An in situ atomic force microscope for normal-incidence nanofocus X-ray experiments
A compact high-speed X-ray atomic force microscope has been developed for in   situ use in normal-incidence X-ray experiments on synchrotron beamlines, allowing for simultaneous characterization of samples in direct space with nanometric lateral resolution while employing nanofocused X-ray beams. In the present work the instrument is used to observe radiation damage effects produced by an intense X-ray nanobeam on a semiconducting organic thin film. The formation of micrometric holes induced by the beam occurring on a timescale of seconds is characterized. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 10, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Vitorino, M.V. Fuchs, Y. Dane, T. Rodrigues, M.S. Rosenthal, M. Panzarella, A. Bernard, P. Hignette, O. Dupuy, L. Burghammer, M. Costa, L. Tags: in situ atomic force microscopy radiation damage semiconducting organic thin films research papers Source Type: research

30-Lens interferometer for high-energy X-rays
A novel high-energy multi-lens interferometer consisting of 30 arrays of planar compound refractive lenses is reported. Under coherent illumination each lens array creates a diffraction-limited secondary source. Overlapping such coherent beams produces an interference pattern demonstrating strong longitudinal functional dependence. The proposed multi-lens interferometer was tested experimentally at the 100   m-long ID11 ESRF beamline in the X-ray energy range from 30 to 65   keV. The interference pattern generated by the interferometer was recorded at fundamental and fractional Talbot distances. An effective source siz...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 9, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Lyubomirskiy, M. Snigireva, I. Kohn, V. Kuznetsov, S. Yunkin, V. Vaughan, G. Snigirev, A. Tags: interferometry Si lenses coherence Talbot effect MEMS research papers Source Type: research

Angular vibrations of cryogenically cooled double-crystal monochromators
The effect of angular vibrations of the crystals in cryogenically cooled monochromators on the beam performance has been studied theoretically and experimentally. A simple relation between amplitude of the vibrations and size of the focused beam is developed. It is shown that the double-crystal monochromator vibrations affect not only the image size but also the image position along the optical axis. Several methods to measure vibrations with the X-ray beam are explained and analyzed. The methods have been applied to systematically study angular crystal vibrations at monochromators installed at the PETRA III light source. ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 9, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Sergueev, I. D ö hrmann, R. Horbach, J. Heuer, J. Tags: X-ray optics monochromator compound refractive lens research papers Source Type: research

New figuring model based on surface slope profile   for grazing-incidence reflective optics
Surface slope profile is widely used in the metrology of grazing-incidence reflective optics instead of surface height profile. Nevertheless, the theoretical and experimental model currently used in deterministic optical figuring processes is based on surface height, not on surface slope. This means that the raw slope profile data from metrology need to be converted to height profile to perform the current height-based figuring processes. The inevitable measurement noise in the raw slope data will introduce significant cumulative error in the resultant height profiles. As a consequence, this conversion will degrade the det...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 9, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Zhou, L. Huang, L. Bouet, N. Kaznatcheev, K. Vescovi, M. Dai, Y. Li, S. Idir, M. Tags: ion beam figuring synchrotron optics one-dimensional surface slope research papers Source Type: research

Large-aperture prism-array lens for high-energy X-ray focusing
A new prism-array lens for high-energy X-ray focusing has been constructed using an array of different prisms obtained from different parabolic structures by removal of passive parts of material leading to a multiple of 2 π phase variation. Under the thin-lens approximation the phase changes caused by this lens for a plane wave are exactly the same as those caused by a parabolic lens without any additional corrections when they have the same focal length, which will provide good focusing; at the same time, the total transmission and effective aperture of this lens are both larger than those of a compound kinoform lens w...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 4, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Zhang, W. Liu, J. Chang, G. Shi, Z. Li, M. Ren, Y. Zhang, X. Yi, F. Liu, P. Sheng, W. Tags: X-ray optics refractive lenses prism-array lenses LIGA technology knife-scan method research papers Source Type: research

Application of an ePix100 detector for coherent scattering using a hard X-ray free-electron laser
A prototype ePix100 detector was used in small-angle scattering geometry to capture speckle patterns from a static sample using the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) hard X-ray free-electron laser at 8.34   keV. The average number of detected photons per pixel per pulse was varied over three orders of magnitude from about 23 down to 0.01 to test the detector performance. At high average photon count rates, the speckle contrast was evaluated by analyzing the probability distribution of the pixel counts at a constant scattering vector for single frames. For very low average photon counts of less than 0.2 per pixel, the `d...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 4, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Sikorski, M. Feng, Y. Song, S. Zhu, D. Carini, G. Herrmann, S. Nishimura, K. Hart, P. Robert, A. Tags: X-rays free-electron laser (FEL) detector droplet algorithm coherent scattering research papers Source Type: research

Hard X-ray polarizer to enable simultaneous three-dimensional nanoscale imaging of magnetic structure and lattice strain
Recent progress in the development of dichroic Bragg coherent diffractive imaging, a new technique for simultaneous three-dimensional imaging of strain and magnetization at the nanoscale, is reported. This progress includes the installation of a diamond X-ray phase retarder at beamline 34-ID-C of the Advanced Photon Source. The performance of the phase retarder for tuning X-ray polarization is demonstrated with temperature-dependent X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements on a gadolinium foil in transmission and on a Gd5Si2Ge2 crystal in diffraction geometry with a partially coherent, focused X-ray beam. Feasibility...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 4, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Logan, J. Harder, R. Li, L. Haskel, D. Chen, P. Winarski, R. Fuesz, P. Schlagel, D. Vine, D. Benson, C. McNulty, I. Tags: Bragg coherent diffractive imaging XMCD nanomagnetism strain research papers Source Type: research

A confident source of hard X-rays: radiation from a tokamak applicable for runaway electrons diagnosis
In a tokamak with a toroidal electric field, electrons that exceed the critical velocity are freely accelerated and can reach very high energies. These so-called `runaway electrons' can cause severe damage to the vacuum vessel and are a dangerous source of hard X-rays. Here the effect of toroidal electric and magnetic field changes on the characteristics of runaway electrons is reported. A possible technique for runaways diagnosis is the detection of hard X-ray radiation; for this purpose, a scintillator (NaI) was used. Because of the high loop voltage at the beginning of a plasma, this investigation was carried out on tor...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - August 4, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Kafi, M. Salar Elahi, A. Ghoranneviss, M. Ghanbari, M.R. Salem, M.K. Tags: tokamak runaway electrons hard X-rays research papers Source Type: research

Real-time image-content-based beamline control for smart 4D X-ray imaging
Real-time processing of X-ray image data acquired at synchrotron radiation facilities allows for smart high-speed experiments. This includes workflows covering parameterized and image-based feedback-driven control up to the final storage of raw and processed data. Nevertheless, there is presently no system that supports an efficient construction of such experiment workflows in a scalable way. Thus, here an architecture based on a high-level control system that manages low-level data acquisition, data processing and device changes is described. This system is suitable for routine as well as prototypical experiments, and pro...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 28, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Vogelgesang, M. Farago, T. Morgeneyer, T.F. Helfen, L. dos Santos Rolo, T. Myagotin, A. Baumbach, T. Tags: control tomography laminography computer programs Source Type: research

Pink-beam focusing with a one-dimensional compound refractive lens
The performance of a cooled Be compound refractive lens (CRL) has been tested at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to enable vertical focusing of the pink beam and permit the X-ray beam to spatially overlap with an 80   µ m-high low-density plasma that simulates astrophysical environments. Focusing the fundamental harmonics of an insertion device white beam increases the APS power density; here, a power density as high as 500   W   mm − 2 was calculated. A CRL is chromatic so it does not efficiently focus X-rays whose energies are above the fundamental. Only the fundamental of the undulator focuses at the ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 28, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Dufresne, E.M. Dunford, R.W. Kanter, E.P. Gao, Y. Moon, S. Walko, D.A. Zhang, X. Tags: compound refractive lenses pink beam chromatic aberration research papers Source Type: research

Diamond beamline I07: a beamline for surface and   interface diffraction
Beamline I07 at Diamond Light Source is dedicated to the study of the structure of surfaces and interfaces for a wide range of sample types, from soft matter to ultrahigh vacuum. The beamline operates in the energy range 8 – 30   keV and has two endstations. The first houses a 2+3 diffractometer, which acts as a versatile platform for grazing-incidence techniques including surface X-ray diffraction, grazing-incidence small- (and wide-) angle X-ray scattering, X-ray reflectivity and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction. A method for deflecting the X-rays (a double-crystal deflector) has been designed and incorporated...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 27, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Nicklin, C. Arnold, T. Rawle, J. Warne, A. Tags: X-ray diffraction surface structure reflectivity grazing incidence surface structure interfaces X-ray scattering beamlines Source Type: research

Synchrotron X-ray footprinting as a method to visualize water in proteins
The vast majority of biomolecular processes are controlled or facilitated by water interactions. In enzymes, regulatory proteins, membrane-bound receptors and ion-channels, water bound to functionally important residues creates hydrogen-bonding networks that underlie the mechanism of action of the macromolecule. High-resolution X-ray structures are often difficult to obtain with many of these classes of proteins because sample conditions, such as the necessity of detergents, often impede crystallization. Other biophysical techniques such as neutron scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spect...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 27, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Gupta, S. Feng, J. Chan, L.J.G. Petzold, C.J. Ralston, C.Y. Tags: bound water hydroxyl radical labeling mass spectrometry protein conformation protein modification feature articles Source Type: research

Utilizing broadband X-rays in a Bragg coherent X-ray diffraction imaging experiment
A method is presented to simplify Bragg coherent X-ray diffraction imaging studies of complex heterogeneous crystalline materials with a two-stage screening/imaging process that utilizes polychromatic and monochromatic coherent X-rays and is compatible with in situ sample environments. Coherent white-beam diffraction is used to identify an individual crystal particle or grain that displays desired properties within a larger population. A three-dimensional reciprocal-space map suitable for diffraction imaging is then measured for the Bragg peak of interest using a monochromatic beam energy scan that requires no sample motio...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 26, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Cha, W. Liu, W. Harder, R. Xu, R. Fuoss, P.H. Hruszkewycz, S.O. Tags: coherent X-ray diffraction imaging polychromatic X-ray diffraction materials characterization short communications Source Type: research

Hard X-ray phase-contrast tomography of non-homogeneous specimens: grating interferometry versus propagation-based imaging
X-ray phase-contrast imaging is an effective approach to drastically increase the contrast and sensitivity of microtomographic techniques. Numerous approaches to depict the real part of the complex-valued refractive index of a specimen are nowadays available. A comparative study using experimental data from grating-based interferometry and propagation-based phase contrast combined with single-distance phase retrieval applied to a non-homogeneous sample is presented (acquired at beamline ID19-ESRF). It is shown that grating-based interferometry can handle density gradients in a superior manner. The study underlines the comp...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 26, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Ruiz-Yaniz, M. Zanette, I. Sarapata, A. Birnbacher, L. Marschner, M. Chabior, M. Olbinado, M. Pfeiffer, F. Rack, A. Tags: phase contrast X-ray microtomography phase retrieval X-ray imaging research papers Source Type: research

X-Tream quality assurance in synchrotron X-ray microbeam radiation therapy
Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a novel irradiation technique for brain tumours treatment currently under development at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France. The technique is based on the spatial fractionation of a highly brilliant synchrotron X-ray beam into an array of microbeams using a multi-slit collimator (MSC). After promising pre-clinical results, veterinary trials have recently commenced requiring the need for dedicated quality assurance (QA) procedures. The quality of MRT treatment demands reproducible and precise spatial fractionation of the incoming synchrotron beam. The intensi...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 26, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Fournier, P. Cornelius, I. Donzelli, M. Requardt, H. Nemoz, C. Petasecca, M. Br ä uer-Krisch, E. Rosenfeld, A. Lerch, M. Tags: microbeam radiation therapy quality assurance high resolution detector silicon single strip detector research papers Source Type: research

Laser-pump/X-ray-probe experiments with electrons   ejected from a Cu(111) target: space-charge acceleration
A comprehensive investigation of the emission characteristics for electrons induced by X-rays of a few hundred eV at grazing-incidence angles on an atomically clean Cu(111) sample during laser excitation is presented. Electron energy spectra due to intense infrared laser irradiation are investigated at the BESSY   II slicing facility. Furthermore, the influence of the corresponding high degree of target excitation (high peak current of photoemission) on the properties of Auger and photoelectrons liberated by a probe X-ray beam is investigated in time-resolved pump and probe measurements. Strong electron energy shifts hav...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 26, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Schiwietz, G. K ü hn, D. F ö hlisch, A. Holldack, K. Kachel, T. Pontius, N. Tags: picosecond-pump – probe experiments time-resolved XPS time-resolved NEXAFS photoelectrons Auger electrons research papers Source Type: research

Observation of two-dimensional yttrium oxide   nanoparticles in mealworm beetles (Tenebrio   molitor)
Nanomaterials are being used in medicine, manufacturing and consumer products, but their effects on organisms and the environment are not well understood because of the difficulty in detecting them. Here dual-energy X-ray K-edge subtraction was used to track two-dimensional yttrium oxide nanoparticles (which can be found in such household objects as color televisions) in adult mealworms (Tenebrio molitor). The insects ingested nanoparticle-infused feed for different time periods, up to 24   h, and the nanoparticles could then be identified at several locations in the insects' head, thorax and abdomen, mostly within the d...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 22, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Chen, Y. Sanchez, C. Yue, Y. Gonz á lez, J.M. Parkinson, D.Y. Liang, H. Tags: synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography K-edge subtraction yttrium oxide nanoparticles mealworms particle distribution research papers Source Type: research

The Munich Compact Light Source: initial performance measures
In this study, an analysis of the performance, such as X-ray flux, source size and spectra, of the first commercially sold compact light source, the Munich Compact Light Source, is presented. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 22, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Eggl, E. Dierolf, M. Achterhold, K. Jud, C. G ü nther, B. Braig, E. Gleich, B. Pfeiffer, F. Tags: inverse Compton X-rays compact synchrotron X-ray imaging research papers Source Type: research

Free-electron laser multiplex driven by a superconducting linear accelerator
Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate femtosecond XUV and X-ray pulses at peak powers in the gigawatt range. The FEL user facility FLASH at DESY (Hamburg, Germany) is driven by a superconducting linear accelerator with up to 8000   pulses per second. Since 2014, two parallel undulator beamlines, FLASH1 and FLASH2, have been in operation. In addition to the main undulator, the FLASH1 beamline is equipped with an undulator section, sFLASH, dedicated to research and development of fully coherent extreme ultraviolet photon pulses using external seed lasers. In this contribution, the first simultaneous lasing of the three FELs...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 22, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Plath, T. Amstutz, P. B ö dewadt, J. Brenner, G. Ekanayake, N. Faatz, B. Hacker, K. Honkavaara, K. Lazzarino, L.L. Lechner, C. Maltezopoulos, T. Scholz, M. Schreiber, S. Vogt, M. Zemella, J. Laarmann, T. Tags: free-electron laser multiplex simultaneous operation FLASH multi-color lasing research papers Source Type: research

Fluorescence imaging of reactive oxygen species by   confocal laser scanning microscopy for track analysis of synchrotron X-ray photoelectric nanoradiator   dose: X-ray pump – optical probe
In conclusion, the combined use of a synchrotron X-ray microbeam-irradiated three-dimensional ROS gel and confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy provides a simple dosimetry method for track analysis of X-ray photoelectric nanoradiator radiation, suggesting extensive cellular damage with dose-enhancement beyond a single cell containing IONs. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 22, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Jeon, J.-K. Han, S.-M. Kim, J.-K. Tags: X-ray photoelectric nanoradiator effect ROS fluorescence gel dosimetry confocal laser scanning research papers Source Type: research

Calibration of a compact XUV soft X-ray monochromator with a digital autocollimator in situ
A digital autocollimator of resolution 0.1   µ rad (0.02   arcsec) serves as a handy correction tool for calibrating the angular uncertainty during angular and lateral movements of gratings inside a monochromator chamber under ultra-high vacuum. The photon energy dispersed from the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) to the soft X-ray region of the synchrotron beamline at the Taiwan Light Source was monitored using molecular ionization spectra at high resolution as energy references that correlate with the fine angular steps during grating rotation. The angular resolution of the scanning mechanism was
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 22, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Yuh, J.-Y. Lin, S.-W. Huang, L.-J. Lee, L.-L. Tags: metrological instrumentation soft X-rays extreme ultraviolet (EUV) diffraction gratings autocollimator on-site beamline diagnistic short communications Source Type: research

Runout error correction in tomographic reconstruction by intensity summation method
An alignment method for correction of the axial and radial runout errors of the rotation stage in X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography has been developed. Only intensity information was used, without extra hardware or complicated calculation. Notably, the method, as demonstrated herein, can utilize the halo artifact to determine displacement. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 22, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Kwon, I.-H. Lim, J. Hong, C.-K. Tags: tomography runout error halo artifact imaging alignment short communications Source Type: research

Vibrational stability of a cryocooled horizontal double-crystal monochromator
The vibrational stability of a horizontally deflecting double-crystal monochromator (HDCM) is investigated. Inherently a HDCM will preserve the vertical beam stability better than a `normal' vertical double-crystal monochromator as the vibrations of a HDCM will almost exclusively affect the horizontal stability. Here both the relative pitch vibration between the first and second crystal and the absolute pitch vibration of the second crystal are measured. All reported measurements are obtained under active cooling by means of flowing liquid nitrogen (LN2). It is found that it is favorable to circulate the LN2 at high pressu...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - July 21, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Kristiansen, P. Johansson, U. Ursby, T. Jensen, B.N. Tags: horizontal double-crystal monochromator vibrational measurements vibrational performance monochromator cryocooling research papers Source Type: research

Current events
(Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 29, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: International Union of Crystallography Tags: current events Source Type: research

Novel silica stabilization method for the analysis of fine nanocrystals using coherent X-ray diffraction imaging
High-energy X-ray Bragg coherent diffraction imaging (BCDI) is a well established synchrotron-based technique used to quantitatively reconstruct the three-dimensional morphology and strain distribution in nanocrystals. The BCDI technique has become a powerful analytical tool for quantitative investigations of nanocrystals, nanotubes, nanorods and more recently biological systems. BCDI has however typically failed for fine nanocrystals in sub-100 nm size regimes – a size routinely achievable by chemical synthesis – despite the spatial resolution of the BCDI technique being 20–30 nm. The limitations of ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 23, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Monteforte, M.Estandarte, A.K.Chen, B.Harder, R.Huang, M.H.Robinson, I.K. Tags: Bragg coherent X-ray diffraction nanocrystals stabilization method three-dimensional reconstruction strain research papers Source Type: research

A method of hard X-ray phase-shifting digital holography
A new method of phase-shifting digital holography is demonstrated in the hard X-ray region. An in-line-type phase-shifting holography setup was installed in a 6.80 keV hard X-ray synchrotron beamline. By placing a phase plate consisting of a hole and a band at the focusing point of a Fresnel lens, the relative phase of the reference and objective beams could be successfully shifted for use with a three-step phase-shift algorithm. The system was verified by measuring the shape of a gold test pattern and a silica sphere. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 21, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Park, S.Y.Hong, C.K.Lim, J. Tags: X-ray imaging phase measurement digital holography phase-shifting microscopy research papers Source Type: research

Third-order nonlinear and linear time-dependent dynamical diffraction of X-rays in crystals
For the first time the third-order nonlinear time-dependent Takagi's equations of X-rays in crystals are obtained and investigated. The third-order nonlinear and linear time-dependent dynamical diffraction of X-rays spatially restricted in the diffraction plane pulses in crystals is investigated theoretically. A method of solving the linear and the third-order nonlinear time-dependent Takagi's equations is proposed. Based on this method, results of analytical and numerical calculations for both linear and nonlinear diffraction cases are presented and compared. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 21, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Balyan, M.K. Tags: third-order nonlinearity time-dependent propagation equations dynamical diffraction X-ray pulse research papers Source Type: research

Synchrotron X-ray CT characterization of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing. Part II. Defects
Synchrotron X-ray tomography (SXRT) has been applied to the study of defects within three-dimensional printed titanium parts. These parts were made using the Arcam EBM® (electron beam melting) process which uses powdered titanium alloy, Ti64 (Ti alloy with approximately 6%Al and 4%V) as the feed and an electron beam for the sintering/welding. The experiment was conducted on the Imaging and Medical Beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. The samples represent a selection of complex shapes with a variety of internal morphologies. Inspection via SXRT has revealed a number of defects which may not otherwise have been seen....
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 18, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Scarlett, N.V.Y.Tyson, P.Fraser, D.Mayo, S.Maksimenko, A. Tags: additive manufacturing titanium X-ray tomography research papers Source Type: research

A deformation rig for synchrotron microtomography studies of geomaterials under conditions   down to 10   km depth in the Earth
A hard X-ray transparent triaxial deformation apparatus, called HADES, has been developed by Sanchez Technologies and installed on the microtomography beamline ID19 at the European Radiation Synchrotron Facility (ESRF). This rig can be used for time-lapse microtomography studies of the deformation of porous solids (rocks, ceramics, metallic foams) at conditions of confining pressure to 100   MPa, axial stress to 200   MPa, temperature to 250 ° C, and controlled aqueous fluid flow. It is transparent to high-energy X-rays above 60   keV and can be used for in situ studies of coupled processes that involve deformati...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 17, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Renard, F. Cordonnier, B. Dysthe, D.K. Boller, E. Tafforeau, P. Rack, A. Tags: microtomography in situ studies porous media hard X-rays short communications Source Type: research

HiSPoD: a program for high-speed polychromatic X-ray diffraction experiments and data analysis on polycrystalline samples
A high-speed X-ray diffraction technique was recently developed at the 32-ID-B beamline of the Advanced Photon Source for studying highly dynamic, yet non-repeatable and irreversible, materials processes. In experiments, the microstructure evolution in a single material event is probed by recording a series of diffraction patterns with extremely short exposure time and high frame rate. Owing to the limited flux in a short pulse and the polychromatic nature of the incident X-rays, analysis of the diffraction data is challenging. Here, HiSPoD, a stand-alone Matlab-based software for analyzing the polychromatic X-ray diffract...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 17, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Sun, T.Fezzaa, K. Tags: X-ray diffraction high speed polychromatic beam dynamic processes computer programs Source Type: research

Synchrotron X-ray CT characterization of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing. Part I. Morphology
Synchrotron X-ray tomography has been applied to the study of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing (AM). The AM method employed here was the Arcam EBM® (electron beam melting) process which uses powdered titanium alloy, Ti64 (Ti alloy with approximately 6%Al and 4%V), as the feed and an electron beam for the sintering/welding. The experiment was conducted on the Imaging and Medical Beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. Samples were chosen to examine the effect of build direction and complexity of design on the surface morphology and final dimensions of the piece. (Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation)
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 17, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Scarlett, N.V.Y.Tyson, P.Fraser, D.Mayo, S.Maksimenko, A. Tags: additive manufacturing titanium X-ray tomography research papers Source Type: research

A deformation rig for synchrotron microtomography studies of geomaterials under conditions down to 10 km depth in the Earth
A hard X-ray transparent triaxial deformation apparatus, called HADES, has been developed by Sanchez Technologies and installed on the microtomography beamline ID19 at the European Radiation Synchrotron Facility (ESRF). This rig can be used for time-lapse microtomography studies of the deformation of porous solids (rocks, ceramics, metallic foams) at conditions of confining pressure to 100 MPa, axial stress to 200 MPa, temperature to 250°C, and controlled aqueous fluid flow. It is transparent to high-energy X-rays above 60 keV and can be used for in situ studies of coupled processes that involve deformation and c...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 16, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Renard, F.Cordonnier, B.Dysthe, D.K.Boller, E.Tafforeau, P.Rack, A. Tags: microtomography in situ studies porous media hard X-rays short communications Source Type: research

Development of a single-cell X-ray fluorescence flow cytometer
An X-ray fluorescence flow cytometer that can determine the total metal content of single cells has been developed. Capillary action or pressure was used to load cells into hydrophilic or hydrophobic capillaries, respectively. Once loaded, the cells were transported at a fixed vertical velocity past a focused X-ray beam. X-ray fluorescence was then used to determine the mass of metal in each cell. By making single-cell measurements, the population heterogeneity for metals in the µM to mM concentration range on fL sample volumes can be directly measured, a measurement that is difficult using most analytical methods. T...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 16, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Crawford, A.M.Kurecka, P.Yim, T.K.Kozemchak, C.Deb, A.Dostál, L.Sun, C.-J.Brewe, D.L.Barrea, R.Penner-Hahn, J.E. Tags: flow cytometry X-ray fluorescence single cell metallome homeostasis research papers Source Type: research

Multi-speckle X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy   in the ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering   range
Multi-speckle X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) measurements in the ultra-small-angle range are performed using a long pinhole collimation instrument in combination with two-dimensional photon-counting and high-sensitivity imaging detectors. The feasibility of the presented setup to measure dynamics on different time and length scales pertinent to colloidal systems is shown. This setup offers new research opportunities, such as for example in the investigation of non-equilibrium dynamics in optically opaque, complex systems over length scales from tens of nanometres to several micrometres. In addition, due to th...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 15, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: M ö ller, J. Chushkin, Y. Prevost, S. Narayanan, T. Tags: USAXS XPCS research papers Source Type: research

Vanadium K-edge XANES in vanadium-bearing model compounds: a full multiple scattering study
A systematic study is presented on a set of vanadium-bearing model compounds, representative of the most common V coordination geometries and oxidation states, analysed by means of vanadium K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy calculations in the full multiple scattering (FMS) framework. Analysis and calibration of the free parameters of the theory under the muffin-tin approximation (muffin-tin overlap and interstitial potential) have been carried out by fitting the experimental spectra using the MXAN program. The analysis shows a correlation of the fit parameters with the V coordination geometry and oxidation st...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 15, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Benzi, F.Giuli, G.Della Longa, S.Paris, E. Tags: full multiple scattering theory V-bearing compounds XANES non-structural parameters research papers Source Type: research

Synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence measurement of metal distributions in Phragmites australis root system in the Yangtze River intertidal zone
This study investigates the distributions of Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, K, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ti, V and Zn in Phragmites australis root system and the function of Fe nanoparticles in scavenging metals in the root epidermis using synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence, synchrotron transmission X-ray microscope measurement and synchrotron X-ray absorption near-edge structure techniques. The purpose of this study is to understand the mobility of metals in wetland plant root systems after their uptake from rhizosphere soils. Phragmites australis samples were collected in the Yangtze River intertidal zone in July 2013. The results indicate that...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 15, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Feng, H.Zhang, W.Qian, Y.Liu, W.Yu, L.Yoo, S.Wang, J.Wang, J.-J.Eng, C.Liu, C.-J.Tappero, R. Tags: Yangtze River intertidal zone metal uptake Phragmites australis Fe nanoparticles research papers Source Type: research

Multi-speckle X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy in the ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering range
Multi-speckle X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) measurements in the ultra-small-angle range are performed using a long pinhole collimation instrument in combination with two-dimensional photon-counting and high-sensitivity imaging detectors. The feasibility of the presented setup to measure dynamics on different time and length scales pertinent to colloidal systems is shown. This setup offers new research opportunities, such as for example in the investigation of non-equilibrium dynamics in optically opaque, complex systems over length scales from tens of nanometres to several micrometres. In addition, due to th...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 15, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Möller, J.Chushkin, Y.Prevost, S.Narayanan, T. Tags: USAXS XPCS research papers Source Type: research

Continuous-scan capability at SSRL and applications to X-ray diffraction
Typical X-ray diffraction measurements are made by moving a detector to discrete positions in space and then measuring the signal at each stationary position. This step-scanning method can be time-consuming, and may induce vibrations in the measurement system when the motors are accelerated and decelerated at each position. Furthermore, diffraction information between the data points may be missed unless a fine step-scanning is used, which further increases the total measurement time. To utilize beam time efficiently, the motor acceleration and deceleration time should be minimized, and the signal-to-noise ratio should be ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 15, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Li, C.Kiss, A.M.Van Campen, D.G.Garachtchenko, A.Kolotovsky, Y.Stone, K.Xu, Y.Zhang, W.Corbett, J. Tags: continuous scan step scan X-ray diffraction efficiency research papers Source Type: research

Optimization of tomographic reconstruction workflows on geographically distributed resources
New technological advancements in synchrotron light sources enable data acquisitions at unprecedented levels. This emergent trend affects not only the size of the generated data but also the need for larger computational resources. Although beamline scientists and users have access to local computational resources, these are typically limited and can result in extended execution times. Applications that are based on iterative processing as in tomographic reconstruction methods require high-performance compute clusters for timely analysis of data. Here, time-sensitive analysis and processing of Advanced Photon Source data o...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 15, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Bicer, T.Gürsoy, D.Kettimuthu, R.De Carlo, F.Foster, I.T. Tags: tomography scientific workflows performance modeling research papers Source Type: research

X-ray nanotomography and focused-ion-beam sectioning for quantitative three-dimensional analysis of nanocomposites
Knowing the relationship between three-dimensional structure and properties is paramount for complete understanding of material behavior. In this work, the internal nanostructure of micrometer-size (∼10 µm) composite Ni/Al particles was analyzed using two different approaches. The first technique, synchrotron-based X-ray nanotomography, is a nondestructive method that can attain resolutions of tens of nanometers. The second is a destructive technique with sub-nanometer resolution utilizing scanning electron microscopy combined with an ion beam and `slice and view' analysis, where the sample is repeatedly milled...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 15, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Shuck, C.E.Frazee, M.Gillman, A.Beason, M.T.Gunduz, I.E.Matouš, K.Winarski, R.Mukasyan, A.S. Tags: X-ray nanotomography scanning electron microscopy quantitative image analysis three-dimensional reconstruction nanocomposite powder research papers Source Type: research

Collimating Montel mirror as part of a multi-crystal analyzer system for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering
Advances in resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) have come in lockstep with improvements in energy resolution. Currently, the best energy resolution at the Ir L3-edge stands at ∼25 meV, which is achieved using a diced Si(844) spherical crystal analyzer. However, spherical analyzers are limited by their intrinsic reflection width. A novel analyzer system using multiple flat crystals provides a promising way to overcome this limitation. For the present design, an energy resolution at or below 10 meV was selected. Recognizing that the angular acceptance of flat crystals is severely limited, a collimating element...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - June 1, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Kim, J.Shi, X.Casa, D.Qian, J.Huang, X.Gog, T. Tags: X-ray optics multilayer mirror X-ray collimation resonant inelastic X-ray scattering research papers Source Type: research

Specimen preparation for cryogenic coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of biological cells and cellular organelles by using the X-ray free-electron laser at SACLA
Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) allows internal structures of biological cells and cellular organelles to be analyzed. CXDI experiments have been conducted at 66 K for frozen-hydrated biological specimens at the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free-Electron Laser facility (SACLA). In these cryogenic CXDI experiments using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses, specimen particles dispersed on thin membranes of specimen disks are transferred into the vacuum chamber of a diffraction apparatus. Because focused single XFEL pulses destroy specimen particles at the atomic level, diffraction patterns are collected through ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - May 31, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Kobayashi, A.Sekiguchi, Y.Oroguchi, T.Okajima, K.Fukuda, A.Oide, M.Yamamoto, M.Nakasako, M. Tags: coherent X-ray diffraction imaging X-ray free-electron laser frozen-hydrated non-crystalline specimens cryogenic X-ray diffraction experiment structures of cells and cellular organelles research papers Source Type: research

The high-resolution absorption spectroscopy branch on the VUV beamline DESIRS at SOLEIL
A VUV absorption spectroscopy facility designed for ultra-high spectral resolution is in operation as a dedicated branch on the DESIRS beamline at Synchrotron SOLEIL. This branch includes a unique VUV Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) and a dedicated versatile gas sample chamber. The FTS instrument can cover a large UV–VUV spectral range from 4 to 30 eV, with an ultimate line width of 0.08 cm−1 on a large spectral window, ΔE/E = 7%, over which all spectral features can be acquired in a multiplex way. The performance can be considered to be a middle ground between broadband moderate-resolution spect...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - May 27, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Oliveira, N. deJoyeux, D.Roudjane, M.Gil, J.-F.Pilette, B.Archer, L.Ito, K.Nahon, L. Tags: VUV beamline Fourier spectroscopy absorption spectroscopy high spectral resolution research papers Source Type: research

The vacuum ultraviolet beamline/endstations at   NSRL dedicated to combustion research
An undulator-based vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) beamline (BL03U), intended for combustion chemistry studies, has been constructed at the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) in Hefei, China. The beamline is connected to the newly upgraded Hefei Light Source (HLS   II), and could deliver photons in the 5 – 21   eV range, with a photon flux of 1013   photons   s − 1 at 10   eV when the beam current is 300   mA. The monochromator of the beamline is equipped with two gratings (200   lines mm − 1 and 400   lines mm − 1) and its resolving power is 3900 at 7.3   eV for the 200  ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - May 16, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Zhou, Z. Du, X. Yang, J. Wang, Y. Li, C. Wei, S. Du, L. Li, Y. Qi, F. Wang, Q. Tags: VUV beamline combustion premixed flame flow reactor beamlines Source Type: research

The vacuum ultraviolet beamline/endstations at NSRL dedicated to combustion research
An undulator-based vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) beamline (BL03U), intended for combustion chemistry studies, has been constructed at the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) in Hefei, China. The beamline is connected to the newly upgraded Hefei Light Source (HLS II), and could deliver photons in the 5–21 eV range, with a photon flux of 1013 photons s−1 at 10 eV when the beam current is 300 mA. The monochromator of the beamline is equipped with two gratings (200 lines mm−1 and 400 lines mm−1) and its resolving power is 3900 at 7.3 eV for the 200 lines mm−1 grating an...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - May 16, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Zhou, Z.Du, X.Yang, J.Wang, Y.Li, C.Wei, S.Du, L.Li, Y.Qi, F.Wang, Q. Tags: VUV beamline combustion premixed flame flow reactor beamlines Source Type: research

Two-color operation of a free-electron laser with a tilted beam
With the successful operation of free-electron lasers (FELs) as user facilities there has been a growing demand for experiments with two photon pulses with variable photon energy and time separation. A configuration of an undulator with variable-gap control and a delaying chicane in the middle of the beamline is proposed. An injected electron beam with a transverse tilt will only yield FEL radiation for the parts which are close to the undulator axis. This allows, after re-aligning and delaying the electron beam, a different part of the bunch to be used to produce a second FEL pulse. This method offers independent control ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - May 16, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Reiche, S.Prat, E. Tags: free-electron laser undulator beamline design simulations research papers Source Type: research

Undulator beamline optimization with integrated chicanes for X-ray free-electron-laser facilities
An optimization of the undulator layout of X-ray free-electron-laser (FEL) facilities based on placing small chicanes between the undulator modules is presented. The installation of magnetic chicanes offers the following benefits with respect to state-of-the-art FEL facilities: reduction of the required undulator length to achieve FEL saturation, improvement of the longitudinal coherence of the FEL pulses, and the ability to produce shorter FEL pulses with higher power levels. Numerical simulations performed for the soft X-ray beamline of the SwissFEL facility show that optimizing the advantages of the layout requires shor...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - May 16, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Prat, E.Calvi, M.Ganter, R.Reiche, S.Schietinger, T.Schmidt, T. Tags: free-electron laser undulator beamline design simulations research papers Source Type: research

Characterization of an X-ray mirror mechanical bender for the European XFEL
One of the classical devices used to tune a mirror on an X-ray optical setup is a mechanical bender. This is often designed in such a way that the mirror is held with clamps on both ends; a motor is then used to put a torque on the clamps, inducing a cylindrical shape of the mirror surface. A mechanical bender with this design was recently characterized, to bend a 950 mm-long mirror up to a radius of curvature of 10 km. The characterization was performed using a large-aperture Fizeau interferometer with an angled incidence setup. Some particular and critical effects were investigated, such as calibration, hysteresis, t...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - May 16, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Vannoni, M.Freijo Martín, I.Sinn, H. Tags: bendable mirror X-ray optics active optics metrology research papers Source Type: research

Visualization of mouse spinal cord intramedullary arteries using phase- and attenuation-contrast tomographic imaging
In this study, an imaging method is proposed and the potential of phase-contrast imaging (PCI)- and attenuation-contrast imaging (ACI)-based synchrotron radiation for high-resolution tomography of intramedullary arteries in mouse spinal cord is validated. The three-dimensional vessel morphology, particularly that of the central sulcus arteries (CSA), detected with these two imaging models was quantitatively analyzed and compared. It was determined that both PCI- and ACI-based synchrotron radiation can be used to visualize the physiological arrangement of the entire intramedullary artery network in the mouse spinal cord in ...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - May 16, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Cao, Y.Yin, X.Zhang, J.Wu, T.Li, D.Lu, H.Hu, J. Tags: intramedullary arteries phase-contrast imaging attenuation-contrast imaging high resolution research papers Source Type: research

Guiding synchrotron X-ray diffraction by multimodal video-rate protein crystal imaging
Synchronous digitization, in which an optical sensor is probed synchronously with the firing of an ultrafast laser, was integrated into an optical imaging station for macromolecular crystal positioning prior to synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Using the synchronous digitization instrument, second-harmonic generation, two-photon-excited fluorescence and bright field by laser transmittance were all acquired simultaneously with perfect image registry at up to video-rate (15 frames s−1). A simple change in the incident wavelength enabled simultaneous imaging by two-photon-excited ultraviolet fluorescence, one-photon-ex...
Source: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation - May 16, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Newman, J.A.Zhang, S.Sullivan, S.Z.Dow, X.Y.Becker, M.Sheedlo, M.J.Stepanov, S.Carlsen, M.S.Everly, R.M.Das, C.Fischetti, R.F.Simpson, G.J. Tags: nonlinear optical microscopy protein crystal synchronous digitization research papers Source Type: research