The versatile X-ray beamline of the Munich Compact Light Source: design, instrumentation and applications
Inverse Compton scattering provides means to generate low-divergence partially coherent quasi-monochromatic, i.e. synchrotron-like, X-ray radiation on a laboratory scale. This enables the transfer of synchrotron techniques into university or industrial environments. Here, the Munich Compact Light Source is presented, which is such a compact synchrotron radiation facility based on an inverse Compton X-ray source (ICS). The recent improvements of the ICS are reported first and then the various experimental techniques which are most suited to the ICS installed at the Technical University of Munich are reviewed. For the latter...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 31, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: G ü nther, B. Gradl, R. Jud, C. Eggl, E. Huang, J. Kulpe, S. Achterhold, K. Gleich, B. Dierolf, M. Pfeiffer, F. Tags: Munich Compact Light Source inverse Compton X-ray sources X-ray phase-contrast imaging and tomography X-ray absorption spectroscopy micro-beam radiation therapy beamlines Source Type: research

RDMA data transfer and GPU acceleration methods for high-throughput online processing of   serial crystallography images
The continual evolution of photon sources and high-performance detectors drives cutting-edge experiments that can produce very high throughput data streams and generate large data volumes that are challenging to manage and store. In these cases, efficient data transfer and processing architectures that   allow online image correction, data reduction or compression become fundamental. This work investigates different technical options and methods for   data placement from the detector head to the processing computing infrastructure, taking into account the particularities of modern modular high-performance detecto...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 31, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Ponsard, R. Janvier, N. Kieffer, J. Houzet, D. Fristot, V. Tags: online data processing RDMA RoCEv2 GPU SSX online data analysis research papers Source Type: research

Diffraction gratings with two-orders-of-magnitude-enhanced dispersion rates for sub-meV resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy
Diffraction gratings with large angular dispersion rates are central to obtaining high spectral resolution in grating spectrometers operating over a broad spectral range from infrared to soft X-ray domains. The greatest challenge is of course to achieve large dispersion rates in the short-wavelength X-ray domain. Here it is   shown that crystals in non-coplanar asymmetric X-ray Bragg diffraction can function as high-reflectance broadband soft X-ray diffraction gratings with dispersion rates that are at least two orders of magnitude larger than those that   are possible with state-of-the-art man-made gratings. Thi...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 30, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Shvyd'ko, Yu. Tags: diffraction gratings crystals X-rays Bragg diffraction spectrometers research papers Source Type: research

Hard X-ray wavefront correction via refractive phase plates made by additive and subtractive fabrication techniques
Modern subtractive and additive manufacturing techniques present new avenues for X-ray optics with complex shapes and patterns. Refractive phase plates acting as glasses for X-ray optics have been fabricated, and spherical aberration in refractive X-ray lenses made from beryllium has been successfully corrected. A diamond phase plate made by femtosecond laser ablation was found to improve the Strehl ratio of a lens stack with a numerical aperture (NA)   of 0.88 × 10 − 3 at 8.2   keV from 0.1 to 0.7. A polymer phase plate made by   additive printing achieved an increase in the Strehl ratio of a lens ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 30, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Seiboth, F. Br ü ckner, D. Kahnt, M. Lyubomirskiy, M. Wittwer, F. Dzhigaev, D. Ullsperger, T. Nolte, S. Koch, F. David, C. Garrevoet, J. Falkenberg, G. Schroer, C.G. Tags: refractive X-ray optics aberration correction ptychography phase plate research papers Source Type: research

Pushing the temporal resolution in absorption and Zernike phase contrast nanotomography: enabling fast in situ experiments
Hard X-ray nanotomography enables 3D investigations of a wide range of samples with high resolution ( (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 30, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Flenner, S. Storm, M. Kubec, A. Longo, E. D ö ring, F. Pelt, D.M. David, C. M ü ller, M. Greving, I. Tags: nanotomography full-field X-ray microscopy in situ experiments image quality time resolution Zernike phase contrast research papers Source Type: research

Performance of the BL03U beamline at SSRF
The vacuum ultraviolet beamline BL03U with a photon energy range from 7   eV upwards has been constructed at the 3.5   GeV Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Equipped with an APPLE-Knot undulator, this beamline is dedicated to   angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. An energy-resolving power of higher than 4.6   ×   104 has been achieved in the photon energy range 21.6 – 48   eV, which is almost the same as the theoretical estimation. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 28, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Sun, Z.P. Liu, Z.H. Liu, Z.T. Liu, W.L. Zhang, F.Y. Shen, D.W. Ye, M. Qiao, S. Tags: vacuum ultraviolet beamline APPLE-Knot undulator high energy resolution ARPES plane-grating monochromator beamlines Source Type: research

Impact of lossy compression of X-ray projections onto reconstructed tomographic slices
This study considers a set of representative datasets and investigates the effect of lossy compression of the original X-ray projections onto the final tomographic reconstructions. It demonstrates that a compression factor of at least three to four times does not generally impact the reconstruction quality. Potentially, compression with this factor could therefore be used in a transparent way to the user community, for instance, prior to data archiving. Higher factors (six to eight times) can be achieved for tomographic volumes with a high signal-to-noise ratio as it is the case for phase-retrieved datasets. Although a rel...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 28, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Marone, F. Vogel, J. Stampanoni, M. Tags: lossy compression X-ray tomographic imaging research papers Source Type: research

A variable X-ray chopper system for phase-sensitive detection in synchrotron X-ray scanning tunneling microscopy
An ultra-high-vacuum compatible X-ray chopper system has been designed, constructed and integrated into the XTIP beamline at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. The XTIP beamline can operate at soft X-ray energies from 400   eV to 1900   eV while providing a focused beam down to about 10   µ m × 10   µ m into the synchrotron X-ray scanning tunneling microscopy (SX-STM) endstation instrument. The X-ray chopper is a critical component for separating topographic information from chemical information in SX-STM through phase-sensitive current detection. Depending on the experimen...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 14, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Rose, V. Ajayi, T. Rosenmann, D. Shirato, N. Tags: synchrotron X-ray scanning tunneling microscopy X-ray chopper X-ray absorption spectroscopy beamlines Source Type: research

Time-of-arrival detection for time-resolved scanning transmission X-ray microscopy imaging
A setup for time-resolved scanning transmission X-ray microscopy imaging is presented, which allows for an increase in the temporal resolution without the requirement of operating the synchrotron light source with low- α optics through the measurement of the time-of-arrival of the X-ray photons. Measurements of two filling patterns in hybrid mode of the Swiss Light Source are presented as a first proof-of-principle and benchmark for the performances of this new setup. From these measurements, a temporal resolution on the order of 20 – 30   ps could be determined. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 14, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Finizio, S. Mayr, S. Raabe, J. Tags: STXM time-resolved imaging synchrotron light source research papers Source Type: research

A ray-tracing algorithm for ab   initio calculation of thermal load in undulator-based synchrotron beamlines
The OASYS suite and its powerful integration features are used to implement a ray-tracing algorithm to accurately calculate the thermal load in any component of an undulator-based synchrotron beamline. This is achieved by sampling and converting the SRW source of a given energy into a Shadow source and using the latter code to ray trace the full beamline. The accuracy of the algorithm is proved by reconstructing the full undulator radiation distribution through an aperture and comparing the result with direct calculaton of the total power using   SRW. The algorithm is particularly suited to analyze cases with complex ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 14, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Rebuffi, L. Shi, X. Sanchez del Rio, M. Reininger, R. Tags: thermal load simulation algorithm synchrotron radiation research papers Source Type: research

Feasibility study of interferometric phase-contrast X-ray imaging using the hard-X-ray free-electron laser of the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free-Electron Laser
Aiming for the fine observation of fast physical phenomena such as phonon propagation and laser ablation, phase-contrast X-ray imaging combined with a   crystal X-ray interferometer and the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) of the   SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free-Electron Laser has been developed. An interference pattern with 70% visibility was obtained by single-shot exposure with a 15   keV monochromated XFEL. In addition, a phase map of an acrylic wedge was successfully obtained using the fringe scanning method. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 10, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Yoneyama, A. Baba, R. Takamatsu, D. Kamezawa, C. Inoue, I. Osaka, T. Owada, S. Yabashi, M. Tags: crystal X-ray interferometers phase-contrast X-ray imaging phase maps X-ray free-electron lasers short communications Source Type: research

Stable sub-micrometre high-flux probe for soft X-ray ARPES using a monolithic Wolter mirror
A focusing optics that can provide a sub-micrometre high-flux probe for soft X-ray micrometre-scale angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is proposed. A monolithic Wolter-type mirror with a large acceptance, achromatism and small comatic aberration was designed and evaluated. A focused beam size of 0.4   µ m (vertical) × 4   µ m (horizontal), a high throughput of 59% and a high tolerance of 1.6   mrad to the pitching error were realized at a photon energy of 1000   eV. A Wolter-type mirror can be practically employed as a stable sub-micrometre focusing mirror with high throughput in AR...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 10, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Senba, Y. Kishimoto, H. Takeo, Y. Yumoto, H. Koyama, T. Mimura, H. Ohashi, H. Tags: focusing optics Wolter mirror monolithic soft X-rays ARPES research papers Source Type: research

Fast operando X-ray pair distribution function using the DRIX electrochemical cell
In situ electrochemical cycling combined with total scattering measurements can provide valuable structural information on crystalline, semi-crystalline and amorphous phases present during (dis)charging of batteries. In situ measurements are particularly challenging for total scattering experiments due to the requirement for low, constant and reproducible backgrounds. Poor cell design can introduce artefacts into the total scattering data or cause inhomogeneous electrochemical cycling, leading to poor data quality or misleading results. This work presents a new cell design optimized to provide good electrochemical performa...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 10, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Diaz-Lopez, M. Cutts, G.L. Allan, P.K. Keeble, D.S. Ross, A. Pralong, V. Spiekermann, G. Chater, P.A. Tags: in situ X-ray electrochemical cells pair distribution function total scattering X-ray Raman spectroscopy research papers Source Type: research

Genuine-field modeling of partially coherent X-ray imaging systems
A genuine representation of the cross-spectral density function as a superposition of mutually uncorrelated, spatially localized modes is applied to model the propagation of spatially partially coherent light beams in X-ray optical systems. Numerical illustrations based on mode propagation with VirtualLab software are presented for imaging systems with ideal and non-ideal grazing-incidence mirrors. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 10, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Verhoeven, A. Hellmann, C. Wyrowski, F. Idir, M. Turunen, J. Tags: partial spatial coherence wavefront propagation beamline design non-ideal mirrors research papers Source Type: research

Journal of Synchrotron Radiation: open call for new Main Editor to join leadership team
(Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 1, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Office, E. Tags: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation international union of crystallography Source Type: research

Iterative energy self-calibration of Fe XANES spectra. Erratum
A correction is made to the paper by Jones et al. (2020). [J. Synchrotron Rad. (2020), 27, 207 – 211]. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 1, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Jones, M.W.M. Mallmann, G. Wykes, J.L. Knafelc, J. Bryan, S.E. Howard, D.L. Tags: Fe XANES energy calibration mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) RGM-2 rhyolite Havre pumice addenda and errata Source Type: research

Generation of an X-ray nanobeam of a free-electron laser using reflective optics with speckle interferometry
Ultimate focusing of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) enables the generation of ultrahigh-intensity X-ray pulses. Although sub-10   nm focusing has already been achieved using synchrotron light sources, the sub-10   nm focusing of XFEL beams remains difficult mainly because the insufficient stability of the light source hinders the evaluation of a focused beam profile. This problem is specifically disadvantageous for the Kirkpatrick – Baez (KB) mirror focusing system, in which a slight misalignment of ∼ 300   nrad can degrade the   focused beam. In this work, an X-ray nanobeam of a free-electron las...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 1, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Inoue, T. Matsuyama, S. Yamada, J. Nakamura, N. Osaka, T. Inoue, I. Inubushi, Y. Tono, K. Yumoto, H. Koyama, T. Ohashi, H. Yabashi, M. Ishikawa, T. Yamauchi, K. Tags: X-ray free-electron laser speckle interferometer multilayer KB mirror beam diagnosis nano-focusing research papers Source Type: research

Gas-phase endstation of electron, ion and coincidence spectroscopies for diluted samples at the FinEstBeAMS beamline of the MAX   IV 1.5   GeV storage ring
Since spring 2019 an experimental setup consisting of an electron spectrometer and an ion time-of-flight mass spectrometer for diluted samples has been available for users at the FinEstBeAMS beamline of the MAX   IV Laboratory in   Lund, Sweden. The setup enables users to study the interaction of atoms, molecules, (molecular) microclusters and nanoparticles with short-wavelength (vacuum ultraviolet and X-ray) synchrotron radiation and to follow the electron and nuclear dynamics induced by this interaction. Test measurements of N2 and thiophene (C4H4S) molecules have demonstrated that the setup can be used for  ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 22, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Kooser, K. Kivim ä ki, A. Turunen, P. P ä rna, R. Reisberg, L. Kirm, M. Valden, M. Huttula, M. Kukk, E. Tags: multi-particle coincidence spectroscopy electron and nuclear dynamics gas-phase endstation VUV and soft X-ray spectroscopy MAX IV beamlines Source Type: research

Development of a high-precision XYZ translator and estimation of beam profile of the vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray undulator beamline BL-13B at the Photon Factory
A high-precision XYZ translator was developed for the microanalysis of electronic structures and chemical compositions on material surfaces by electron spectroscopy techniques, such as photoelectron spectroscopy and absorption spectroscopy, utilizing the vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray synchrotron radiation at an undulator beamline BL-13B at the Photon Factory. Using the high-precision translator, the profile and size of the undulator beam were estimated. They were found to strongly depend on the photon energy but were less affected by the polarization direction. To demonstrate the microscopic measurement capability of a...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 19, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Aiura, Y. Ozawa, K. Mase, K. Minohara, M. Suzuki, S. Tags: beamline scanning microscopy microspectroscopy XYZ manipulator research papers Source Type: research

Accurate contrast determination for X-ray speckle visibility spectroscopy
X-ray speckle visibility spectroscopy using X-ray free-electron lasers has long been proposed as a probe of fast dynamics in noncrystalline materials. In this paper, numerical modeling is presented to show how the data interpretation of visibility spectroscopy can be impacted by the nonidealities of real-life X-ray detectors. Using simulated detector data, this work provides a detailed analysis of the systematic errors of several contrast extraction algorithms in the context of low-count-rate X-ray speckle visibility spectroscopy and their origins are discussed. Here, it was found that the finite detector charge cloud and ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 19, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Sun, Y. Montana-Lopez, J. Fuoss, P. Sutton, M. Zhu, D. Tags: X-ray speckle visibility spectroscopy XPCS photon locating algorithms research papers Source Type: research

A helium mini-cryostat for the nanoprobe beamline ID16B at ESRF: characteristics and performance
A helium mini-cryostat has been developed for the hard X-ray nanoprobe ID16B of the European Synchrotron to collect X-ray excited optical luminescence and X-ray fluorescence at low temperature ( (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 16, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Steinmann, R.G. Martinez-Criado, G. Salomon, D. Vitoux, H. Tucoulou, R. Villanova, J. Laboure, S. Eymery, J. Segura-Ruiz, J. Tags: cryostat X-ray nanoprobes XRF XEOL beamlines Source Type: research

First high-pressure XAFS results at the bending-magnet-based energy-dispersive XAFS beamline BL-8 at the Indus-2 synchrotron facility
The static focusing optics of the existing energy-dispersive XAFS beamline BL-8 have been advantageously exploited to initiate diamond anvil cell based high-pressure XANES experiments at the Indus-2 synchrotron facility, India. In the framework of the limited photon statistics with the 2.5   GeV bending-magnet source, limited focusing optics and 4   mm-thick diamond windows of the sample cell, a (non-trivial) beamline alignment method for maximizing photon statistics at the sample position has been designed. Key strategies include the selection of a high X-ray energy edge, the truncation of the smallest achievable foca...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 16, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Lahiri, D. Dwivedi, A. Vasanthi, R. Jha, S.N. Garg, N. Tags: high-pressure XAFS energy-dispersive XAFS research papers Source Type: research

Large field-of-view scanning small-angle X-ray scattering of mammalian cells
X-ray imaging is a complementary method to electron and fluorescence microscopy for studying biological cells. In particular, scanning small-angle X-ray scattering provides overview images of whole cells in real space as well as local, high-resolution reciprocal space information, rendering it suitable to investigate subcellular nanostructures in unsliced cells. One persisting challenge in cell studies is achieving high throughput in reasonable times. To this end, a   fast   scanning mode is used to image hundreds of cells in a single scan. A way of   dealing with the vast amount of data thus collected is su...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 16, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Cassini, C. Wittmeier, A. Brehm, G. Denz, M. Burghammer, M. K ö ster, S. Tags: biological cells nanostructures high throughput scanning SAXS image segmentation research papers Source Type: research

Robust framework and software implementation for fast speciation mapping
One of the greatest benefits of synchrotron radiation is the ability to perform chemical speciation analysis through X-ray absorption spectroscopies (XAS). XAS imaging of large sample areas can be performed with either full-field or raster-scanning modalities. A common practice to reduce acquisition time while decreasing dose and/or increasing spatial resolution is to compare X-ray fluorescence images collected at a few diagnostic energies. Several authors have used different multivariate data processing strategies to establish speciation maps. In this manuscript, the theoretical aspects and assumptions that are often made...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 16, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Cohen, S.X. Webb, S.M. Gueriau, P. Curis, E. Bertrand, L. Tags: synchrotron imaging software chemical speciation X-ray absorption spectroscopy heterogeneous materials research papers Source Type: research

A high-power, high-repetition-rate THz source for pump – probe experiments at Linac Coherent Light Source II
Experiments using a THz pump and an X-ray probe at an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) facility like the Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS   II) require frequency-tunable (3 to 20   THz), narrow bandwidth ( ∼ 10%), carrier-envelope-phase-stable THz pulses that produce high fields (>1   MV   cm − 1) at the repetition rate of the X-rays and are well synchronized with them. In this paper, a two-bunch scheme to generate THz radiation at LCLS   II is studied: the first bunch produces THz radiation in an electromagnet wiggler immediately following the LCLS   II undulator that produces X-rays from the ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 15, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Zhang, Z. Fisher, A.S. Hoffmann, M.C. Jacobson, B. Kirchmann, P.S. Lee, W.-S. Lindenberg, A. Marinelli, A. Nanni, E. Schoenlein, R. Qian, M. Sasaki, S. Xu, J. Huang, Z. Tags: THz XFEL pump – probe femtosecond synchronization research papers Source Type: research

Quantum states of an electromagnetic field interacting with a classical current and their applications to radiation problems
Synchrotron radiation was originally studied by classical methods using the Li é nard – Wiechert potentials of electric currents. Subsequently, quantum corrections to the classical formulas were studied, considering the emission of photons arising from electronic transitions between spectral levels, described in terms of the Dirac equation. In this paper, an intermediate approach is considered, in which electric currents generating the radiation are considered classically while the quantum nature of the radiation is taken into account exactly. Such an approximate approach may be helpful in some cases; it allow...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 15, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Bagrov, V.G. Gitman, D.M. Shishmarev, A.A. Farias, A.J.D. Tags: synchrotron radiation multiphoton radiation research papers Source Type: research

Saturation and self-absorption effects in the angle-dependent 2p3d resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectra of Co3+
Angle-dependent 2p3d resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectra of a LaCoO3 single crystal and a 55   nm LaCoO3 film on a SrTiO3 substrate are presented. Theoretical calculation shows that, with ∼ 20   meV resolved Co 2p3d resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS), the excited states of the isotropic 1A1g(Oh) ground state are split by 3d spin – orbit coupling, which can be distinguished via   their angular dependence. However, strong self-absorption and saturation effects distort the spectra of the LaCoO3 single crystal and limit the observation of small angular dependence. In contrast, the RIXS on 55 ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 9, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Wang, R.-P. Elnaggar, H. Titus, C.J. Tomiyasu, K. Geessinck, J. Koster, G. Frati, F. Okamoto, J. Huang, D.-J. de Groot, F.M.F. Tags: angle-dependent RIXS/RXES saturation and self-absorption effects research papers Source Type: research

X-ray phase contrast tomography for the investigation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor neurons. Pre-clinical studies drive the development of animal models that well mimic ALS disorder and enable both the dissection of disease processes and an early assessment of therapy efficacy. A comprehensive knowledge of neuronal and vascular lesions in the brain and spinal cord is an essential factor to understand the development of the disease. Spatial resolution and bidimensional imaging are important drawbacks limiting current neuroimaging tools, while neuropathology relies on protocols that may alter tissue chemistry and...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 9, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Begani Provinciali, G. Pieroni, N. Bukreeva, I. Fratini, M. Massimi, L. Maugeri, L. Palermo, F. Bardelli, F. Mittone, A. Bravin, A. Gigli, G. Gentile, F. Fossaghi, A. Riva, N. Quattrini, A. Cedola, A. Tags: X-ray phase contrast tomography ALS spinal cord research papers Source Type: research

Nanoscale element behavior in a continuum
This study suggests a new material design methodology that is useful for electrical devices, biomedical devices and other patterned soft condensed matter in conjunction with line patterns typically generated in a broad range of viscoelastic materials. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 9, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Ahn, S. Lee, S.J. Tags: nanocomposites stimuli-responsiveness patterns wrinkles X-ray imaging research papers Source Type: research

Investigation of third-order nonlinear dynamical X-ray diffraction based on a new exact solution
Third-order nonlinear two-wave dynamical X-ray diffraction in a crystal is considered. For the Laue symmetrical case of diffraction a new exact solution is obtained. The solution is presented via Jacobi elliptic functions. Two input free parameters are essential: the deviation parameter from the Bragg exact angle and the intensity of the incident wave. It is shown that the behavior of the field inside the crystal is determined by the sign of a certain combination of these parameters. For negative and positive signs of this combination, the wavefield is periodic and the nonlinear Pendell ö sung effect takes place. For ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 8, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Balyan, M.K. Tags: nonlinear dynamical diffraction X-ray crystal third-order nonlinearity exact solution. research papers Source Type: research

Design of an online spectrometer for the diagnosis of free-electron lasers
A self-amplified spontaneous emission free-electron laser (FEL) is under construction at the Shanghai Soft X-ray Free-Electron Facility. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a suitable diagnostic tool capable of resolving the natural emission band of each FEL pulse. Thus, an online spectrometer with a plane mirror and plane variable-line-spacing grating at grazing incidence to monitor each single FEL pulse during the propagation of FEL radiation has been designed and is presented in this work. The method of ray tracing is used for monitoring incident radiation in order to understand spectral characteristics, and SHADOW, a...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 8, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Zhang, X. Guo, Z. Meng, X. Chen, J. Ji, Z. Jin, Z. Zhang, X. Wang, Y. Tai, R. Tags: free-electron lasers soft X-rays spectrometers variable-line-spacing gratings ray tracing research papers Source Type: research

Characteristics and local structure of hafnia-silicate-zirconate ceramic nanomixtures
Zirconate systems having the composition 3HfO2 · 15SiO2 · xY2O3 · (82 − x)ZrO2, where x = 2, 7 and 12   mol% Y2O3, were synthesized by a sol-gel method. The analysis of X-ray diffraction data showed the presence of the t-ZrO2, m-ZrO2, m-HfO2, Y2SiO5 and Y2Si2O7 crystalline phases in a ceramic nanomixture. Spectroscopic data show that the increase of the Y2O3 content of samples determines the increase of the t-ZrO2, m-HfO2 and silicate crystalline phases. Gap energy values decrease almost linearly with increasing Y2O3 content of samples. A detailed study of XANES data does not show a significant...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 8, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Pop, L. Rada, S. An, P. Zhang, J. Rada, M. Suciu, R.C. Culea, E. Tags: hafnia – silicate zirconate nanostructure sol-gel method spectroscopy XANES EXAFS. composites XAS research papers Source Type: research

Montel mirror based collimating analyzer system for high-pressure resonant inelastic X-ray scattering experiments
Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) is increasingly playing a significant role in studying highly correlated systems, especially since it was proven capable of measuring low-energy magnetic excitations. However, despite high expectations for experimental evidence of novel magnetic phases at high pressure, unequivocal low-energy spectral signatures remain obscured by extrinsic scattering from material surrounding the sample in a diamond anvil cell (DAC): pressure media, Be gasket and the diamond anvils themselves. A scattered X-ray collimation based medium-energy resolution ( ∼ 100   meV) analyzer system for a ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - May 27, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Kim, J.-K. Casa, D. Huang, X. Gog, T. Kim, B.J. Kim, J. Tags: resonant inelastic X-ray scattering high pressure scattered X-ray collimation Montel mirror research papers Source Type: research

Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the low-energy region explored using an argon gas window
In this study, the argon gas window is   proposed as a new soft X-ray transmission window in the low-energy region. High-order X-rays are removed by the absorption of the Ar L-edge (240   eV), and first-order X-rays become the major contribution of transmitted soft X-rays in the low-energy region. Under atmospheric argon conditions, the double-excitation Rydberg series of helium gas (60   eV), Si L-edge XAS of an Si3N4 membrane (100   eV) and S L-edge XAS of dimethyl sulfoxide gas (170   eV) are successfully measured, indicating that the argon gas window is effective for soft X-ray transmission in the low-ener...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - May 27, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Nagasaka, M. Tags: soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy low-energy region argon gas window atmospheric conditions research papers Source Type: research

Comprehensive characterization of TSV etching performance with phase-contrast X-ray microtomography
Comprehensive evaluation of through-silicon via (TSV) reliability often requires deterministic and 3D descriptions of local morphological and statistical features of via formation with the Bosch process. Here, a highly sensitive phase-contrast X-ray microtomography approach is presented based on recorrection of abnormal projections, which provides comprehensive and quantitative characterization of TSV etching performance. The key idea is to replace the abnormal projections at specific angles in principles of linear interpolation of neighboring projections, and to distinguish the interface between silicon and air by using p...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - May 27, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Li, K. Deng, B. Zhang, H. Yu, F. Xue, Y. Xie, C. Ye, T. Xiao, T. Tags: X-ray microtomography phase contrast TSV etching 3D integration research papers Source Type: research

Classification of grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering patterns by convolutional neural network
Grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) patterns have multiple superimposed contributions from the shape of the nanoscale structure, the coupling between the particles, the partial pair correlation, and the layer geometry. Therefore, it is not easy to identify the model manually from the huge amounts of combinations. The convolutional neural network (CNN), which is one of the artificial neural networks, can find regularities to classify patterns from large amounts of combinations. CNN was applied to classify GISAXS patterns, focusing on the shape of the nanoparticles. The network found regularities from the...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - May 20, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Ikemoto, H. Yamamoto, K. Touyama, H. Yamashita, D. Nakamura, M. Okuda, H. Tags: GISAXS deep learning convolutional neural network short communications Source Type: research

Demonstration of a ring-FEL as an EUV lithography tool
This paper presents the required structure and function of a ring-FEL as a radiation source for extreme ultraviolet radiation lithography (EUVL). A 100   m-long straight section that conducts an extremely low emittance beam from a fourth-generation storage ring can increase the average power at 13.5   nm wavelength to up to 1   kW without degrading the beam in the rest of the ring. Here, simulation results for a ring-FEL as a EUVL source are described. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - May 20, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Lee, J. Jang, G. Kim, J. Oh, B. Kim, D.-E. Lee, S.-S. Kim, J.-H. Ko, J. Min, C. Shin, S. Tags: fourth-generation storage ring EUV free-electron laser research papers Source Type: research

Hard X-ray phase-contrast-enhanced micro-CT for quantifying interfaces within brittle dense root-filling-restored human teeth
Bonding of resin composite fillings, for example following root-canal treatment, is a challenge because remaining gaps grow and lead to failure. Here, phase-contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography (PCE-CT) is used to explore methods of non-destructive quantification of the problem, so that countermeasures can be devised. Five human central incisors with damaged crowns were root-filled followed by restoration with a dental post. Thereafter, the crowns were rebuilt with a resin composite that was bonded conventionally to the tooth with a dental adhesive system (Futurabond U). Each sample was imaged by PCE-CT in a synchro...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - May 20, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Prates Soares, A. Blunck, U. Bitter, K. Paris, S. Rack, A. Zaslansky, P. Tags: phase contrast enhanced micro-CT interfacial gaps restoration flaws dental composites resin bonding research papers Source Type: research

Femtosecond soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy of warm dense matter at the PAL-XFEL
Free-electron laser pulse-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements on warm dense copper are presented. The incident X-ray pulse energies were measured with a detector assembly consisting of a photocathode membrane and   microchannel plates, and the transmitted energies were measured simultaneously with a photodiode detector. The precision of the absorption measurements was evaluated. For a warm dense copper foil irradiated by an intense femtosecond laser pulse, the enhanced X-ray absorption below the L3-edge, followed by the rapid evolution of highly excited Fermi liquid within a   picosecond, were succes...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - May 19, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Lee, J.-W. Kang, G. Kim, M. Kim, M. Park, S.H. Kwon, S. Yang, S. Cho, B.I. Tags: X-ray free electron lasers X-ray absorption spectroscopy warm dense matter research papers Source Type: research

A passive hutch-cooling system for achieving high thermal-stability operation at the Nanoprobe beamline, Diamond Light Source
The development of low-emittance storage rings and the rapid developments in nano-optics and imaging techniques are leading to decreasing X-ray spot sizes and increasing requirements on the environmental and mechanical stability of beamline components. In particular, temperature stability in the experimental hutches is critical to minimize uncontrolled displacements caused by thermal expansion and ensure consistent performance. Here, the design and thermal performance of the experimental hutches of the Nanoprobe beamline at Diamond Light Source are described, where a standard deviation of the room temperature down to 0.017...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - May 19, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Cacho-Nerin, F. Parker, J.E. Quinn, P.D. Tags: nanoscale beams thermal stability radiant panels X-ray hutch design research papers Source Type: research

Development of an X-ray imaging detector for high-energy X-ray microtomography
A dedicated X-ray imaging detector for 200   keV high-energy X-ray microtomography was developed. The novelty of the detector is a large-format camera lens employed for a wide field of view. Several scintillators were evaluated in terms of the degree of efficiency of detection for high-energy X-ray photons and the modulation transfer function. For tomographic measurement, a high-definition CMOS camera was incorporated in the detector to achieve a high spatial resolution while keeping the field of view wide. Rocks with fossil inclusions were imaged to demonstrate the applicability of the detector to high-energy X-ray micr...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - May 19, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Hoshino, M. Uesugi, K. Yagi, N. Tags: high-energy X-ray microtomography X-ray imaging detectors scintillators fossils research papers Source Type: research

Solid/liquid-interface-dependent synthesis and immobilization of copper-based particles nucleated by X-ray-radiolysis-induced photochemical reaction
This study will shed light on understanding a novel photochemical reaction route induced under X-ray irradiation. The development of this process using the X-ray-radiolysis-induced photochemical reaction in aqueous liquids enables us to achieve the rapid and easy operation of the synthesis, growth and immobilization of special nano/micro-scale complex materials or multifunctional composites. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - May 19, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Yamaguchi, A. Sakurai, I. Okada, I. Izumi, H. Ishihara, M. Fukuoka, T. Suzuki, S. Utsumi, Y. Tags: X-ray radiolysis particle nucleation particle growth interface research papers Source Type: research

Foreword to the special virtual issue on X-ray free-electron lasers
(Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - May 1, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Fuoss, P.H. Schlichting, I. Tschentscher, T. Yabashi, M. Tags: X-ray free-electron lasers XFELs editorial Source Type: research

ID30A-3 (MASSIF-3) – a beamline for macromolecular crystallography at the ESRF with a small intense beam
ID30A-3 (or MASSIF-3) is a mini-focus (beam size 18   µ m × 14   µ m) highly intense (2.0 × 1013   photons   s − 1), fixed-energy (12.81   keV) beamline for macromolecular crystallography (MX) experiments at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). MASSIF-3 is one of two fixed-energy beamlines sited on the first branch of the canted undulator setup on the ESRF ID30 port and is equipped with a MD2 micro-diffractometer, a Flex HCD sample changer, and an Eiger X 4M fast hybrid photon-counting detector. MASSIF-3 is recommended for collecting diffraction data from single small ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - April 29, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: von Stetten, D. Carpentier, P. Flot, D. Beteva, A. Caserotto, H. Dobias, F. Guijarro, M. Giraud, T. Lentini, M. McSweeney, S. Royant, A. Petitdemange, S. Sinoir, J. Surr, J. Svensson, O. Theveneau, P. Leonard, G.A. Mueller-Dieckmann, C. Tags: ID30A-3 MASSIF-3 high-brilliance mini-focus automation macromolecular crystallography beamlines Source Type: research

Volt-per- Å ngstrom terahertz fields from X-ray free-electron lasers
The electron linear accelerators driving modern X-ray free-electron lasers can emit intense, tunable, quasi-monochromatic terahertz (THz) transients with peak electric fields of V   Å − 1 and peak magnetic fields in excess of 10   T when a purpose-built, compact, superconducting THz undulator is implemented. New research avenues such as X-ray movies of THz-driven mode-selective chemistry come into reach by making dual use of the ultra-short GeV electron bunches, possible by a rather minor extension of the infrastructure. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - April 29, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Tanikawa, T. Karabekyan, S. Kovalev, S. Casalbuoni, S. Asgekar, V. Bonetti, S. Wall, S. Laarmann, T. Turchinovich, D. Zalden, P. Kampfrath, T. Fisher, A.S. Stojanovic, N. Gensch, M. Geloni, G. Tags: superradiant emission terahertz radiation X-ray free-electron laser ultrafast phenomena terahertz control short communications Source Type: research

Synchrotron multimodal imaging in a whole cell reveals lipid droplet core organization
A lipid droplet (LD) core of a cell consists mainly of neutral lipids, triacylglycerols and/or steryl esters (SEs). The structuration of these lipids inside the core is still under debate. Lipid segregation inside LDs has been observed but is sometimes suggested to be an artefact of LD isolation and chemical fixation. LD imaging in their native state and in unaltered cellular environments appears essential to overcome these possible technical pitfalls. Here, imaging techniques for ultrastructural study of native LDs in cellulo are provided and it is shown that LDs are organized structures. Cryo soft X-ray tomography and de...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - April 23, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Jamme, F. Cinquin, B. Gohon, Y. Pereiro, E. R é fr é giers, M. Froissard, M. Tags: lipid droplets label-free imaging deep UV fluorescence transmittance yeast synchrotrons cro-SXT research papers Source Type: research

Shack – Hartmann wavefront sensors based on 2D refractive lens arrays and super-resolution multi-contrast X-ray imaging
Different approaches of 2D lens arrays as Shack – Hartmann sensors for hard X-rays are compared. For the first time, a combination of Shack – Hartmann sensors for hard X-rays (SHSX) with a super-resolution imaging approach to perform multi-contrast imaging is demonstrated. A diamond lens is employed as a well known test object. The interleaving approach has great potential to overcome the 2D lens array limitation given by the two-photon polymerization lithography. Finally, the radiation damage induced by continuous exposure of an SHSX prototype with a white beam was studied showing a good performance of several...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - April 22, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Mikhaylov, A. Reich, S. Zakharova, M. Vlnieska, V. Laptev, R. Plech, A. Kunka, D. Tags: Shack – Hartmann sensor for hard X-rays sample-shift multi-contrast imaging interleaving measurement phase-contrast imaging polymer refractive lenses research papers Source Type: research

Validation study of small-angle X-ray scattering tensor tomography
In this study, the nanostructure orientation in a human trabecular-bone sample obtained by SASTT was validated by sectioning the sample and using 3D scanning small-angle X-ray scattering (3D sSAXS) to measure and analyze the orientation from single voxels within each thin section. Besides the presence of cutting artefacts from the slicing process, the nanostructure orientations obtained with the two independent methods were in good agreement, as quantified with the absolute value of the dot product calculated between the nanostructure main orientations obtained in each voxel. The average dot product per voxel over the full...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - April 22, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Guizar-Sicairos, M. Georgiadis, M. Liebi, M. Tags: SAXS tensor tomography nanostructure   orientations research papers Source Type: research

Radiochromic film dosimetry in synchrotron radiation breast computed tomography: a phantom study
This study relates to the INFN project SYRMA-3D for in   vivo phase-contrast breast computed tomography using the SYRMEP synchrotron radiation beamline at the ELETTRA facility in Trieste, Italy. This peculiar imaging technique uses a novel dosimetric approach with respect to the standard clinical procedure. In this study, optimization of the acquisition procedure was evaluated in terms of dose delivered to the breast. An offline dose monitoring method was also investigated using radiochromic film dosimetry. Various irradiation geometries have been investigated for scanning the prone patient's pendant breast, simulated by...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - April 22, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: Mettivier, G. Masi, M. Arfelli, F. Brombal, L. Delogu, P. Di Lillo, F. Donato, S. Fedon, C. Golosio, B. Oliva, P. Rigon, L. Sarno, A. Taibi, A. Russo, P. Tags: breast computed tomography synchrotron radiation radiochromic dosimetry research papers Source Type: research

The ePix10k 2-megapixel hard X-ray detector at LCLS
The ePix10ka2M (ePix10k) is a new large area detector specifically developed for X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) applications. The hybrid pixel detector was developed at SLAC to provide a hard X-ray area detector with a high dynamic range, running at the 120   Hz repetition rate of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The ePix10k consists of 16 modules, each with 352 × 384 pixels of 100   µ m × 100   µ m distributed on four ASICs, resulting in a 2.16 megapixel detector, with a 16.5   cm × 16.5   cm active area and ∼ 80% coverage. The high dynamic range is achieved with three ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - April 17, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: van Driel, T.B. Nelson, S. Armenta, R. Blaj, G. Boo, S. Boutet, S. Doering, D. Dragone, A. Hart, P. Haller, G. Kenney, C. Kwaitowski, M. Manger, L. McKelvey, M. Nakahara, K. Oriunno, M. Sato, T. Weaver, M. Tags: XFEL detector detector non-linearity diffuse scattering research papers Source Type: research