Controllability of cupric particle synthesis by linear alcohol chain number as additive and pH control in cupric acetate solution using X-ray radiolysis
This study may open a door to understanding and investigating a novel photochemical reaction route induced under X-ray irradiation. The development of the X-ray radiolysis process enables us to achieve the rapid and easy process of synthesis and immobilization of higher-order nano/microstructure consisting of various materials. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - September 12, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Yamaguchi, A. Okada, I. Sakurai, I. Izumi, H. Ishihara, M. Fukuoka, T. Suzuki, S. Elphick, K. Jackson, E. Hirohata, A. Utsumi, Y. Tags: X-ray radiolysis cupric particle alkyl alcohol pH control three-dimensional additive manufacturing research papers Source Type: research

Grazing-angle reflectivity setup for the low-temperature infrared spectroscopy of two-dimensional systems
A new optical setup is described that allows the reflectivity at grazing incidence to be measured, including ultrathin films and two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) down to liquid-helium temperatures, by exploiting the Berreman effect and the high brilliance of infrared synchrotron radiation. This apparatus is well adapted to detect the absorption of a 2DES of nanometric thickness, namely that which forms spontaneously at the interface between a thin film of LaAlO3 and its SrTiO3 substrate, and to determine its Drude parameters. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - September 11, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Verseils, M. Voute, A. Langerome, B. Deutsch, M. Brubach, J.-B. Kalaboukhov, A. Nucara, A. Calvani, P. Roy, P. Tags: infrared grazing-angle reflectivity low-temperature two-dimensional systems research papers Source Type: research

Optimization of a phase-space beam position and size monitor for low-emittance light sources
The recently developed vertical phase-space beam position and size monitor (ps-BPM) system has proven to be able to measure the electron-source position, angle, size and divergence simultaneously in the vertical plane at a single location of a beamline. The optimization of the ps-BPM system is performed by ray-tracing simulation to maximize the instrument sensitivity and resolution. The contribution of each element is studied, including the monochromator, the K-edge filter, the detector and the source-to-detector distance. An optimized system is proposed for diffraction-limited storage rings, such as the Advanced Photon So...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - September 11, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Samadi, N. Shi, X. Chapman, D. Tags: beam position and size monitor phase space diagnostics and feedback ray-tracing simulation diffraction-limited storage rings research papers Source Type: research

Comparison of high-resolution synchrotron-radiation-based phase-contrast imaging and absorption-contrast imaging for evaluating microstructure of vascular networks in rat brain: from 2D to 3D views
In conclusion, SR-based phase-contrast imaging holds great promise for visualizing microstructure of microvascular networks in two- and three-dimensional perspectives during the development of neurovascular diseases. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - September 11, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Li, H. Ding, H. Yin, X. Chen, Z. Tang, B. Sun, J. Hu, X. Lv, X. Kang, S. Fan, Y. Wu, T. Zhao, S. Xiao, B. Zhang, M. Tags: 2D 3D brain microtomography synchrotron radiation vascular network research papers Source Type: research

Comparative analysis of sample preparation protocols of soft biological tissues for morphometric studies using synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography
The spread of microtomography as a tool for visualization of soft tissues has had a significant impact on a better understanding of complex biological systems. This technique allows a detailed three-dimensional quantitative view of the specimen to be obtained, correlating its morphological organization with its function, providing valuable insights on the functionality of the tissue. Regularly overlooked, but of great importance, proper sample mounting and preparation are fundamental for achieving the highest possible image quality even for the high-resolution imaging systems currently under development. Here, a quantitati...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - September 10, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Dias, C.S.B. Neto, D.P.A. Baraldi, G.L. Fonseca, M.C. Tags: microtomography soft tissues mounting synchrotron radiation research papers Source Type: research

In situ depth-resolved synchrotron radiation X-ray spectroscopy study of radiation-induced Au deposition
To illustrate the process of synchrotron radiation induced reduction of tetrachloroauric solutions, a confocal synchrotron radiation X-ray spectroscopy experiments system has been introduced to monitor the depth-resolved elemental Au distribution and chemical species during the Au reduction reaction. Combining the results from confocal X-ray spectroscopy with that from X-ray contrast imaging, the mechanism of synchrotron radiation induced Au reduction, along with the process of Au deposition, were proposed. These demonstrations provide novel avenues to spatially resolved analysis of in situ solution radiolysis. (Source: Jo...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - September 10, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Chen, G. Du, Y. An, P. Zheng, L. Chu, S. Zhang, J. Tags: radiation-induced reduction confocal optic systems micro-X-ray fluorescence XANES deposition processes research papers Source Type: research

Thickness of carbon coatings on silicon materials determined by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at multiple photon energies
Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at multiple photon energies is used to investigate the surface structure of carbon coatings on silicon materials destined for use as negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. The photoelectron intensity from the carbon coatings decreases with an increase in the kinetic energy of the photoelectron. By fitting the photoelectron intensity versus energy to numerically derived curves, the thickness and coverage of the carbon coatings can be obtained. The results are in agreement with the values suggested by the cross-sectional secondary-electron microscopy images of the carbon coatings,...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - September 10, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Isomura, N. Takahashi, N. Kosaka, S. Kawaura, H. Tags: hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) lithium-ion battery (LIB) silicon negative electrodes layered polysilane carbon coating research papers Source Type: research

Linear array detector for online diagnostics of spectral distributions at MHz repetition rates
Free-electron lasers (FELs) based on superconducting accelerator technology and storage ring facilities operate with bunch repetition rates in the MHz range, and the need arises for bunch-by-bunch electron and photon diagnostics. For photon-pulse-resolved measurements of spectral distributions, fast one-dimensional profile monitors are required. The linear array detector KALYPSO (KArlsruhe Linear arraY detector for MHz-rePetition rate SpectrOscopy) has been developed for electron bunch or photon pulse synchronous read-out with frame rates of up to 2.7   MHz. At the FLASH facility at DESY, a current version of KALYPSO wit...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 31, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Gerth, C. Brenner, G. Caselle, M. D ü sterer, S. Haack, D. Makowski, D. Mielczarek, A. Palutke, S. Rota, L. Rybnikov, V. Schmidt, C. Steffen, B. Tiedtke, K. Tags: linear array detector line scan camera high repetition rate diagnostics free-electron laser extreme ultraviolet radiation soft X-ray spectroscopy research papers Source Type: research

BioStruct-Africa: empowering Africa-based scientists through structural biology knowledge transfer and mentoring – recent advances and future perspectives
Being able to visualize biology at the molecular level is essential for our understanding of the world. A structural biology approach reveals the molecular basis of disease processes and can guide the design of new drugs as well as aid in the optimization of existing medicines. However, due to the lack of a synchrotron light source, adequate infrastructure, skilled persons and incentives for scientists in addition to limited financial support, the majority of countries across the African continent do not conduct structural biology research. Nevertheless, with technological advances such as robotic protein crystallization a...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 28, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Nji, E. Traore, D.A.K. Ndi, M. Joko, C.A. Doyle, D.A. Tags: BioStruct-Africa structural biology neglected tropical diseases capacity building synchrotron remote data collection African Light Source teaching and education Source Type: research

Coherent Bragg imaging of 60   nm Au nanoparticles under electrochemical control at the NanoMAX beamline
Nanoparticles are essential electrocatalysts in chemical production, water treatment and energy conversion, but engineering efficient and specific catalysts requires understanding complex structure – reactivity relations. Recent experiments have shown that Bragg coherent diffraction imaging might be a powerful tool in this regard. The technique provides three-dimensional lattice strain fields from which surface reactivity maps can be inferred. However, all experiments published so far have investigated particles an order of magnitude larger than those used in practical applications. Studying smaller particles quickly...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 27, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Bj ö rling, A. Carbone, D. Sarabia, F.J. Hammarberg, S. Feliu, J.M. Solla-Gull ó n, J. Tags: coherent diffraction imaging nanodiffraction electrocatalysis short communications Source Type: research

Laser-slicing at a low-emittance storage ring
Laser-slicing at a diffraction-limited storage ring light source in the soft X-ray region is investigated with theoretical and numerical modelling. It turns out that the slicing efficiency is favoured by the ultra-low beam emittance, and that slicing can be implemented without interference to the standard multi-bunch operation. Spatial and spectral separation of the sub-picosecond radiation pulse from a hundreds of picosecond-long background is achieved by virtue of 1:1 imaging of the radiation source. The spectral separation is enhanced when the radiator is a transverse gradient undulator. The proposed configuration appli...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 27, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Di Mitri, S. Barletta, W. Bianco, A. Cudin, I. Diviacco, B. Raimondi, L. Spampinati, S. Spezzani, C. Masciovecchio, C. Tags: storage ring diffraction limit laser slicing undulator radiation synchrotron light source radiation background research papers Source Type: research

A versatile nanoreactor for complementary in situ X-ray and electron microscopy studies in catalysis and materials science
Two in situ `nanoreactors' for high-resolution imaging of catalysts have been designed and applied at the hard X-ray nanoprobe endstation at beamline P06 of the PETRA III synchrotron radiation source. The reactors house samples supported on commercial MEMS chips, and were applied for complementary hard X-ray ptychography (23   nm spatial resolution) and transmission electron microscopy, with additional X-ray fluorescence measurements. The reactors allow pressures of 100   kPa and temperatures of up to 1573   K, offering a wide range of conditions relevant for catalysis. Ptychographic tomography was demonstrated at li...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 27, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Fam, Y. Sheppard, T.L. Becher, J. Scherhaufer, D. Lambach, H. Kulkarni, S. Keller, T.F. Wittstock, A. Wittwer, F. Seyrich, M. Brueckner, D. Kahnt, M. Yang, X. Schropp, A. Stierle, A. Schroer, C.G. Grunwaldt, J.-D. Tags: porous nanoreactors catalysis X-ray microscopy electron microscopy hard X-ray ptychography research papers Source Type: research

A micro channel-cut crystal X-ray monochromator for a self-seeded hard X-ray free-electron laser
A channel-cut Si(111) crystal with a channel width of 90   µ m was developed for achieving reflection self-seeding in hard X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). With the crystal a monochromatic seed pulse is produced from a broadband XFEL pulse generated in the first undulator section with an optical delay of 119   fs at 10   keV. The small optical delay allows a temporal overlap between the seed optical pulse and the electron bunch by using a small magnetic chicane for the electron beam placed between two undulator sections. Peak reflectivity reached 67%, which is reasonable compared with the theoretical value o...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 27, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Osaka, T. Inoue, I. Kinjo, R. Hirano, T. Morioka, Y. Sano, Y. Yamauchi, K. Yabashi, M. Tags: XFELs self-seeding channel-cut crystals research papers Source Type: research

High-pressure nuclear inelastic scattering with backscattering monochromatization
The capability to perform high-pressure low-temperature nuclear inelastic scattering on 125Te and 121Sb with a sapphire backscattering monochromator is presented. This technique was applied to measure nuclear inelastic scattering in TeO2 at pressures up to 10   GPa and temperatures down to 25   K. The evaluated partial Te densities of phonon states were compared with theoretical calculations and with Raman scattering measured under the same conditions. The high-pressure cell developed in this work can also be used for other techniques at pressures up to at least 100   GPa. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 23, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Sergueev, I. Glazyrin, K. Herrmann, M.G. Alexeev, P. Wille, H.-C. Leupold, O. May, A.F. Pandey, T. Lindsay, L.R. Friese, K. Hermann, R.P. Tags: nuclear inelastic scattering high pressure backscattering nuclear resonance scattering density of phonon states research papers Source Type: research

On the advantages of operation in second-order diffraction of blazed gratings in soft X-ray monochromators
This study will thus address the feasibility of efficient diffraction of soft X-rays in the second order at reflection gratings when operated at grazing angles of incidence. The related systematic study could make profitable use of a recently introduced simple analytical equation for the prediction of the diffraction efficiency of blazed gratings with an ideal sawtooth profile. The predictions are then verified by use of rigorous calculations. The principle finding is that, by operation of gratings with lower groove densities, and thus with higher efficiencies, in higher order diffraction, one can extend the tuning in exis...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 23, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Jark, W. Tags: diffraction grating soft X-rays diffraction efficiency second-order diffraction soft X-ray monochromator research papers Source Type: research

High-efficiency fast X-ray imaging detector development at SSRF
Indirect X-ray imaging detectors consisting of scintillator screens, long-working-distance microscope lenses and scientific high-speed complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras are usually used to realize fast X-ray imaging with white-beam synchrotron radiation. However, the detector efficiency is limited by the coupling efficiency of the long-working-distance microscope lenses, which is only about 5%. A long-working-distance microscope lenses system with a large numerical aperture (NA) is designed to increase the coupling efficiency. It offers an NA of 0.5 at 8 × magnification. The Mitutoyo long-working...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 23, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Xie, H. Luo, H. Du, G. Zhao, C. Xu, W. Zhou, G. Chen, R. Xiao, T. Tags: scintillators indirect X-ray imaging detectors long-working-distance microscope lenses fast X-ray imaging fast X-ray microtomography CMOS cameras dynamic X-ray micro-CT synchrotron radiation research papers Source Type: research

Soldering of silicon to Invar for double-crystal monochromators
At the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), new double-crystal monochromators are under development for use at the new Brazilian fourth-generation synchrotron, Sirius. The soldering technique used for the double-crystal monochromators ensures the union of monocrystalline silicon with FeNi alloy, Invar36 (64Fe – 36Ni) from Grupo Metal and Invar39 (61Fe – 39Fe) from Scientific Alloys, through SnSb (92.8Sn – 7.2Sb), SnCu (Sn – 0.3Cu) and SnBiCu (Sn – 1.4Bi – 0.7Cu) alloys from Nihon Superior. Following soldering tests and quantitative analysis, the Invar39/SnBiCu/Si samples were s...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 23, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Auricchio, M.M.B. Mei, P.R. Bagnato, O.R. Tags: soldering silicon Invar interface alloy research papers Source Type: research

A novel method for measuring the focal point of a   sagittal-focusing Laue crystal monochromator
In order to overcome space limitations, a novel method is introduced to measure the focal point size of a sagittally bent Laue crystal monochromator by using a multi-hole array. Combined with ray-tracing measurements, the focal length and focused beam size were determined. Theoretical simulations and experiments were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. The experimental results show that this method can provide a fast way of measuring the focusing characteristics of a sagittally bent Laue crystal monochromator. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 20, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Yang, J. Sheng, W. Liu, X. Hu, L. Cai, Q. Tags: sagittally bent double-Laue monochromator focal point size multi-hole arrays ray-tracing measurements short communications Source Type: research

Microsecond time-resolved X-ray diffraction for the investigation of fatigue behavior during ultrasonic fatigue loading
A new method based on time-resolved X-ray diffraction is proposed in order to measure the elastic strain and stress during ultrasonic fatigue loading experiments. Pure Cu was chosen as an example material for the experiments using a 20   kHz ultrasonic fatigue machine mounted on the six-circle diffractometer available at the DiffAbs beamline on the SOLEIL synchrotron facility in France. A two-dimensional hybrid pixel X-ray detector (XPAD3.2) was triggered by the strain gage signal in a synchronous data acquisition scheme (pump – probe-like). The method enables studying loading cycles with a period of 50   µ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 20, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Ors, T. Ranc, N. Pelerin, M. Michel, V. Favier, V. Castelnau, O. Mocuta, C. Thiaudi è re, D. Tags: ultrasonic fatigue tests very high cycle fatigue time-resolved stress measurement laser extensometry X-ray diffraction research papers Source Type: research

Investigation of the local structure of molten ThF4 – LiF and ThF4 – LiF – BeF2 mixtures by high-temperature X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular-dynamics simulation
The microscopic structures of ThF4 – LiF and ThF4 – LiF – BeF2 molten salts have been systematically investigated by in situ high-temperature X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) spectroscopy combined with molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations. The results reveal that the local structure of thorium ions was much more disordered in the molten state of the ThF4 – LiF – BeF2 salt than that in ThF4 – LiF, implying that the Th and F ions were exchanged more frequently in the presence of Be ions. The structures of medium-range-ordered coordination shells (such as Th – F2nd and Th –...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 20, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Sun, J. Guo, X. Zhou, J. Dai, J. Song, S. Bao, H. Lin, J. Yu, H. He, S. Jiang, F. Long, D. Zhang, L. Wang, J.-Q. Tags: fluoride salts molecular dynamics simulations in situ XAFS medium-range-ordered structure transport properties research papers Source Type: research

Focal shift induced by source displacements and optical figure errors
In this work the longitudinal shifts of the focal plane of an ellipsoidal mirror induced by longitudinal shifts of the source and by the optical figure error of the mirror itself are investigated. The case of an ideal mirror illuminated by a Gaussian beam is considered first, deriving an analytical formula predicting the source-to-focus shift. Then the realistic case of a mirror affected by surface shape defects is examined, by taking into account metrological data and numerically solving the Huygens – Fresnel integral. The analytical and numerical solutions in the ideal and real cases are compared. Finally, it is sh...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 20, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Manfredda, M. Raimondi, L. Mahne, N. Zangrando, M. Tags: X-ray optics FEL free-electron lasers wavefront sensing Gaussian beams elliptical mirrors research papers Source Type: research

Operation of photon diagnostic imagers for beam commissioning at the European XFEL
X-ray photon beam diagnostic imagers are located at 24 positions in the European XFEL beam transport system to characterize the X-ray beam properties, and to give feedback for tuning and optimization of the electron acceleration and orbit, the undulators, and the X-ray optics. One year of commissioning allowed experience to be gained with these imagers, which will be reported here. The sensitive Spontaneous Radiation imager is useful for various investigations in spontaneous radiation mode: for undulator adjustments and for low-signal imaging applications. The   high-resolution Free-Electron Laser imager, 10   &micr...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 19, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Koch, A. Risch, J. Freund, W. Maltezopoulos, T. Planas, M. Gr ü nert, J. Tags: X-ray imaging beam diagnostics X-ray free-electron lasers beam transport systems scintillators research papers Source Type: research

Jitter correction for transmission X-ray microscopy via measurement of geometric moments
Transmission X-ray microscopes (TXMs) have become one of the most powerful tools for imaging 3D structures of nano-scale samples using the computed tomography (CT) principle. As a major error source, sample jitter caused by mechanical instability of the rotation stage produces shifted 2D projections, from which reconstructed images contain severe motion artifacts. In this paper, a jitter correction algorithm is proposed, that has high accuracy and computational efficiency for TXM experiments with or without nano-particle markers. Geometric moments (GMs) are measured on segmented projections for each angle and fitted to sin...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 19, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Wang, S. Liu, J. Li, Y. Chen, J. Guan, Y. Zhu, L. Tags: TXM jitter correction geometric moment motion artifact alignment research papers Source Type: research

Synchrotron in situ studies of mechanical activation treatment and γ -radiation impact on structural-phase transitions and high-temperature synthesis parameters during the formation of γ -(TiAl) compound
In situ synchrotron studies of structure and phase formation dynamics in mechanically activated (t = 7   min, power density 40   g) and mechanically activated with subsequent irradiation by γ -quanta 60Co powder mixture (Ti   64   wt% + Al) during high-temperature synthesis by the method of thermal explosion using induction heating are described. In situ high-temperature synthesis was carried out on the created experimental complex adapted for synchrotron X-ray diffraction methods. The sequence of formation and time – temperature interval of the metastable and main phases were determined. The impact ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 19, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Loginova, M. Sobachkin, A. Sitnikov, A. Yakovlev, V. Filimonov, V. Myasnikov, A. Sharafutdinov, M. Tolochko, B. Gradoboev, A. Tags: mechanoactivation processing γ -irradiation powder materials titanium aluminides high-temperature synthesis experimental complex thermal explosion induction heating phase formation structure formation research papers Source Type: research

Reducing sample consumption for serial crystallography using acoustic drop ejection
Efficient sample delivery is an essential aspect of serial crystallography at both synchrotrons and X-ray free-electron lasers. Rastering fixed target chips through the X-ray beam is an efficient method for serial delivery from the perspectives of both sample consumption and beam time usage. Here, an approach for loading fixed targets using acoustic drop ejection is presented that does not compromise crystal quality, can reduce sample consumption by more than an order of magnitude and allows serial diffraction to be collected from a larger proportion of the crystals in the slurry. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 16, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Davy, B. Axford, D. Beale, J. H. Butryn, A. Docker, P. Ebrahim, A. Leen, G. Orville, A.M. Owen, R.L. Aller, P. Tags: serial crystallography sample delivery fixed targets acoustic dispensing short communications Source Type: research

Soft X-ray varied-line-spacing gratings fabricated by   near-field holography using an electron beam lithography-written phase mask
A fabrication method comprising near-field holography (NFH) with an electron beam lithography (EBL)-written phase mask was developed to fabricate soft X-ray varied-line-spacing gratings (VLSGs). An EBL-written phase mask with an area of 52   mm × 30   mm and a central line density greater than 3000 lines   mm − 1 was used. The introduction of the EBL-written phase mask substantially simplified the NFH optics for pattern transfer. The characterization of the groove density distribution and diffraction efficiency of the fabricated VLSGs indicates that the EBL – NFH method is feasible and promising for...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 16, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Lin, D. Liu, Z. Dietrich, K. Sokolov, A. Sertsu, M.G. Zhou, H. Huo, T. Kroker, S. Chen, H. Qiu, K. Xu, X. Sch ä fers, F. Liu, Y. Kley, E.-B. Hong, Y. Tags: near-field holography electron beam lithography fabrication soft X-ray varied-line-spacing grating spectrometer research papers Source Type: research

Idea of thin-film beam splitters for two-colour beamlines
The idea to split soft X-ray and hard X-ray beams on the same axis into different directions is presented. A thin-film beam splitter can serve this purpose. Performances of thin-film beam splitters made of carbon and aluminium were examined. The idea of thin-film beam splitters expands possibilities in the design of two-colour beamlines. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 16, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Abe, H. Tags: beam splitter soft and hard X-rays two-colour beamline research papers Source Type: research

Gamma-irradiation-induced micro-structural variations in flame-retardant polyurethane foam using synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography
In this study, in-house-developed flame-retardant rigid polyurethane foam samples were exposed to gamma irradiation doses in the 0 – 20   kGy range and synchrotron radiation X-ray micro-computed tomography (SR- µ CT) imaging was employed for the analysis of radiation-induced morphological variations in their cellular microstructure. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of SR- µ CT images has revealed significant variations in the average cell size, shape, wall thickness, orientations and spatial anisotropy of the cellular microstructure in polyurethane foam. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 16, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Agrawal, A.K. Singh, B. Kashyap, Y.S. Shukla, M. Manjunath, B.S. Gadkari, S.C. Tags: X-ray imaging micro-tomography synchrotron imaging polyurethane foam gamma irradiation morphological image analysis cellular microstructure – property relation synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography research papers Source Type: research

Sample delivery using viscous media, a syringe and   a   syringe pump for serial crystallography
Sample delivery using injectors is widely used in serial crystallography (SX) and has significantly contributed to the determination of crystal structures at room temperature. However, sophisticated injector nozzle fabrication methods and sample delivery operations have made it difficult for ordinary users to access the SX research. Herein, a simple and easily accessible sample delivery method for SX experiments is introduced, that uses a viscous medium, commercially available syringe and syringe pump. The syringe containing the lysozyme crystals embedded in lipidic cubic phase (LCP) or polyacrylamide (PAM) delivery media ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 15, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Park, S.-Y. Nam, K.H. Tags: serial crystallography sample delivery syringe pumps viscous media lipidic cubic phase polyacrylamide short communications Source Type: research

Effect of the third undulator field harmonic on spontaneous and stimulated undulator radiation
The effect of undulator field harmonics on spontaneous and stimulated undulator radiation, both on and off the undulator axis, is studied. Bessel factors for the undulators with field harmonics have been analytically calculated and numerically verified. The influence of the third undulator field harmonic on single-pass free-electron laser radiation is explored. Harmonic generation at the LCLS and SPring-8 free-electron lasers is modeled and analyzed. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 15, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Zhukovsky, K.V. Tags: undulator radiation harmonics free-electron laser research papers Source Type: research

Simultaneous scanning near-field optical and X-ray diffraction microscopy for correlative nanoscale structure – property characterization
A multimodal imaging instrument has been developed that integrates scanning near-field optical microscopy with nanofocused synchrotron X-ray diffraction imaging. The instrument allows for the simultaneous nanoscale characterization of electronic/near-field optical properties of materials together with their crystallographic structure, facilitating the investigation of local structure – property relationships. The design, implementation and operating procedures of this instrument are reported. The scientific capabilities are demonstrated in a proof-of-principle study of the insulator – metal phase transition in ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 15, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Li, Q. Marks, S.D. Bean, S. Fisher, M. Walko, D.A. DiChiara, A.D. Chen, X. Imura, K. Sato, N.K. Liu, M. Evans, P.G. Wen, H. Tags: multimodal imaging X-ray diffraction imaging scanning near-field optical microscopy structure – property correlations insulator metal transitions samarium sulfide scanning probe microscopy research papers Source Type: research

Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering of magnetic excitations under pressure
Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) is an extremely valuable tool for the study of elementary, including magnetic, excitations in matter. The latest developments of this technique have mostly been aimed at improving the energy resolution and performing polarization analysis of the scattered radiation, with a great impact on the interpretation and applicability of RIXS. Instead, this article focuses on the sample environment and presents a setup for high-pressure low-temperature RIXS measurements of low-energy excitations. The feasibility of these experiments is proved by probing the magnetic excitations of the bilay...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 15, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Rossi, M. Henriquet, C. Jacobs, J. Donnerer, C. Boseggia, S. Al-Zein, A. Fumagalli, R. Yao, Y. Vale, J.G. Hunter, E.C. Perry, R.S. Kantor, I. Garbarino, G. Crichton, W. Monaco, G. McMorrow, D.F. Krisch, M. Moretti   Sala, M. Tags: resonant inelastic X-ray scattering high pressure magnetic excitations correlated electron systems iridates research papers Source Type: research

Generating three-color pulses in high-gain harmonic-generation free-electron lasers with a   tilted electron bunch
A multi-color light source is a significant tool for nonlinear optics experiments, pump – dump/repump – probe experiments and in other fields. Here, a novel method is proposed to create three-color pulses based on a high-gain harmonic-generation (HGHG) free-electron laser with a tilted electron bunch. In this method, the initial bunch tilt is created by transverse wakefields after the bunch passes through a corrugated structure with an off-axis orbit, and is further enlarged in a following drift section. Then the tilted bunch experiences the off-axis field of a quadrupole magnet to cool down the large transvers...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 12, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Zhao, Z. Li, H. Li, W. Jia, Q. Jiang, S. Wang, L. Tags: three-color corrugated structure tilted bunch TGU NTG HGHG research papers Source Type: research

Kirkpatrick – Baez active optics system at FERMI: system performance analysis
FERMI is the first and only seeded EUV-SXR free-electron laser (FEL) facility available to users; it operates at Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste (Italy) and it presents five operating endstations. Three of them, namely LDM (Low Density Matter), DiProI (Diffraction and Projection Imaging) and MagneDyn (Magneto-Dynamical studies), use a Kirkpatrick – Baez (KB) active X-ray optics system to focus the FEL pulses into the experimental chambers. The present work reports on the final results of the upgraded KB Active Optics Systems (KAOS), which have been mechanically modified in order to improve stability and repeatabi...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 12, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Raimondi, L. Manfredda, M. Mahne, N. Cocco, D. Capotondi, F. Pedersoli, E. Kiskinova, M. Zangrando, M. Tags: Kirkpatrick – Baez wavefront sensor WISEr active optics system FERMI research papers Source Type: research

X-ray dynamical diffraction analogues of the integer   and fractional Talbot effects
The X-ray integer and fractional Talbot effect is studied under two-wave dynamical diffraction conditions in a perfect crystal, for the symmetrical Laue case of diffraction. The fractional dynamical diffraction Talbot effect is studied for the first time. A theory of the dynamical diffraction integer and fractional Talbot effect is given, introducing the dynamical diffraction comb function. An expression for the dynamical diffraction polarization-sensitive Talbot distance is established. At the rational multiple depths of the Talbot depth the wavefield amplitude for each dispersion branch is a coherent sum of the initial d...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 12, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Balyan, M.K. Tags: Talbot effect X-ray dynamical diffraction crystals periodic object research papers Source Type: research

X-ray reflecto-interferometer based on compound refractive lenses
An X-ray amplitude-splitting interferometer based on compound refractive lenses, which operates in the reflection mode, is proposed and realized. The idea of a reflecto-interferometer is to use a very simplified experimental setup where a focused X-ray beam reflected from parallel flat surfaces creates an interference pattern in a wide angular range. The functional capabilities of the interferometer were experimentally tested at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) ID06 beamline in the X-ray energy range from 10   keV to 15   keV. The main features of the proposed approach, high spatial and temporal resol...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 12, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Lyatun, S. Zverev, D. Ershov, P. Lyatun, I. Konovalov, O. Snigireva, I. Snigirev, A. Tags: spatial resolution temporal resolution interferograms reflecto-interferometers compound refractive lenses X-ray interferometry research papers Source Type: research

Microfluidic electrochemical cell for in situ structural characterization of amorphous thin-film catalysts using high-energy X-ray scattering
Porous, high-surface-area electrode architectures are described that allow structural characterization of interfacial amorphous thin films with high spatial resolution under device-relevant functional electrochemical conditions using high-energy X-ray (>50   keV) scattering and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. Porous electrodes were fabricated from glass-capillary array membranes coated with conformal transparent conductive oxide layers, consisting of either a 40   nm – 50   nm crystalline indium tin oxide or a 100   nm – 150   nm-thick amorphous indium zinc oxide deposited by atomic laye...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 9, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Kwon, G. Cho, Y.-H. Kim, K.-B. Emery, J.D. Kim, I.S. Zhang, X. Martinson, A.B.F. Tiede, D.M. Tags: atomic layer deposition electrode architectures pair distribution functions high-energy X-ray scattering catalysts electrochemistry ultra-thin films research papers Source Type: research

Scientific instrument Femtosecond X-ray Experiments (FXE): instrumentation and baseline experimental capabilities
The European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (EuXFEL) delivers extremely intense (>1012   photons   pulse − 1 and up to 27000   pulses   s − 1), ultrashort ( (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 9, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Galler, A. Gawelda, W. Biednov, M. Bomer, C. Britz, A. Brockhauser, S. Choi, T.-K. Diez, M. Frankenberger, P. French, M. G ö rries, D. Hart, M. Hauf, S. Khakhulin, D. Knoll, M. Korsch, T. Kubicek, K. Kuster, M. Lang, P. Alves Lima, F. Otte, F. Schulz, S. Tags: XFELs X-rays pump – probe ultrafast science research papers Source Type: research

Dynamic observation of X-ray Laue diffraction on single-crystal tungsten during pulsed heat load
The dynamics of the diffraction peak shape during pulsed heat load on mosaic single-crystal tungsten were measured at the `Plasma' scattering station on the eighth beamline of the VEPP-4 synchrotron radiation source at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. The observed evolution of the diffraction peak shape agrees with theoretical predictions based on calculations of deformation caused by pulsed heating. Three clearly distinguishable stages of the diffraction-peak evolution were found, correlating with the evolution of temperature and deformation distributions. The residual plastic deformation increased with subsequent...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 9, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Arakcheev, A.S. Aulchenko, V.M. Balash, I.I. Burdakov, A.V. Chernyakin, A.D. Dokutovich, V.A. Evdokov, O.V. Kasatov, A.A. Kazantsev, S.R. Kosov, A.V. Popov, V.A. Sharafutdinov, M.R. Shekhtman, L.I. Shoshin, A.A. Tolochko, B.P. Vasilyev, A.A. Vyacheslavov, Tags: X-ray diffraction pulsed heating elasticity plasticity research papers Source Type: research

The Karabo distributed control system
has been developed to address the challenging requirements of the European X-ray Free Electron Laser facility, including complex and custom-made hardware, high data rates and volumes, and close integration of data analysis for distributed processing and rapid feedback. Karabo is a pluggable, distributed application management system forming a supervisory control and data acquisition environment as part of a distributed control system. Karabo provides integrated control of hardware, monitoring, data acquisition and data analysis on distributed hardware, allowing rapid control feedback based on complex algorithms. Services ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 9, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Hauf, S. Heisen, B. Aplin, S. Beg, M. Bergemann, M. Bondar, V. Boukhelef, D. Danilevsky, C. Ehsan, W. Essenov, S. Fabbri, R. Flucke, G. Fulla Marsa, D. G ö ries, D. Giovanetti, G. Hickin, D. Jarosiewicz, T. Kamil, E. Khakhulin, D. Klimovskaia, A. Kluyver Tags: Karabo control system physics facility experiment control data analysis research papers Source Type: research

XANES and EXAFS of dilute solutions of transition metals at XFELs
This work has demonstrated that X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), both Mn XANES and EXAFS, of solutions with millimolar concentrations of metal is possible using the femtosecond X-ray pulses from XFELs. Mn XAS data were collected using two different sample delivery methods, a Rayleigh jet and a drop-on-demand setup, with varying concentrations of Mn. Here, a new method for normalization of XAS spectra based on solvent scattering that is compatible with data collection from a highly variable pulsed source is described. The measured XANES and EXAFS spectra of such dilute solution samples are in good agreement with data co...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 7, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Chatterjee, R. Weninger, C. Loukianov, A. Gul, S. Fuller, F.D. Cheah, M.H. Fransson, T. Pham, C.C. Nelson, S. Song, S. Britz, A. Messinger, J. Bergmann, U. Alonso-Mori, R. Yachandra, V.K. Kern, J. Yano, J. Tags: X-ray free electron lasers X-ray near-edge spectroscopy extended X-ray absorption fine structure X-ray absorption spectroscopy research papers Source Type: research

Device for source position stabilization and beam parameter monitoring at inverse Compton X-ray sources
Compact X-ray sources based on inverse Compton scattering provide brilliant and partially coherent X-rays in a laboratory environment. The cross section for inverse Compton scattering is very small, requiring high-power laser systems as well as small laser and electron beam sizes at the interaction point to generate sufficient flux. Therefore, these systems are very sensitive to distortions which change the overlap between the two beams. In order to monitor X-ray source position, size and flux in parallel to experiments, the beam-position monitor proposed here comprises a small knife edge whose image is acquired with an X-...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 7, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: G ü nther, B. Dierolf, M. Achterhold, K. Pfeiffer, F. Tags: inverse Compton X-ray sources beam-position monitor active source position stabilization research papers Source Type: research

Intense sub-micrometre focusing of soft X-ray free-electron laser beyond 1016 W   cm − 2 with an ellipsoidal mirror
Intense sub-micrometre focusing of a soft X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) was achieved by using an ellipsoidal mirror with a high numerical aperture. A hybrid focusing system in combination with a Kirkpatrick – Baez mirror was applied for compensation of a small spatial acceptance of the ellipsoidal mirror. With this system, the soft X-ray FEL pulses were focused down to 480   nm × 680   nm with an extremely high intensity of 8.8 × 1016   W   cm − 2 at a photon energy of 120   eV, which yielded saturable absorption at the L-edge of Si (99.8   eV) with a drastic increase of transmittance ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 5, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Motoyama, H. Owada, S. Yamaguchi, G. Kume, T. Egawa, S. Tono, K. Inubushi, Y. Koyama, T. Yabashi, M. Ohashi, H. Mimura, H. Tags: ellipsoidal mirror soft X-ray free-electron laser saturable absorption optical design research papers Source Type: research

Dead-time correction for spectroscopic photon-counting pixel detectors
Modern photon-counting pixel detectors have enabled a revolution in applications at synchrotron light sources and beyond in the last decade. One of the limitations of the current detectors is their reduced counting linearity or even paralysis at high counting rates, due to dead-time which results in photon pile-up. Existing dead-time and pile-up models fail to reproduce the complexity of dead-time effects on photon-counting, resulting in empirical calibrations for particular detectors at best, imprecise linearization methods, or no linearization. This problem will increase in the future as many synchrotron light sources pl...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 5, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Blaj, G. Tags: photon-counting hybrid pixel detectors detector dead-time photon pile-up high photon flux linearization research papers Source Type: research

X-ray photon diagnostics at the European XFEL
This article describes the as-built realization of photon diagnostics for this facility, the diagnostics commissioning and their application for commissioning of the facility, and results from the first year of operation, focusing on the SASE1 beamline, which was the first to be commissioned. The commissioning consisted of pre-beam checkout, first light from the bending magnets, X-rays from single undulator segments, SASE tuning with many undulator segments, first lasing, optics alignment for FEL beam transport through the tunnel up to the experiment hutches, and finally beam delivery to first users. The beam properties as...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 2, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Gr ü nert, J. Carbonell, M.P. Dietrich, F. Falk, T. Freund, W. Koch, A. Kujala, N. Laksman, J. Liu J. Maltezopoulos, T. Tiedtke, K. Jastrow, U.F. Sorokin, A. Syresin, E. Grebentsov, A. Brovko, O. Tags: XFEL physics free-electron lasers photon diagnostics hard X-rays soft X-rays instrumentation research papers Source Type: research

Method of calculating the aberrations of soft X-ray and vacuum ultraviolet optical systems
Based on the the third-order aberration theory of plane-symmetric optical systems, this paper studies the effect on aberrations of the second-order accuracy of aperture-ray coordinates and the extrinsic aberrations of this kind of optical system; their calculation expressions are derived. The resultant aberration expressions are then applied to calculate the aberrations of two design examples of soft X-ray and vacuum ultraviolet (XUV) optical systems; images are compared with ray-tracing results using SHADOW software to validate the aberration expressions. The study shows that the accuracy of the aberration expressions is ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 1, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Cao, Y. Shen, Z. Zheng, Z. Tags: soft X-ray and vacuum ultraviolet intrinsic aberrations extrinsic aberrations synchrotron optics optical design research papers Source Type: research

Revealing phase boundaries by weighted parametric structural refinement
In this study, a weighted parametric method is   demonstrated whereby the scale factor is restrained via an inverse tan function, making the phase boundary composition a refinable parameter. This is demonstrated using compositionally graded samples within the lead-free piezoelectric (BiFeO3)x(Bi0.5K0.5TiO3)y(Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3)1 – x – y and (Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3)x(BaTiO3)1 – x systems. This has proven to be an effective method for diffraction experiments with relatively low resolution, weak peak splitting or compositionally complex multiphase samples. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 1, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Marlton, F. Checchia, S. Daniels, J. Tags: parametrics powder diffraction ferroelectrics Rietveld refinement research papers Source Type: research

Diamond nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses made by planar etching technology
The manufacturing steps and first tests of a refractive lens made of polycrystalline diamond are described. A fabrication process based on electron-beam lithography and deep reactive ion etching is introduced. Experimental tests on beamline ID13 at the ESRF have been performed. A spot size of 360   nm (FWHM) at an energy E = 24.3   keV is observed. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 1, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Lyubomirskiy, M. Boye, P. Feldkamp, J.M. Patommel, J. Schoeder, S. Schropp, A. Burghammer, M. Wild, C. Schroer, C.G. Tags: diamond X-ray lenses compound refractive lens (CRL) focusing research papers Source Type: research

Resolving dynamic fragmentation of liquids at the nanoscale with ultrafast small-angle X-ray scattering
High-brightness coherent ultrashort X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) are promising in resolving nanoscale structures at the highest temporal resolution ( ∼ 10   fs). The feasibility is explored of resolving ultrafast fragmentation of liquids at the nanoscale with single-shot small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) on the basis of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. Fragmentation of liquid sheets under adiabatic expansion is investigated. From the simulated SAXS patterns, particle-volume size distributions are obtained with the regularization method and average particle sizes with the weighted Guinier method, at...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 1, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Chen, S. Chai, H.-W. He, A.-M. Tschentscher, T. Cai, Y. Luo, S.-N. Tags: XFELs small-angle X-ray scattering nanoscale fragmentation liquids research papers Source Type: research

Energy-dispersive Laue diffraction by means of a pnCCD detector coupled to a CsI(Tl) scintillator using ultra-hard X-ray synchrotron radiation
The lattice parameters and unit-cell orientation of an SrLaAlO4 crystal have been determined by means of energy-dispersive X-ray Laue diffraction (EDLD) using a pnCCD detector coupled to a columnar structure CsI(Tl) scintillator in the energy range between 40 and 130   keV. By exploiting the high quantum efficiency (QE) achieved by this combined detection system for hard X-rays, a large number of Bragg reflections could be recorded by the relatively small detector area, allowing accurate and fast determination of the lattice parameters and the moduli of the structure factors. The experiment was performed on the energy-di...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 25, 2019 Category: Physics Authors: Shokr, M. Tosson, A. Abboud, A. Algashi, A. Schlosser, D. Hartmann, R. Klaus, M. Genzel, C. Str ü der, L. Pietsch, U. Tags: PnCCD detector CsI(Tl) scintillator X-ray Laue diffraction energy-dispersive X-ray detectors ultra-hard X-ray synchrotron radiation research papers Source Type: research