Soft X-ray absorption of thin films detected using substrate luminescence: a performance analysis
X-ray absorption spectroscopy of thin films is central to a broad range of scientific fields, and is typically detected using indirect techniques. X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) from the sample's substrate is one such detection method, in which the luminescence signal acts as an effective transmission measurement through the film. This detection method has several advantages that make it versatile compared with others, in particular for insulating samples or when a probing depth larger than 10   nm is required. In this work a systematic performance analysis of this method is presented with the aim of providing...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 23, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Piamonteze, C. Windsor, Y.W. Avula, S.R.V. Kirk, E. Staub, U. Tags: soft X-ray absorption instrumentation sum rules magnetism thin films research papers Source Type: research

Soft X-ray induced radiation damage in thin freeze-dried brain samples studied by FTIR microscopy
In order to push the spatial resolution limits to the nanoscale, synchrotron-based soft X-ray microscopy (XRM) experiments require higher radiation doses to be delivered to materials. Nevertheless, the associated radiation damage impacts on   the integrity of delicate biological samples. Herein, the extent of soft X-ray radiation damage in popular thin freeze-dried brain tissue samples mounted onto Si3N4 membranes, as highlighted by Fourier transform infrared microscopy (FTIR), is reported. The freeze-dried tissue samples were found to be affected by general degradation of the vibrational architecture, though these ef...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 20, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Surowka, A.D. Gianoncelli, A. Birarda, G. Sala, S. Cefarin, N. Matruglio, A. Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, M. Ziomber-Lisiak, A. Vaccari, L. Tags: radiation damage soft X-rays freeze-dried brain tissue FTIR microscopy X-ray microscopy research papers Source Type: research

Current status and future opportunities for serial crystallography at MAX IV Laboratory
Over the last decade, serial crystallography, a method to collect complete diffraction datasets from a large number of microcrystals delivered and exposed to an X-ray beam in random orientations at room temperature, has been successfully implemented at X-ray free-electron lasers and synchrotron radiation facility beamlines. This development relies on a growing variety of sample presentation methods, including different fixed target supports, injection methods using gas-dynamic virtual-nozzle injectors and high-viscosity extrusion injectors, and acoustic levitation of droplets, each with unique requirements. In comparison w...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 20, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Shilova, A. Lebrette, H. Aurelius, O. Nan, J. Welin, M. Kovacic, R. Ghosh, S. Safari, C. Friel, R.J. Milas, M. Matej, Z. H ö gbom, M. Br ä nd é n, G. Kloos, M. Shoeman, R. Doak, B. Ursby, T. H å kansson, M. Logan, D.T. Mueller, U. Tags: serial crystallography macromolecular crystallography sample delivery high-viscosity injectors research papers Source Type: research

Experimental setup for high-temperature in situ studies of crystallization of thin films with atmosphere control
Understanding the crystallization process for chemical solution deposition (CSD) processed thin films is key in designing the fabrication strategy for obtaining high-quality devices. Here, an in situ sample environment is presented for studying the crystallization of CSD processed thin films under typical processing parameters using near-grazing-incidence synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Typically, the pyrolysis is performed in a rapid thermal processing (RTP) unit, where high heating rates, high temperatures and atmosphere control are the main control parameters. The presented in situ setup can reach heating rates of 20 &de...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 20, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Blichfeld, A.B. Bakken, K. Chernyshov, D. Glaum, J. Grande, T. Einarsrud, M.-A. Tags: synchrotron X-ray diffraction high-temperature thin-film environments chemical solution deposition thin films in situ studies research papers Source Type: research

The XFM beamline at the Australian Synchrotron
The X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) beamline is an in-vacuum undulator-based X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobe beamline at the 3   GeV Australian Synchrotron. The beamline delivers hard X-rays in the 4 – 27   keV energy range, permitting K emission to Cd and L and M emission for all other heavier elements. With a practical low-energy detection cut-off of approximately 1.5   keV, low-Z detection is constrained to Si, with Al detectable under favourable circumstances. The beamline has two scanning stations: a Kirkpatrick – Baez mirror microprobe, which produces a focal spot of 2   µ m   &tim...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 18, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Howard, D.L. de Jonge, M.D. Afshar, N. Ryan, C.G. Kirkham, R. Reinhardt, J. Kewish, C.M. McKinlay, J. Walsh, A. Divitcos, J. Basten, N. Adamson, L. Fiala, T. Sammut, L. Paterson, D.J. Tags: XRF microprobe XANES imaging XRF tomography ptychography X-ray fluorescence beamlines Source Type: research

In situ structural studies during denaturation of natural and synthetically crosslinked collagen using synchrotron SAXS
Collagen is an important biomacromolecule, making up the majority of the extracellular matrix in animal tissues. Naturally occurring crosslinks in collagen stabilize its intermolecular structure in vivo, whereas chemical treatments for introducing synthetic crosslinks are often carried out ex vivo to improve the physical properties or heat stability of the collagen fibres for applications in biomaterials or leather production. Effective protection of intrinsic natural crosslinks as well as allowing them to contribute to collagen stability together with synthetic crosslinks can reduce the need for chemical treatments. Howev...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 18, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Zhang, Y. Buchanan, J. Naffa, R. Mansel, B. Maidment, C. Holmes, G. Prabakar, S. Tags: in situ SAXS collagen structure crosslinks denaturation short communications Source Type: research

Self-assembly of block copolymers under non-isothermal annealing conditions as revealed by grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering
An accurate knowledge of the parameters governing the kinetics of block copolymer self-assembly is crucial to model the time- and temperature-dependent evolution of pattern formation during annealing as well as to predict the most efficient conditions for the formation of defect-free patterns. Here, the self-assembly kinetics of a lamellar PS-b-PMMA block copolymer under both isothermal and non-isothermal annealing conditions are investigated by combining grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) experiments with a novel modelling methodology that accounts for the annealing history of the block copolymer film...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 18, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Fern á ndez-Reg ú lez, M. Solano, E. Evangelio, L. Gottlieb, S. Pinto-G ó mez, C. Rius, G. Fraxedas, J. Guti é rrez-Fern á ndez, E. Nogales, A. Garc í a-Guti é rrez, M.C. Ezquerra, T.A. P é rez-Murano, F. Tags: block copolymer self-assembly kinetics correlation length GISAXS research papers Source Type: research

Direct non-destructive total reflection X-ray fluorescence elemental determinations in zirconium alloy samples
The development of a direct non-destructive synchrotron-radiation-based total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analytical methodology for elemental determinations in zirconium alloy samples is reported for the first time. Discs, of diameter 30   mm and about 1.6   mm thickness, of the zirconium alloys Zr-2.5%Nb and Zircalloy-4 were cut from plates of these alloys and mirror polished. These specimens were presented for TXRF measurements directly after polishing and cleaning. The TXRF measurements were made at the XRF beamline at Elettra synchrotron light source, Trieste, Italy, at two different excitation energies, ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 18, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Sanyal, K. Kanrar, B. Dhara, S. Sibilia, M. Sengupta, A. Karydas, A.G. Mishra, N.L. Tags: Zircalloy non-destructive analysis TXRF synchrotron low- and high-Z elements research papers Source Type: research

Beamline B21: high-throughput small-angle X-ray scattering at Diamond Light Source
B21 is a small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) beamline with a bending magnet source in the 3   GeV storage ring at the Diamond Light Source Ltd synchrotron in the UK. The beamline utilizes a double multi-layer monochromator and a toroidal focusing optic to deliver 2   ×   1012 photons per second to a 34   ×   40   µ m (FWHM) focal spot at the in-vacuum Eiger   4M (Dectris) detector. A high-performance liquid chromatography system and a liquid-handling robot make it possible to load solution samples into a temperature-controlled in-vacuum sample cell with a high level of automation. Alternativ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 17, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Cowieson, N.P. Edwards-Gayle, C.J.C. Inoue, K. Khunti, N.S. Doutch, J. Williams, E. Daniels, S. Preece, G. Krumpa, N.A. Sutter, J.P. Tully, M.D. Terrill, N.J. Rambo, R.P. Tags: SAXS proteins biological macromolecules solution samples beamlines Source Type: research

Multiscale pink-beam microCT imaging at the ESRF-ID17 biomedical beamline
Recent trends in hard X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) aim at increasing both spatial and temporal resolutions. These challenges require intense photon beams. Filtered synchrotron radiation beams, also referred to as `pink beams', which are emitted by wigglers or bending magnets, meet this need,   owing to their broad energy range. In this work, the new microCT station installed at the biomedical beamline ID17 of the European Synchrotron is described and an overview of the preliminary results obtained for different biomedical-imaging applications is given. This new instrument expands the capabilities of the b...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 17, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Mittone, A. Fardin, L. Di Lillo, F. Fratini, M. Requardt, H. Mauro, A. Homs-Regojo, R.A. Douissard, P.-A. Barbone, G.E. Stroebel, J. Romano, M. Massimi, L. Begani-Provinciali, G. Palermo, F. Bayat, S. Cedola, A. Coan, P. Bravin, A. Tags: computed tomography X-ray imaging image quality multiscale imaging pink-beam imaging biomedical imaging research papers Source Type: research

Azimuthal-rotation sample holder for molecular orientation analysis
In this study, an azimuthal-rotation sample holder compatible with scanning transmission X-ray microscopy was developed. This holder exhibits improvement in the accuracy of rotation angles and reduces the displacement of the rotation axes during azimuthal rotation by using a crossed roller bearing. To   evaluate the performance of the holder, the authors investigated the dependence of the optical density around the C K-edge absorption of π -orbital-oriented domains in natural spherical graphite on the rotational angle by using linearly horizontally and vertically polarized undulator radiation. Based on the dependen...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 17, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Harano, T. Takeichi, Y. Ohigashi, T. Shindo, D. Nemoto, E. Wakabayashi, D. Yamashita, S. Murao, R. Kimura, M. Tags: scanning transmission X-ray microscopy X-ray absorption near edge orbital orientation chemical structure carbon research papers Source Type: research

Focus characterization of an X-ray free-electron laser by intensity correlation measurement of X-ray fluorescence
This paper proposes and demonstrates a simple method using the intensity correlation of X-ray fluorescence to evaluate the focused beam size of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL). This method was applied to the sub-micrometre focused XFEL beam at the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free Electron Laser, and the beam size evaluated using the proposed method was consistent with that measured using the knife-edge scan method. The proposed method is readily applicable to extremely small X-ray spots and can be applied for the precise diagnostics of sub-10   nm focused X-ray beams which have recently emerged. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 16, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Nakamura, N. Matsuyama, S. Inoue, T. Inoue, I. Yamada, J. Osaka, T. Yabashi, M. Ishikawa, T. Yamauchi, K. Tags: Intensity correlation X-ray focusing focus characterization X-ray fluorescence X-ray free-electron lasers SACLA short communications Source Type: research

High accuracy determination of photoelectric cross sections, X-ray absorption fine structure and nanostructure analysis of zinc selenide using the X-ray extended range technique
Measurements of mass attenuation coefficients and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) of zinc selenide (ZnSe) are reported to accuracies typically better than 0.13%. The high accuracy of the results presented here is due to our successful implementation of the X-ray extended range technique, a relatively new methodology, which can be set up on most synchrotron X-ray beamlines. 561 attenuation coefficients were recorded in the energy range 6.8 – 15   keV with measurements concentrated at the zinc and selenium pre-edge, near-edge and fine-structure absorption edge regions. This accuracy yielded detailed nanostruct...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 16, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Sier, D. Cousland, G.P. Trevorah, R.M. Ekanayake, R.S.K. Tran, C.Q. Hester, J.R. Chantler, C.T. Tags: ZnSe XAFS XERT K-edges 0.1% accuracy research papers Source Type: research

Room-temperature performance of 3 mm-thick cadmium – zinc – telluride pixel detectors with sub-millimetre pixelization
Cadmium – zinc – telluride (CZT) pixel detectors represent a consolidated choice for the development of room-temperature spectroscopic X-ray imagers, finding important applications in medical imaging, often as detection modules of a variety of new SPECT and CT systems. Detectors with 3 – 5   mm thicknesses are able to efficiently detect X-rays up to 140   keV giving reasonable room-temperature energy resolution. In this work, the room-temperature performance of 3   mm-thick CZT pixel detectors, recently developed at IMEM/CNR of Parma (Italy), is presented. Sub-millimetre detector arrays with pixel p...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 16, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Buttacavoli, A. Principato, F. Gerardi, G. Bettelli, M. Sarzi Amad è , N. Zappettini, A. Seller, P. Veale, M.C. Fox, O. Sawhney, K. Abbene, L. Tags: X-ray and gamma ray detectors CdZnTe pixel detectors charge sharing charge losses charge-sharing correction spectroscopic X-ray imaging research papers Source Type: research

Ambient-pressure endstation of the Versatile Soft X-ray (VerSoX) beamline at Diamond Light Source
The ambient-pressure endstation and branchline of the Versatile Soft X-ray (VerSoX) beamline B07 at Diamond Light Source serves a very diverse user community studying heterogeneous catalysts, pharmaceuticals and biomaterials under realistic conditions, liquids and ices, and novel electronic, photonic and battery materials. The instrument facilitates studies of the near-surface chemical composition, electronic and geometric structure of a variety of samples using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy in the photon energy range from 170   eV to 2800   e...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 16, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Held, G. Venturini, F. Grinter, D.C. Ferrer, P. Arrigo, R. Deacon, L. Quevedo Garzon, W. Roy, K. Large, A. Stephens, C. Watts, A. Larkin, P. Hand, M. Wang, H. Pratt, L. Mudd, J.J. Richardson, T. Patel, S. Hillman, M. Scott, S. Tags: soft X-ray beamline ambient-pressure XPS X-ray absorption catalysis carbon contamination research papers Source Type: research

Beam damage of single semiconductor nanowires during X-ray nanobeam diffraction experiments
Nanoprobe X-ray diffraction (nXRD) using focused synchrotron radiation is a powerful technique to study the structural properties of individual semiconductor nanowires. However, when performing the experiment under ambient conditions, the required high X-ray dose and prolonged exposure times can lead to radiation damage. To unveil the origin of radiation damage, a comparison is made of nXRD experiments carried out on individual semiconductor nanowires in their as-grown geometry both under ambient conditions and under He atmosphere at the microfocus station of the P08 beamline at the third-generation source PETRA III. Using...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 11, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Al Hassan, A. L ä hnemann, J. Davtyan, A. Al-Humaidi, M. Herranz, J. Bahrami, D. Anjum, T. Bertram, F. Dey, A.B. Geelhaar, L. Pietsch, U. Tags: nanoprobe X-ray exposure individual core – shell nanowires morphological and optical changes ozone-induced oxidation air and He atmosphere research papers Source Type: research

Compensation of heat load deformations using adaptive optics for the ALS upgrade: a wave optics study
A realistic wave optics simulation method has been developed to study how wavefront distortions originating from heat load deformations can be corrected using adaptive X-ray optics. Several planned soft X-ray and tender X-ray insertion-device beamlines in the Advanced Light Source upgrade rely on a common design principle. A flat, first mirror intercepts the white beam; vertical focusing is provided by a variable-line-space monochromator; and horizontal focusing comes from a single, pre-figured, adaptive mirror. A variety of scenarios to cope with thermal distortion in the first mirror are studied by finite-element analysi...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 11, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Sanchez del Rio, M. Wojdyla, A. Goldberg, K.A. Cutler, G.D. Cocco, D. Padmore, H.A. Tags: X-ray optics simulations heat load adaptive optics diffraction-limited storage ring soft X-rays beamlines wave optics WOFRY OASYS research papers Source Type: research

Combining Laue diffraction with Bragg coherent diffraction imaging at 34-ID-C
Measurement modalities in Bragg coherent diffraction imaging (BCDI) rely on finding a signal from a single nanoscale crystal object which satisfies the Bragg condition among a large number of arbitrarily oriented nanocrystals. However, even when the signal from a single Bragg reflection with (hkl) Miller indices is found, the crystallographic axes on the retrieved three-dimensional (3D) image of the crystal remain unknown, and thus localizing in reciprocal space other Bragg reflections becomes time-consuming or requires good knowledge of the orientation of the crystal. Here, the commissioning of a movable double-bounce Si ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 10, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Pateras, A. Harder, R. Cha, W. Gigax, J.G. Baldwin, J.K. Tischler, J. Xu, R. Liu, W. Erdmann, M.J. Kalt, R. Sandberg, R.L. Fensin, S. Pokharel, R. Tags: Laue diffraction Bragg diffraction strain imaging BCDI beamlines Source Type: research

Deciphering the intrinsic dynamics from the beam-induced atomic motions in oxide glasses
Probing the microscopic slow structural relaxation in oxide glasses by X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) revealed faster than expected dynamics induced by the X-ray illumination. The fast beam-induced dynamics mask true slow structural relaxation in glasses and challenges application of XPCS to probe the atomic dynamics in oxide glasses. Here an approach that allows estimation of the true relaxation time of the sample in the presence of beam-induced dynamics is presented. The method requires two measurements either with different X-ray beam intensities or at different temperatures. Using numerical simulations it...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 10, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Chushkin, Y. Tags: XPCS glasses beam effect research papers Source Type: research

A cantilevered liquid-nitrogen-cooled silicon mirror for the Advanced Light Source Upgrade
This paper presents a novel cantilevered liquid-nitrogen-cooled silicon mirror design for the first optic in a new soft X-ray beamline that is being developed as   part of the Advanced Light Source Upgrade (ALS-U) (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA). The beamline is optimized for photon energies between 400 and 1400   eV with full polarization control. Calculations indicate that, without correction, this design will achieve a Strehl ratio greater than 0.85 for the entire energy and polarization ranges of the beamline. With a correction achieved by moving the focus 7.5   mm upstream, the minimum Strehl rat...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 10, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Cutler, G. Cocco, D. DiMasi, E. Morton, S. Sanchez del Rio, M. Padmore, H. Tags: cantilevered mirrors wavefront propagation cryogenics silicon mirrors liquid-nitrogen cooling high heat-load research papers Source Type: research

On-demand correction for X-ray response non-uniformity in microstrip detectors by a data-driven approach
A statistical approach, which was previously developed to correct scattering data for X-ray response non-uniformity (XRNU) in microstrip detectors, has been improved to significantly reduce the correcting time. The improved algorithm has succeeded in increasing the utilization rate of data acquired for reference intensity to 98%. As a result, the correcting time was reduced from half a day to half an hour, which was shorter than the typical measuring time of a sample. Moreover, the present approach was found to yield better correction results than the previous one. The data-driven approach enabled the on-demand correction ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 10, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Kato, K. Shigeta, K. Tags: flat-field correction X-ray detectors X-ray scattering data science research papers Source Type: research

Pressure effects on the EXAFS Debye – Waller factor of iron
The pressure effects on atomic mean-square relative displacement characterizing the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) Debye – Waller factor of iron metal have been investigated based on the Debye model. The analytical expressions of the Debye frequency and EXAFS Debye – Waller factor have been derived as functions of crystal volume compressibility. Based on the well established equation-of-state including the contributions of the anharmonic and electronic thermal pressures, numerical calculations have been performed for iron up to a pressure of 220   GPa and compared with experimental data when...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 5, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Hieu, H.K. Duc, N.B. Hung, N.V. Hanh, P.T.M. Hai, T.T. Tags: Debye model EXAFS – Waller factor Debye frequency short communications Source Type: research

Characterization of soft X-ray FEL pulse duration with two-color photoelectron spectroscopy
The pulse duration of soft X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) pulses of SACLA BL1 (0.2 – 0.3   nC per bunch, 0.5 – 0.8   MeV) were characterized by photoelectron sideband measurements. The intensity of the He 1   s − 1 photoelectron sidebands generated by a near-infrared femtosecond laser was measured as a function of the time delay between the two pulses using an arrival time monitor. From the width of the cross-correlation trace thus derived, the FEL pulse duration was evaluated to be 28 ± 5   fs full width at half-maximum in the photon energy range between 40   eV and 120   eV. (Source:...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 5, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Owada, S. Fushitani, M. Matsuda, A. Fujise, H. Sasaki, Y. Hikosaka, Y. Hishikawa, A. Yabashi, M. Tags: free-electron lasers cross-correlation photoelectron sidebands short communications Source Type: research

A versatile X-ray phase retarder for lock-in XMCD measurements
X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) is a technique commonly used to probe magnetic properties of materials with element and orbital selectivity, which requires the use of circularly polarized (CP) X-rays. It is possible to accomplish XMCD experiments with fixed CP and alternating the magnetic field   orientation, but most reliable data are obtained when alternating the magnetization orientation and the polarization between right and left helicities. A versatile strategy has been developed to perform XMCD experiments using a hard X-ray quarter-wave plate, at both polychromatic dispersive and conventional monochrom...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 5, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Poldi, E.H.T. Escanhoela Jr, C.A. Fonseca Jr, J. Eleot é rio, M.A.S. dos Reis, R.D. Lang, J.C. Haskel, D. Souza-Neto, N.M. Tags: XMCD phase retarder lock-in dichroism XAS instrumentation X-ray spectroscopy magnetism research papers Source Type: research

BioMAX – the first macromolecular crystallography beamline at MAX IV Laboratory
BioMAX is the first macromolecular crystallography beamline at the MAX   IV Laboratory 3   GeV storage ring, which is the first operational multi-bend achromat storage ring. Due to the low-emittance storage ring, BioMAX has a parallel, high-intensity X-ray beam, even when focused down to 20   µ m × 5   µ m using the bendable focusing mirrors. The beam is tunable in the energy range 5 – 25   keV using the in-vacuum undulator and the horizontally deflecting double-crystal monochromator. BioMAX is equipped with an MD3 diffractometer, an   ISARA high-capacity sample changer and an EIGER 1...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 4, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Ursby, T. Å hnberg, K. Appio, R. Aurelius, O. Barczyk, A. Bartalesi, A. Bjel č i ć , M. Bolmsten, F. Cerenius, Y. Doak, R.B. Eguiraun, M. Eriksson, T. Friel, R.J. Gorgisyan, I. Gross, A. Haghighat, V. Hennies, F. Jagudin, E. Norsk Jensen, B. Jeppsson, Tags: beamline macromolecular crystallography MBA micro-focus serial crystallography automation remote operation beamlines Source Type: research

hv2-concept breaks the photon-count limit of RIXS instrumentation
Upon progressive refinement of energy resolution, the conventional resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) instrumentation reaches the limit where the bandwidth of incident photons becomes insufficient to deliver an acceptable photon-count rate. Here it is shown that RIXS spectra as a function of energy loss are essentially invariant to their integration over incident energies within the core-hole lifetime. This fact permits RIXS instrumentation based on the hv2-concept to utilize incident synchrotron radiation over the whole core-hole lifetime window without any compromise on the much finer energy-loss resolution, ther...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 4, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Zhou, K.J. Matsuyama, S. Strocov, V.N. Tags: RIXS X-ray spectroscopy hv2-spectrometer core-hole lifetime charge-neutral excitation research papers Source Type: research

The versatile X-ray beamline of the Munich Compact Light Source: design, instrumentation and applications
Inverse Compton scattering provides means to generate low-divergence partially coherent quasi-monochromatic, i.e. synchrotron-like, X-ray radiation on a laboratory scale. This enables the transfer of synchrotron techniques into university or industrial environments. Here, the Munich Compact Light Source is presented, which is such a compact synchrotron radiation facility based on an inverse Compton X-ray source (ICS). The recent improvements of the ICS are reported first and then the various experimental techniques which are most suited to the ICS installed at the Technical University of Munich are reviewed. For the latter...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 30, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: G ü nther, B. Gradl, R. Jud, C. Eggl, E. Huang, J. Kulpe, S. Achterhold, K. Gleich, B. Dierolf, M. Pfeiffer, F. Tags: Munich Compact Light Source inverse Compton X-ray sources X-ray phase-contrast imaging and tomography X-ray absorption spectroscopy micro-beam radiation therapy beamlines Source Type: research

RDMA data transfer and GPU acceleration methods for high-throughput online processing of   serial crystallography images
The continual evolution of photon sources and high-performance detectors drives cutting-edge experiments that can produce very high throughput data streams and generate large data volumes that are challenging to manage and store. In these cases, efficient data transfer and processing architectures that   allow online image correction, data reduction or compression become fundamental. This work investigates different technical options and methods for   data placement from the detector head to the processing computing infrastructure, taking into account the particularities of modern modular high-performance detecto...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 30, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Ponsard, R. Janvier, N. Kieffer, J. Houzet, D. Fristot, V. Tags: online data processing RDMA RoCEv2 GPU SSX online data analysis research papers Source Type: research

Diffraction gratings with two-orders-of-magnitude-enhanced dispersion rates for sub-meV resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy
Diffraction gratings with large angular dispersion rates are central to obtaining high spectral resolution in grating spectrometers operating over a broad spectral range from infrared to soft X-ray domains. The greatest challenge is of course to achieve large dispersion rates in the short-wavelength X-ray domain. Here it is   shown that crystals in non-coplanar asymmetric X-ray Bragg diffraction can function as high-reflectance broadband soft X-ray diffraction gratings with dispersion rates that are at least two orders of magnitude larger than those that   are possible with state-of-the-art man-made gratings. Thi...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 29, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Shvyd'ko, Yu. Tags: diffraction gratings crystals X-rays Bragg diffraction spectrometers research papers Source Type: research

Hard X-ray wavefront correction via refractive phase plates made by additive and subtractive fabrication techniques
Modern subtractive and additive manufacturing techniques present new avenues for X-ray optics with complex shapes and patterns. Refractive phase plates acting as glasses for X-ray optics have been fabricated, and spherical aberration in refractive X-ray lenses made from beryllium has been successfully corrected. A diamond phase plate made by femtosecond laser ablation was found to improve the Strehl ratio of a lens stack with a numerical aperture (NA)   of 0.88 × 10 − 3 at 8.2   keV from 0.1 to 0.7. A polymer phase plate made by   additive printing achieved an increase in the Strehl ratio of a lens ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 29, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Seiboth, F. Br ü ckner, D. Kahnt, M. Lyubomirskiy, M. Wittwer, F. Dzhigaev, D. Ullsperger, T. Nolte, S. Koch, F. David, C. Garrevoet, J. Falkenberg, G. Schroer, C.G. Tags: refractive X-ray optics aberration correction ptychography phase plate research papers Source Type: research

Pushing the temporal resolution in absorption and Zernike phase contrast nanotomography: enabling fast in situ experiments
Hard X-ray nanotomography enables 3D investigations of a wide range of samples with high resolution ( (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 29, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Flenner, S. Storm, M. Kubec, A. Longo, E. D ö ring, F. Pelt, D.M. David, C. M ü ller, M. Greving, I. Tags: nanotomography full-field X-ray microscopy in situ experiments image quality time resolution Zernike phase contrast research papers Source Type: research

Performance of the BL03U beamline at SSRF
The vacuum ultraviolet beamline BL03U with a photon energy range from 7   eV upwards has been constructed at the 3.5   GeV Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Equipped with an APPLE-Knot undulator, this beamline is dedicated to   angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. An energy-resolving power of higher than 4.6   ×   104 has been achieved in the photon energy range 21.6 – 48   eV, which is almost the same as the theoretical estimation. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 27, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Sun, Z.P. Liu, Z.H. Liu, Z.T. Liu, W.L. Zhang, F.Y. Shen, D.W. Ye, M. Qiao, S. Tags: vacuum ultraviolet beamline APPLE-Knot undulator high energy resolution ARPES plane-grating monochromator beamlines Source Type: research

Impact of lossy compression of X-ray projections onto reconstructed tomographic slices
This study considers a set of representative datasets and investigates the effect of lossy compression of the original X-ray projections onto the final tomographic reconstructions. It demonstrates that a compression factor of at least three to four times does not generally impact the reconstruction quality. Potentially, compression with this factor could therefore be used in a transparent way to the user community, for instance, prior to data archiving. Higher factors (six to eight times) can be achieved for tomographic volumes with a high signal-to-noise ratio as it is the case for phase-retrieved datasets. Although a rel...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 27, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Marone, F. Vogel, J. Stampanoni, M. Tags: lossy compression X-ray tomographic imaging research papers Source Type: research

A variable X-ray chopper system for phase-sensitive detection in synchrotron X-ray scanning tunneling microscopy
An ultra-high-vacuum compatible X-ray chopper system has been designed, constructed and integrated into the XTIP beamline at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. The XTIP beamline can operate at soft X-ray energies from 400   eV to 1900   eV while providing a focused beam down to about 10   µ m × 10   µ m into the synchrotron X-ray scanning tunneling microscopy (SX-STM) endstation instrument. The X-ray chopper is a critical component for separating topographic information from chemical information in SX-STM through phase-sensitive current detection. Depending on the experimen...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 13, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Rose, V. Ajayi, T. Rosenmann, D. Shirato, N. Tags: synchrotron X-ray scanning tunneling microscopy X-ray chopper X-ray absorption spectroscopy beamlines Source Type: research

Time-of-arrival detection for time-resolved scanning transmission X-ray microscopy imaging
A setup for time-resolved scanning transmission X-ray microscopy imaging is presented, which allows for an increase in the temporal resolution without the requirement of operating the synchrotron light source with low- α optics through the measurement of the time-of-arrival of the X-ray photons. Measurements of two filling patterns in hybrid mode of the Swiss Light Source are presented as a first proof-of-principle and benchmark for the performances of this new setup. From these measurements, a temporal resolution on the order of 20 – 30   ps could be determined. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 13, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Finizio, S. Mayr, S. Raabe, J. Tags: STXM time-resolved imaging synchrotron light source research papers Source Type: research

A ray-tracing algorithm for ab   initio calculation of thermal load in undulator-based synchrotron beamlines
The OASYS suite and its powerful integration features are used to implement a ray-tracing algorithm to accurately calculate the thermal load in any component of an undulator-based synchrotron beamline. This is achieved by sampling and converting the SRW source of a given energy into a Shadow source and using the latter code to ray trace the full beamline. The accuracy of the algorithm is proved by reconstructing the full undulator radiation distribution through an aperture and comparing the result with direct calculaton of the total power using   SRW. The algorithm is particularly suited to analyze cases with complex ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 13, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Rebuffi, L. Shi, X. Sanchez del Rio, M. Reininger, R. Tags: thermal load simulation algorithm synchrotron radiation research papers Source Type: research

Feasibility study of interferometric phase-contrast X-ray imaging using the hard-X-ray free-electron laser of the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free-Electron Laser
Aiming for the fine observation of fast physical phenomena such as phonon propagation and laser ablation, phase-contrast X-ray imaging combined with a   crystal X-ray interferometer and the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) of the   SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free-Electron Laser has been developed. An interference pattern with 70% visibility was obtained by single-shot exposure with a 15   keV monochromated XFEL. In addition, a phase map of an acrylic wedge was successfully obtained using the fringe scanning method. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 9, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Yoneyama, A. Baba, R. Takamatsu, D. Kamezawa, C. Inoue, I. Osaka, T. Owada, S. Yabashi, M. Tags: crystal X-ray interferometers phase-contrast X-ray imaging phase maps X-ray free-electron lasers short communications Source Type: research

Stable sub-micrometre high-flux probe for soft X-ray ARPES using a monolithic Wolter mirror
A focusing optics that can provide a sub-micrometre high-flux probe for soft X-ray micrometre-scale angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is proposed. A monolithic Wolter-type mirror with a large acceptance, achromatism and small comatic aberration was designed and evaluated. A focused beam size of 0.4   µ m (vertical) × 4   µ m (horizontal), a high throughput of 59% and a high tolerance of 1.6   mrad to the pitching error were realized at a photon energy of 1000   eV. A Wolter-type mirror can be practically employed as a stable sub-micrometre focusing mirror with high throughput in AR...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 9, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Senba, Y. Kishimoto, H. Takeo, Y. Yumoto, H. Koyama, T. Mimura, H. Ohashi, H. Tags: focusing optics Wolter mirror monolithic soft X-rays ARPES research papers Source Type: research

Fast operando X-ray pair distribution function using the DRIX electrochemical cell
In situ electrochemical cycling combined with total scattering measurements can provide valuable structural information on crystalline, semi-crystalline and amorphous phases present during (dis)charging of batteries. In situ measurements are particularly challenging for total scattering experiments due to the requirement for low, constant and reproducible backgrounds. Poor cell design can introduce artefacts into the total scattering data or cause inhomogeneous electrochemical cycling, leading to poor data quality or misleading results. This work presents a new cell design optimized to provide good electrochemical performa...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 9, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Diaz-Lopez, M. Cutts, G.L. Allan, P.K. Keeble, D.S. Ross, A. Pralong, V. Spiekermann, G. Chater, P.A. Tags: in situ X-ray electrochemical cells pair distribution function total scattering X-ray Raman spectroscopy research papers Source Type: research

Genuine-field modeling of partially coherent X-ray imaging systems
A genuine representation of the cross-spectral density function as a superposition of mutually uncorrelated, spatially localized modes is applied to model the propagation of spatially partially coherent light beams in X-ray optical systems. Numerical illustrations based on mode propagation with VirtualLab software are presented for imaging systems with ideal and non-ideal grazing-incidence mirrors. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 9, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Verhoeven, A. Hellmann, C. Wyrowski, F. Idir, M. Turunen, J. Tags: partial spatial coherence wavefront propagation beamline design non-ideal mirrors research papers Source Type: research

Journal of Synchrotron Radiation: open call for new Main Editor to join leadership team
(Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 30, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Office, E. Tags: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation international union of crystallography Source Type: research

Iterative energy self-calibration of Fe XANES spectra. Erratum
A correction is made to the paper by Jones et al. (2020). [J. Synchrotron Rad. (2020), 27, 207 – 211]. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 30, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Jones, M.W.M. Mallmann, G. Wykes, J.L. Knafelc, J. Bryan, S.E. Howard, D.L. Tags: Fe XANES energy calibration mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) RGM-2 rhyolite Havre pumice addenda and errata Source Type: research

Generation of an X-ray nanobeam of a free-electron laser using reflective optics with speckle interferometry
Ultimate focusing of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) enables the generation of ultrahigh-intensity X-ray pulses. Although sub-10   nm focusing has already been achieved using synchrotron light sources, the sub-10   nm focusing of XFEL beams remains difficult mainly because the insufficient stability of the light source hinders the evaluation of a focused beam profile. This problem is specifically disadvantageous for the Kirkpatrick – Baez (KB) mirror focusing system, in which a slight misalignment of ∼ 300   nrad can degrade the   focused beam. In this work, an X-ray nanobeam of a free-electron las...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 30, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Inoue, T. Matsuyama, S. Yamada, J. Nakamura, N. Osaka, T. Inoue, I. Inubushi, Y. Tono, K. Yumoto, H. Koyama, T. Ohashi, H. Yabashi, M. Ishikawa, T. Yamauchi, K. Tags: X-ray free-electron laser speckle interferometer multilayer KB mirror beam diagnosis nano-focusing research papers Source Type: research

Gas-phase endstation of electron, ion and coincidence spectroscopies for diluted samples at the FinEstBeAMS beamline of the MAX   IV 1.5   GeV storage ring
Since spring 2019 an experimental setup consisting of an electron spectrometer and an ion time-of-flight mass spectrometer for diluted samples has been available for users at the FinEstBeAMS beamline of the MAX   IV Laboratory in   Lund, Sweden. The setup enables users to study the interaction of atoms, molecules, (molecular) microclusters and nanoparticles with short-wavelength (vacuum ultraviolet and X-ray) synchrotron radiation and to follow the electron and nuclear dynamics induced by this interaction. Test measurements of N2 and thiophene (C4H4S) molecules have demonstrated that the setup can be used for  ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 21, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Kooser, K. Kivim ä ki, A. Turunen, P. P ä rna, R. Reisberg, L. Kirm, M. Valden, M. Huttula, M. Kukk, E. Tags: multi-particle coincidence spectroscopy electron and nuclear dynamics gas-phase endstation VUV and soft X-ray spectroscopy MAX IV beamlines Source Type: research

Development of a high-precision XYZ translator and estimation of beam profile of the vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray undulator beamline BL-13B at the Photon Factory
A high-precision XYZ translator was developed for the microanalysis of electronic structures and chemical compositions on material surfaces by electron spectroscopy techniques, such as photoelectron spectroscopy and absorption spectroscopy, utilizing the vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray synchrotron radiation at an undulator beamline BL-13B at the Photon Factory. Using the high-precision translator, the profile and size of the undulator beam were estimated. They were found to strongly depend on the photon energy but were less affected by the polarization direction. To demonstrate the microscopic measurement capability of a...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 18, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Aiura, Y. Ozawa, K. Mase, K. Minohara, M. Suzuki, S. Tags: beamline scanning microscopy microspectroscopy XYZ manipulator research papers Source Type: research

Accurate contrast determination for X-ray speckle visibility spectroscopy
X-ray speckle visibility spectroscopy using X-ray free-electron lasers has long been proposed as a probe of fast dynamics in noncrystalline materials. In this paper, numerical modeling is presented to show how the data interpretation of visibility spectroscopy can be impacted by the nonidealities of real-life X-ray detectors. Using simulated detector data, this work provides a detailed analysis of the systematic errors of several contrast extraction algorithms in the context of low-count-rate X-ray speckle visibility spectroscopy and their origins are discussed. Here, it was found that the finite detector charge cloud and ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 18, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Sun, Y. Montana-Lopez, J. Fuoss, P. Sutton, M. Zhu, D. Tags: X-ray speckle visibility spectroscopy XPCS photon locating algorithms research papers Source Type: research

A helium mini-cryostat for the nanoprobe beamline ID16B at ESRF: characteristics and performance
A helium mini-cryostat has been developed for the hard X-ray nanoprobe ID16B of the European Synchrotron to collect X-ray excited optical luminescence and X-ray fluorescence at low temperature ( (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 15, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Steinmann, R.G. Martinez-Criado, G. Salomon, D. Vitoux, H. Tucoulou, R. Villanova, J. Laboure, S. Eymery, J. Segura-Ruiz, J. Tags: cryostat X-ray nanoprobes XRF XEOL beamlines Source Type: research

First high-pressure XAFS results at the bending-magnet-based energy-dispersive XAFS beamline BL-8 at the Indus-2 synchrotron facility
The static focusing optics of the existing energy-dispersive XAFS beamline BL-8 have been advantageously exploited to initiate diamond anvil cell based high-pressure XANES experiments at the Indus-2 synchrotron facility, India. In the framework of the limited photon statistics with the 2.5   GeV bending-magnet source, limited focusing optics and 4   mm-thick diamond windows of the sample cell, a (non-trivial) beamline alignment method for maximizing photon statistics at the sample position has been designed. Key strategies include the selection of a high X-ray energy edge, the truncation of the smallest achievable foca...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 15, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Lahiri, D. Dwivedi, A. Vasanthi, R. Jha, S.N. Garg, N. Tags: high-pressure XAFS energy-dispersive XAFS research papers Source Type: research

Large field-of-view scanning small-angle X-ray scattering of mammalian cells
X-ray imaging is a complementary method to electron and fluorescence microscopy for studying biological cells. In particular, scanning small-angle X-ray scattering provides overview images of whole cells in real space as well as local, high-resolution reciprocal space information, rendering it suitable to investigate subcellular nanostructures in unsliced cells. One persisting challenge in cell studies is achieving high throughput in reasonable times. To this end, a   fast   scanning mode is used to image hundreds of cells in a single scan. A way of   dealing with the vast amount of data thus collected is su...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 15, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Cassini, C. Wittmeier, A. Brehm, G. Denz, M. Burghammer, M. K ö ster, S. Tags: biological cells nanostructures high throughput scanning SAXS image segmentation research papers Source Type: research

Robust framework and software implementation for fast speciation mapping
One of the greatest benefits of synchrotron radiation is the ability to perform chemical speciation analysis through X-ray absorption spectroscopies (XAS). XAS imaging of large sample areas can be performed with either full-field or raster-scanning modalities. A common practice to reduce acquisition time while decreasing dose and/or increasing spatial resolution is to compare X-ray fluorescence images collected at a few diagnostic energies. Several authors have used different multivariate data processing strategies to establish speciation maps. In this manuscript, the theoretical aspects and assumptions that are often made...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 15, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Cohen, S.X. Webb, S.M. Gueriau, P. Curis, E. Bertrand, L. Tags: synchrotron imaging software chemical speciation X-ray absorption spectroscopy heterogeneous materials research papers Source Type: research