 keV X-ray energies. The model and established pixel responses were then exploited to statistically rec...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 15, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Muir, R.D.Pogranichney, N.R.Muir, J.L.Sullivan, S.Z.Battaile, K.P.Mulichak, A.M.Toth, S.J.Keefe, L.J.Simpson, G.J. Tags: energy dispersive spectroscopic imaging multi-wavelength fractional counting research papers Source Type: research

A novel high-temperature furnace for combined in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and infrared thermal imaging to investigate the effects of thermal gradients upon the structure of ceramic materials
A new technique combining in situ X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation and infrared thermal imaging is reported. The technique enables the application, generation and measurement of significant thermal gradients, and furthermore allows the direct spatial correlation of thermal and crystallographic measurements. The design and implementation of a novel furnace enabling the simultaneous thermal and X-ray measurements is described. The technique is expected to have wide applicability in material science and engineering; here it has been applied to the study of solid oxide fuel cells at high temperature. (Source: Jour...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 15, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Robinson, J.B.Brown, L.D.Jervis, R.Taiwo, O.O.Millichamp, J.Mason, T.J.Neville, T.P.Eastwood, D.S.Reinhard, C.Lee, P.D.Brett, D.J.L.Shearing, P.R. Tags: X-ray diffraction solid oxide fuel cell infrared imaging thermal imaging stress   analysis composite materials research papers Source Type: research

Ptychography with multilayer Laue lenses
Two different multilayer Laue lens designs were made with total deposition thicknesses of 48 µm and 53 µm, and focal lengths of 20.0 mm and 12.5 mm at 20.0 keV, respectively. From these two multilayer systems, several lenses were manufactured for one- and two-dimensional focusing. The latter is realised with a directly bonded assembly of two crossed lenses, that reduces the distance between the lenses in the beam direction to 30 µm and eliminates the necessity of producing different multilayer systems. Characterization of lens fabrication was performed using a laboratory X-ray microscope. Focu...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 9, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Kubec, A.Braun, S.Niese, S.Krüger, P.Patommel, J.Hecker, M.Leson, A.Schroer, C.G. Tags: multilayer Laue lens X-ray nanofocusing ptychography scanning X-ray microscopy research papers Source Type: research

X-ray micro-diffraction studies on biological samples at the BioCAT Beamline 18-ID at the Advanced Photon Source
The small source sizes of third-generation synchrotron sources are ideal for the production of microbeams for diffraction studies of crystalline and non-crystalline materials. While several such facilities have been available around the world for some time now, few have been optimized for the handling of delicate soft-tissue specimens under cryogenic conditions. Here the development of a new X-ray micro-diffraction instrument at the Biophysics Collaborative Access Team beamline 18-ID at the Advanced Photon Source, and its use with newly developed cryo-diffraction techniques for soft-tissue studies, are described. The combi...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 8, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Barrea, R.A.Antipova, O.Gore, D.Heurich, R.Vukonich, M.Kujala, N.G.Irving, T.C.Orgel, J.P.R.O. Tags: X-ray diffraction microfocus amyloid collagen biological samples beamlines Source Type: research

Three-dimensional study of poly(lactic co-glycolic acid) micro-porous microspheres using hard X-ray nano-tomography
In this study, micro-porous PLGA microspheres loaded by bovine serum albumin are investigated by using a full-field Zernike phase contrast transmission hard X-ray microscope. From three-dimensional reconstructions and segmentations, fundamental microstructural parameters such as size, shape, distribution and volume ratio among pores and proteins inside PLGA microspheres were obtained. These parameters are useful to understand the relationship between the internal microstructure and drug encapsulation, as well as the drug release efficiency of PLGA microspheres. The presented results demonstrate the capability of hard X-ray...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 7, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Wang, D.Li, N.Wang, Z.Gao, K.Zhang, Y.Luo, Y.Wang, S.Bao, Y.Shao, Q.Wu, Z. Tags: hard X-ray imaging nano-tomography PLGA microspheres salt concentration drug delivery research papers Source Type: research

High-dynamic-range coherent diffractive imaging: ptychography using the mixed-mode pixel array detector
Coherent (X-ray) diffractive imaging (CDI) is an increasingly popular form of X-ray microscopy, mainly due to its potential to produce high-resolution images and the lack of an objective lens between the sample and its corresponding imaging detector. One challenge, however, is that very high dynamic range diffraction data must be collected to produce both quantitative and high-resolution images. In this work, hard X-ray ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging has been performed at the P10 beamline of the PETRA III synchrotron to demonstrate the potential of a very wide dynamic range imaging X-ray detector (the Mixed-M...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 7, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Giewekemeyer, K.Philipp, H.T.Wilke, R.N.Aquila, A.Osterhoff, M.Tate, M.W.Shanks, K.S.Zozulya, A.V.Salditt, T.Gruner, S.M.Mancuso, A.P. Tags: pixel array detectors coherent X-ray diffractive imaging ptychography research papers Source Type: research

Scanning force microscope for in situ nanofocused X-ray diffraction studies
A compact scanning force microscope has been developed for in situ combination with nanofocused X-ray diffraction techniques at third-generation synchrotron beamlines. Its capabilities are demonstrated on Au nano-islands grown on a sapphire substrate. The new in situ device allows for in situ imaging the sample topography and the crystallinity by recording simultaneously an atomic force microscope (AFM) image and a scanning X-ray diffraction map of the same area. Moreover, a selected Au island can be mechanically deformed using the AFM tip while monitoring the deformation of the atomic lattice by nanofocused X-ray diffract...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 6, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Ren, Z.Mastropietro, F.Davydok, A.Langlais, S.Richard, M.-Furter, J.-J.Thomas, O.Dupraz, M.Verdier, M.Beutier, G.Boesecke, P.Cornelius, T.W. Tags: in situ atomic force microscopy nanofocused X-ray diffraction mechanical   properties nanostructure research papers Source Type: research

Partially coherent X-ray wavefront propagation simulations including grazing-incidence focusing optics
X-ray beamlines in modern synchrotron radiation sources make extensive use of grazing-incidence reflective optics, in particular Kirkpatrick–Baez elliptical mirror systems. These systems can focus the incoming X-rays down to nanometer-scale spot sizes while maintaining relatively large acceptance apertures and high flux in the focused radiation spots. In low-emittance storage rings and in free-electron lasers such systems are used with partially or even nearly fully coherent X-ray beams and often target diffraction-limited resolution. Therefore, their accurate simulation and modeling has to be performed within t...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 6, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Canestrari, N.Chubar, O.Reininger, R. Tags: wavefront propagation wave optics Fourier optics geometrical ray-tracing grazing-incidence mirror benchmarking research papers Source Type: research