Homocysteine and A2A-D2 Receptor-Receptor Interaction at Striatal Astrocyte Processes
AbstractThe interaction between adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors in striatal neurons is a well-established phenomenon and has opened up new perspectives on the molecular mechanisms involved in Parkinson ’s disease. However, it has barely been investigated in astrocytes. Here, we show by immunofluorescence that both A2A and D2 receptors are expressed in adult rat striatal astrocytes in situ, and investigate on presence, function, and interactions of the receptors in the astrocyte processes—acute ly prepared from the adult rat striatum—and on the effects of homocysteine on the A2A-D2 receptor-recepto...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - July 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Over-Expressed FEZF1 Predicts a Poor Prognosis in Glioma and Promotes Glioma Cell Malignant Biological Properties by Regulating Akt-ERK Pathway
AbstractFEZ family zinc finger 1 (FEZF1) is an essential transcription factor during olfactory development. In gastrointestinal tumors, FEZF1 plays an oncogenic role through DNA demethylation. However, the role of FEZF1 in the prognosis of human glioma prognosis remains unclear. In this research, we discovered that FEZF1 was significantly increased in glioma tissues in contrast to normal brain tissues (NBTs;P 
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - July 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

PACAP38-Mediated Bladder Afferent Nerve Activity Hyperexcitability and Ca 2+ Activity in Urothelial Cells from Mice
AbstractPituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP;Adcyap1) and its cognate PAC1 receptor (Adcyap1r1) have tissue-specific distributions in the lower urinary tract (LUT). The afferent limb of the micturition reflex is often compromised following bladder injury, disease, and inflammatory conditions. We have previously demonstrated that PACAP signaling contributes to increased voiding frequency and decreased bladder capacity with cystitis. Thus, the present studies investigated the sensory components (e.g., urothelial cells, bladder afferent nerves) of the urinary bladder that may underlie the pathophysiology ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - July 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Analysis of the Promoter Region of Human Dopamine Receptor D1
AbstractDysregulation of dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1) is involved in multiple neuropsychiatric disorders. The 5 ′ regulatory region ofDRD1 has not been characterized fully. We applied the luciferase assay and the electrophoretic mobility shift assay to explore the activity of the 5 ′ regulatory region ofDRD1 in SH-SY5Y and 293T cells. We found that the promoter region ofDRD1 corresponded to positions − 1250 to + 250 in the DNA sequence, and the putative core promoter region was from − 113 to + 250 (transcriptional start site of exon, +1). The sequence 5′-gggacgcgcggg...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - July 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Role of a VGF/BDNF/TrkB Autoregulatory Feedback Loop in Rapid-Acting Antidepressant Efficacy
AbstractMembers of the neurotrophin family and in particular brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulate the response to rapid- and slow-acting chemical antidepressants and voluntary exercise. Recent work suggests that rapid-acting antidepressants that modulate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) signaling (e.g., ketamine and GLYX-13) require expression of VGF (non-acronymic), the BDNF-inducible secreted neuronal protein and peptide precursor, for efficacy. In addition, the VGF-derived C-terminal peptide TLQP-62 (named by its 4 N-terminal amino acids and length) has antidepressant efficacy following icv or intra-h...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - July 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Lysosomal Cathepsin Protease Gene Expression Profiles in the Human Brain During Normal Development
This study, therefore, evaluated the cathepsin gene expression profiles in 16 human brain regions during development by quantitative RNA-sequencing data obtained from the Allen Brain Atlas resource. Total expression of all cathepsin genes was the lowest at the early prenatal stage which became increased at the infancy stage. During infancy to young adult phases, total gene expression was similar. Interestingly, the rank ordering of gene expression among the cathepsins was similar throughout the brain at the age periods examined, showing (a) high expression of cathepsins B, D, and F; (b) moderate expression of cathepsins A,...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - July 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Transplantation of Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Precursors into Early-Stage Zebrafish Embryos
AbstractInduced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) generated from somatic cells through reprogramming hold great promises for regenerative medicine. However, how reprogrammed cells survive, behave in vivo, and interact with host cells after transplantation still remains to be addressed. There is a significant need for animal models that allow in vivo tracking of transplanted cells inreal time. In this regard, the zebrafish, a tropical freshwater fish, provides significant advantage as it is optically transparent and can be imaged in high resolution using confocal microscopy. The principal goal of this study was to optimize...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - July 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Expression Analysis of CYFIP1 and CAMKK2 Genes in the Blood of Epileptic and Schizophrenic Patients
AbstractSchizophrenia and epilepsy are two prevalent neurological disorders with high global burden to the society. Genome-wide studies have identified potential underlying causes for these neurological diseases. In the present case-control study, we have assessed expression ofCYFIP1 andCAMKK2 genes in the blood samples of epileptic and schizophrenic patients compared with healthy subjects. A total of 180 subjects including 40 epileptic patients, 50 schizophrenic patients, and 90 healthy individuals participated in the study. Expression of the mentioned genes was measured using TaqMan real-time PCR. The results demonstrate...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - July 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pre-Injection of Small Interfering RNA (siRNA) Promotes c-Jun Gene Silencing and Decreases the Survival Rate of Axotomy-Injured Spinal Motoneurons in Adult Mice
AbstractBrachial plexus injury is a common clinical peripheral nerve trauma. A series of genes in motoneurons were activated in the corresponding segments of the spinal cord after brachial plexus roots axotomy. The spatial and temporal expression of these genes directly affects the speed of motoneuron axon regeneration and precise target organ reinnervation. In a previous study, we observed the overexpression of c-Jun in motoneurons of the spinal cord ventral horn after brachial plexus injury in rats. However, the relevance of c-Jun expression with respect to the fate of axotomy-induced branchial plexus injury in adult mic...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

MeCP2 Differentially Regulate the Myelin MBP and PLP Protein Expression in Oligodendrocytes and C6 Glioma
AbstractMeCP2 (methyl-CpG binding protein 2), an epigenetic regulator, has been shown to regulate the function of neurons and glial cells. Our previous study has demonstrated that MeCP2 repress the myelin gene expression in rat oligodendrocytes but whether MeCP2 bind to myelin gene MBP and PLP is not yet known. Besides oligodendrocytes, C6 glioma also expresses myelin genes and could be used as a model system to study myelin gene expression. In the present study, we determined that MeCP2 directly bind to MBP, PLP, and BDNF promoter in oligodendrocytes. Further, it was found that MeCP2 differentially regulates the myelin ge...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - July 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Adipose Tissue Expression of PACAP, VIP, and Their Receptors in Response to Cold Stress
AbstractObesity arises from disrupted energy balance and is caused by chronically higher energy intake compared to expenditure via basal metabolic rate, exercise, and thermogenesis. The brown adipose tissue (BAT), the primary thermogenic organ, has received considerable attention as a potential therapeutic target due to its ability to burn lipids in the production of heat. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been identified as a key regulator of the physiological stress response both centrally and peripherally. While PACAP has been shown to increase thermogenesis by acting at the hypothalamus to ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - July 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prion-Like Propagation of Post-Translationally Modified Tau in Alzheimer ’s Disease: A Hypothesis
AbstractThe microtubule-associated protein Tau plays a key role in the neuropathology of Alzheimer ’s disease by forming intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. Tau in the normal physiological condition helps stabilize microtubules and transport. Tau aggregates due to various gene mutations, intracellular insults and abnormal post-translational modifications, phosphorylation being the most impor tant one. Other modifications which alter the function of Tau protein are glycation, nitration, acetylation, methylation, oxidation, etc. In addition to forming intracellular aggregates, Tau pathology might spread in a prion-l...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - July 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Levo-tetrahydropalmatine Attenuates Neuron Apoptosis Induced by Cerebral Ischemia –Reperfusion Injury: Involvement of c-Abl Activation
AbstractIschemic stroke is one of the most dangerous acute diseases which causes death or deformity. Apoptosis has been shown to play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia –reperfusion injury (I/R injury), but the related mechanism is unclear. Levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP), a bioactive ingredient extracted from the Chinese herbCorydalis, can penetrate the blood –brain barrier and exert various pharmacological effects on neural tissues. The present study examined the neuroprotective effect ofl-THP on neuronal apoptosis induced by cerebral I/R injury. Results showed that pr...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - July 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Association Between the Serum Uric Acid Levels and Lacunar Infarcts in the Elderly
AbstractIncreasing evidence suggests that uric acid (UA) is a relevant risk factor for arteriolosclerosis and recent studies have demonstrated the positive relationship between UA concentrations and the severity of leukoaraiosis. However, the association between lacunar infarcts (LI) and UA levels has seldom been reported in the literature. The aim of our study was to assess whether serum UA levels may be related to the presence of LI. We recruited 242 patients (113 males and 129 females, aged 82.83  ± 6.49 years) from our Geriatric Department for whom CAT scans (CT) were available. Clinical and l...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - July 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Population-Based Analysis of Cluster Headache-Associated Genetic Polymorphisms
AbstractCluster headache is a disorder with increased hereditary risk. Associations between cluster headache and polymorphism rs2653349 of theHCRTR2 gene have been demonstrated. The less common allele (A) seems to reduce disease susceptibility. The polymorphism rs5443 of theGNB3 gene positively influences triptan treatment response. Carriers of the mutated T allele are more likely to respond positively compared to C:C homozygotes, when treated with triptans. DNA was extracted from buccal swabs obtained from 636 non-related Southeastern European Caucasian individuals and was analyzed by real-time PCR. Gene distribution for ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - June 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Postmortem Brain, Cerebrospinal Fluid, and Blood Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Alzheimer ’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
AbstractAccumulating evidence suggest that aberrations of neurotrophic factors are involved in the etiology and pathogenesis of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD), but clinical data were inconsistent. Therefore, a meta-analysis on neurotrophic factor levels in AD is necessary. We performed a systematic review of blood, CSF, and post-mortem brain neurotrophic factor levels in patients with AD compared with controls and quantitatively summariz ed the clinical data in blood and CSF with a meta-analytical technique. A systematic search of PubMed and Web of Science identified 98 articles in this study (with samples more than 9000)...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - June 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Nesfatin-1 Improve Spatial Memory Impairment Following Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion via Inhibiting Microglial and Caspase-3 Activation
In this study, we aimed to assay the neuroprotective effects of Nesfatin-1 after brain ischemia/reperfusion. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly selected and allocated in the form of four groups (sham, Nesfatin-1, ischemia, ischemia+Nesfatin-1). Ischemia was created by obstruction couple common carotid arteries in 20-min period. Saline as a vehicle and Nesfatin-1 (20  μg/kg, intraperitoneally) were injected at the time of reperfusion. Spatial memory performances were evaluated by the Morris water maze. The level of protein expression was determined by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence staining. Nes...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - June 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Therapeutic and Protective Potency of Bee Pollen Against Neurotoxic Effects Induced by Prenatal Exposure of Rats to Methyl Mercury
This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic and protective efficacy of pollen grain in improving the toxic effects of MeHg, through the measurement of selected biochemical parameters linked to oxidative stress, energy metabolism, and neurotransmission in brain homogenates of male pups ’ neonates. Forty healthy pregnant female rats were randomly divided into five groups, and after delivery, each group was consisting of 10 male neonates: (1) neonates delivered by control mothers, (2) neonates delivered by bee pollen treated mothers who received bee pollen at the dose of 200-mg/kg body weight from postnatal day 0 for 4...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - June 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Effect of BSA-Based Curcumin Nanoparticles on Memory and Hippocampal MMP-2, MMP-9, and MAPKs in Adult Mice
This study indicates that breaking curcumin to nanosize produces improved effects on passive avoidance memory in adult mice accompanied with MMP-2, MMP-9, p-ERK, and p-JNK changes in the hippocampus. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - June 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Associations of TF Gene Polymorphisms with the Risk of Ischemic Stroke
AbstractIschemic stroke (IS) is the main cause of mortality and disability in China; thus, this study aimed to examine the association between six variants and their haplotypes within the transferrin (TF) gene and the risk of IS in the Southern Chinese Han population. Genotyping was performed using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform for 249 IS patients and 249 age- and sex-matched controls. The association between polymorphisms and IS risk was tested by Chi squared test and haplotype and stratification analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression analysis. The ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - June 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Progression Rate Associated Peripheral Blood Biomarkers of Parkinson ’s Disease
AbstractParkinson disease (PD) is one of the most frequent neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of this study was to identify blood biomarkers capable to discriminate PD patients with different progression rates. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were acquired by comparing the expression profiles of PD patients with rapid and slow progression rates, using an expression dataset from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) under accession code of GSE80599. Altered biological processes and pathways were revealed by functional annotation. Potential biomarkers of PD were identified by protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysi...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - June 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of PACAP on Dry Eye Symptoms, and Possible Use for Therapeutic Application
AbstractPituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a 27- or 38-amino acid neuropeptide, which belongs to the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/glucagon/secretin family of peptides. PACAP and its three receptor subtypes are expressed in neural tissues and in the eye, including the retina, cornea, and lacrimal gland. PACAP is known to exert pleiotropic effects on the central nervous system and in eye tissues where it plays important roles in protecting against dry eye. This review provides an overview of current knowledge regarding dry eye symptoms in aged animals and humans and the protective effects, mec...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - June 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

In Vivo and In Vitro Neuronal Plasticity Modulation by Epigenetic Regulators
AbstractPrenatal stress (PS) induces molecular changes that alter neural connectivity, increasing the risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we analyzed  —in the hippocampus of adult rats exposed to PS— the epigenetic signature mediating the PS-induced neuroplasticity changes. Furthermore, using cultured hippocampal neurons, we investigated the effects on neuroplasticity of an epigenetic modulator. PS induced significant modifications in the m RNA levels of stress-related transcription factor MEF2A, SUV39H1 histone methyltransferase, and TET1 hydroxylase, indicating that PS modifies gene expression...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - June 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Metabolism-Associated Markers and Childhood Autism Rating Scales (CARS) as a Measure of Autism Severity
AbstractAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neuro-behavioral syndrome with a broad spectrum of different mechanisms and etiologies that are caused by abnormal brain development. To date, no highly reliable and effective diagnostic biomarker to assess ASD is available so far. The present study investigated the predictivity potential of some suggested markers in ASD diagnosis focusing onto the relative ratios of several plasma biomarkers of electron transport chain function, and mitochondrial metabolism in 41 patients with ASD evaluated for behavior deficits measured using Childhood Autism Rating Scales (CARS). The control m...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - June 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Early-Ethanol Exposure Induced Region-Specific Changes in Metabolic Proteins in the Rat Brain: A Proteomics Study
This study aimed to explore the long-term effects of early-ethanol exposure on proteins in the brain. Male Sprague-Dawley rat pups were exposed to 12% ethanol (4  g/kg/day i.p.) or volume-controlled saline during the third human trimester equivalent (P4–P9). At P31, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dorsal hippocampus (DH) proteins were analyzed by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Early-ethanol exposure increased the capacity for metabolism of NADH and oxidative phosphorylation, as shown by an upregulation of NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinon...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - June 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Coenzyme Q10 Influences on the Levels of TNF- α and IL-10 and the Ratio of Bax/Bcl2 in a Menopausal Rat Model Following Lumbar Spinal Cord Injury
AbstractThe roles of the immune response and apoptosis as potential mediators of secondary damage in spinal cord injury (SCI) are being investigated. Research is also being done to determine the effects of female gonadal steroids, which decrease during menopause, and antioxidants, such as coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on SCI. We hypothesized that in the absence of female gonadal steroids, which provide protection following an SCI, CoQ10 could modulate the expression of cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α and interleukin (IL)-10, besides aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels in the CNS, which participate in neuroinfl...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - June 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Distribution and Functional Implication of Secretin in Multiple Brain Regions
AbstractSecretin is a polypeptide hormone initially identified for its gastrointestinal functions. However, emerging evidences show wide distribution of secretin and secretin receptor across various brain regions from cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus to cerebellum. In this mini review, we will firstly describe the region-specific expression pattern of secretin and secretin receptor in the brain, followed by a summary of central physiological and neurological functions mediated by secretin. Using genetic manipulation and pharmaceutical approaches, one can elucidate the role of secretin in mediating various neurolo...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - June 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

An Apparent Correlation Between Central Nervous System and Kidney ’s Erythropoietin and TNF Alpha Expression at Peak Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Disease
AbstractExperimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory demyelination disease associated with inflammatory reactions and attenuation of antioxidant capacity. Several lines of evidence show that organs such as the liver and kidneys can share their antioxidant activity to protect the central nervous system (CNS) against neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the possible interplay of the kidneys and CNS in pathogenesis of EAE. For this purpose, EAE model was induced in C57BL/6 mice, and expression of erythropoietin (EPO), TNF- α, and NFκB-1 was determined in the kidney...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - June 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Down-regulation of Long Noncoding RNA MALAT1 Protects Hippocampal Neurons Against Excessive Autophagy and Apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway in Rats with Epilepsy
In this study, we explore the ability of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) to influence the autophagy and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons in epilepsy and the underlying mechanism involving the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Seventy-two Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to normal, sham, Ep, Ep + si-NC, Ep + si-MALAT1, and Ep + si-MALAT1 + LY groups. Fluorescence in situ hybridization kit was employed to determine the MALAT1 in the brain tissues. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blotting were performed to determine the e...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - June 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Evidence for Association Between OXTR Gene and ASD Clinical Phenotypes
AbstractAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an early-onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social behaviors and communication. Oxytocin and its signaling pathway are related to a range of human behaviors, from facial expression recognition to aggressive behaviors, and have been suggested as involved in the etiology of ASD. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of two polymorphisms (rs1042778, rs53576) at the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) on ASD diagnosis and on specific ASD-related clinical symptoms (seizures, panic, and aggressive behaviors). We also assessed if these SNPs could be related to cha...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - June 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Conditioned Medium Promotes A β25-35 phagocytosis by Modulating Autophagy and Aβ-Degrading Enzymes in BV2 Cells
AbstractMesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is a promising prospect for the treatment of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD); however, the underlying mechanisms by which MSCs mediate positive effects are still unclear. We speculated that MSCs mediate microglial autophagy and enhance the clearance of Aβ. To test this hypothesis, we cultured BV2 microglial cells with umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium (ucMSCs-CM) in the presence or absence of Aβ25–35 oligomers. We investigated BV2 cell proliferation, cell death, and Aβ25–35 phagocytosis as well as protein expression levels of LC3,...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - May 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Hispidulin Protects Against Focal Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats
AbstractFocal cerebral ischemia is associated with ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Hispidulin is a flavonoid compound with a variety of pharmacological properties. The neuroprotective effects of hispidulin have not been fully elucidated. Herein, we demonstrated that pretreatment of animals with hispidulin improved the neurological outcomes and decreased the infarct size and brain edema in the cerebral focal I/R model. Mechanistically, we showed in vivo and in vitro that hispidulin exerted a protective effect against I/R injury by inducing the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway through modulation of AMPK/GSK3 β signaling. Tak...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - May 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

c.835-5T & gt;G Variant in SMN1 Gene Causes Transcript Exclusion of Exon 7 and Spinal Muscular Atrophy
AbstractSpinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by survival motor neuron (SMN) protein deficiency leading the loss of motor neurons in the anterior horns of the spinal cord and brainstem. More than 95% of SMA patients are attributed to the homozygous deletion of survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, and approximately 5% are caused by compound heterozygous with aSMN1 deletion and a subtle mutation. Here, we identified a rare variant c.835-5T>G in intron 6 of SMN1 in a patient affected with type I SMA. We analyzed the functional consequences of this mutation on mRNA splicing in vitro...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - May 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Transcriptional Regulation Involved in Fear Memory Reconsolidation
AbstractMemory reconsolidation has been demonstrated to offer a potential target period during which the fear memories underlying fear disorders can be disrupted. Reconsolidation is a labile stage that consolidated memories re-enter after memories are reactivated. Reactivated memories, induced by cues related to traumatic events, are susceptible to strengthening and weakening. Gene transcription regulation and protein synthesis have been suggested to be required for fear memory reconsolidation. Investigating the transcriptional regulation mechanisms underlying reconsolidation may provide a therapeutic method for the treatm...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - May 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Severity of Spinal Cord Injury Determines the Inflammatory Gene Expression Pattern after Immunization with Neural-Derived Peptides
AbstractPrevious studies revealed that the intensity of spinal cord injury (SCI) plays a key role in the therapeutic effects induced by immunizing with neural-derived peptides (INDP), as severe injuries abolish the beneficial effects induced by INDP. In the present study, we analyzed the expression of some inflammation-related genes (IL6, IL12, IL-1 β, IFNɣ, TNFα, IL-10, IL-4, and IGF-1) by quantitative PCR in rats subjected to SCI and INDP. We investigated the expression of these genes after a moderate or severe contusion. In addition, we evaluated the effect of INDP by utilizing two different peptides: A91 an...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - May 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Neurogenesis Actuator and NR2B/NMDA Receptor Antagonist Ro25-6981 Consistently Improves Spatial Memory Retraining Via Brain Region-Specific Gene Expression
AbstractNR2B-containing NMDA (NR2B/NMDA) receptors are important in controlling neurogenesis and are involved in generating spatial memory. Ro25-6981 is a selective antagonist at these receptors and actuates neurogenesis and spatial memory. Inter-structural neuroanatomical profiles of gene expression regulating adult neurogenesis and neuroapoptosis require examination in the context of memory retrieval and reversal learning. The aim was to investigate spatial memory retrieval and reversal learning in relation to gene expression-linked neurogenetic processes following blockade of NR2B/NMDA receptors by Ro25-6981. Rats were ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - May 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Association of GABAA Receptor Gene with Epilepsy Syndromes
AbstractGABA has always been an inviting target in the etiology and treatment of epilepsy. The GABRA1, GABRG2, and GABRD genes provide instructions for making α1, ϒ2, and δ subunits of GABAA receptor protein respectively. GABAA is considered as one of the most important proteins and has found to play an important role in many neurological disorders. We explored the association of GABAA receptor gene mutation/SNPs in JME and LGS patients in Indian popul ation. A total of 100 epilepsy syndrome patients (50 JME and 50 LGS) and 100 healthy control subjects were recruited and analyzed by AS-PCR and RFLP-PCR te...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - May 21, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Periodic Variation of AAK1 in an A β 1–42 -Induced Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease
In this study, we investigated AAK1 levels in AD model mice over time. Aβ1 –42 was used to establish a mouse AD model, and the Morris water maze test was used to characterize the time course of A β1 –42-induced cognition changes. ELISA was used to determine AAK1 levels in plasma and A β1 –42 levels in brain tissues. Subsequently, the protein or gene levels of AAK1, AP-2, and Rab5 (an early endosome marker) were tested in each group. The cognitive function of A β1 –42-induced mice was significantly declined compared to control group, and the deficits reached a peak on day 14, but ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - May 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pathogenesis of Alzheimer ’s Disease Examined Using a Modified Puri-Li Model that Incorporates Calcium Ion Homeostasis
AbstractThe Puri-Li kinetic model is modified to include neuronal calcium ion homeostasis to study the effect of calcium ions on the production of amyloid-β peptides (A β), microglia, and astroglia during the pathogenesis of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD). This is carried out by solving the modified Puri-Li model under steady-state conditions. The derived expressions show that the inclusion of calcium ions has altered the steady-state populations ofA β, microglia, and astroglia. The calcium ions activate the synthesis ofA β which in turn increases the calcium ions entering the cytoplasm of the neuronal...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - May 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Co-expression of β Subunits with the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Na V 1.7: the Importance of Subunit Association and Phosphorylation and Their Effects on Channel Pharmacology and Biophysics
In conclusion, co-expression of β subunits with NaV1.7 α, to better mimic the native channel properties, may be ineffective in cases when subunits are not associated, as shown in our experiments with β2. The β3 subunit significantly influences the function of NaV1.7 α and, together with the phosphorylation of the channel, regulates its biophysical and pharmacological properties. These are important findings to take into account when considering the role of NaV1.7 channel in pain signaling. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - May 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

GABA A Receptor Density Is Not Altered by a Novel Herbal Anxiolytic Treatment
AbstractAnxiety disorders are highly prevalent and considered a major public health concern worldwide. Current anxiolytics are of limited efficacy and associated with various side effects. Our novel herbal treatment (NHT), composed of four constituents, was shown to reduce anxiety-like behavior while precluding a common side effect caused by current anxiolytics, i.e., sexual dysfunction. Nevertheless, NHT ’s mechanism of action is yet to be determined. There is evidence that some medicinal herbs interact with the GABAergic system. Therefore, we aimed to examine whether NHT’s anxiolytic-like effect is exerted by...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - May 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Transcriptome Profiling Reveals PHLDA1 as a Novel Molecular Marker for Ischemic Cardiomyopathy
AbstractIschemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) represents a worldwide health issue owning to its high sudden death rate. Easy diagnosis and effective treatment of ICM are still lacking. Identification of novel molecular markers will help illustrate the pathophysiology of ICM and facilitate its diagnosis and targeted treatment. Transcription profiling could be an easy and efficient way for identifying new markers. However, the mega data in the available database may contain a large number of false-positive hits. To identify the true marker for ICM, we systematically compared available microarray datasets in the GEO database and iden...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - May 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

CRISPR/Cas9, the Powerful New Genome-Editing Tool for Putative Therapeutics in Obesity
AbstractThe molecular technology known asclusteredregularlyinterspacedpalindromicrepeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) is revolutionizing the field of medical research and deepening our understanding of numerous biological processes. The attraction of CRISPR/Cas9 lies in its ability to efficiently edit DNA or modulate gene expression in living eukaryotic cells and organisms, a technology that was once considered either too expensive or scientifically risky. CRISPR/Cas9 has been successfully applied in agriculture to develop the next generation of disease-resistant plants. Now, the capability of gene editing has ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - May 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Mechanism of Hyperalgesia and Anxiety Induced by Remifentanil: Phosphorylation of GluR1 Receptors in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex
AbstractThe anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a key role in regulating mood in animals, especially anxiety, and is also a brain region that is indispensable to pain perception. Postoperative anxiety is closely related to the experience of pain. Remifentanil is a commonly used surgical analgesic. The mechanism of supraspinal hyperalgesia caused by remifentanil remains unclear. We used animal models to simulate postoperative hyperalgesia and studied the GluR1 AMPA receptor subunit in the ACC using western blots and immunocytochemistry. Behavioral tests were used to estimate anxiety levels. We found no significant change ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - May 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Meta-Analysis of the Association between GABA Receptor Polymorphisms and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
This study aimed to investigate the association between ASD and the GABA receptor SNPs in chromosomal region 15q11–q13. The association was calculated by the overall odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). We used sensitivity analyses and the assessment of publication bias in our meta-analysis. Eight independent case-control studies involving 1408 cases and 2846 healthy controls were analyzed, namely, 8 studies forGABRB3 SNPs as well as 4 studies forGABRA5 andGABRG3 polymorphisms. The meta-analysis showed thatGABRB3 polymorphisms in general are not significantly associated with autism [OR  =&thins...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - May 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Resveratrol Protects Purkinje Neurons and Restores Muscle Activity in Rat Model of Cerebellar Ataxia
In conclusion, post-treatment with resveratrol evidently ameliorated motor performance as well as muscle activity accompanied by a protection of Purkinje cells in ataxic rats. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - May 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Role of Apolipoprotein E and Ethanol Exposure in Age-Related Changes in Choline Acetyltransferase and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression in the Mouse Hippocampus
AbstractDisruption of apolipoprotein E (APOE) is responsible for age-dependent neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment. Elderly individuals are more sensitive than young individuals to the effects of ethanol (EtOH), particularly those affecting cognition. We investigated the role of APOE deficiency and EtOH exposure on age-dependent alterations in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein expression in the mouse hippocampus. Three-month-old (young) and 12-month-old (aged)ApoE-knockout (ApoE-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were treated with saline or 2  g/kg EtOH, and...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - May 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Association Study of ANRIL Genetic Variants and Multiple Sclerosis
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder of central nervous system with several genetic and environmental risk factors. Genes with regulatory roles on immune system have been implicated in its pathogenesis. Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to control some aspects of immune response. Among them isantisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL) whose involvement in NF- κB signaling pathway has been highlighted. In the current study, we evaluated the association between rs1333045, rs4977574, rs1333048, and rs10757278 variants ofANRIL and MS risk in a population of 410 I...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Exosomes Secreted by Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Contribute to Angiogenesis of Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Following Oxygen –Glucose Deprivation In Vitro Through MicroRNA-181b/TRPM7 Axis
In this study, we identified the role of exosomal microRNA-181b-5p (181b-Exos) in regulating post-stroke angiogenesis. The results of migration assay and capillary network formation assay showed that exosomes secreted by ADSCs (ADSCs-Exos) promoted the mobility and angiogenesis of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed that microRNA-212-5p (miR-212-5p) and miR-181b-5p were upregulated in BMECs subjected to the brain extract of the middle cerebral artery occlusion rats. The migration distance and tube length were...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Form 3D Clusters Following Intraventricular Transplantation
In conclusion, transplanted MSC formed intraventricular cell clusters and exhibited a sh ort life span in vivo. Xenogeneically in contrast to syngeneically transplanted MSC triggered a T cell-mediated graft rejection indicating that MSCs are not as immune privileged as previously assumed. However, MSC may mediate their effects by a “hit and run” mechanism and future studies will show whether syngeneically or xenogeneically transplanted MSCs exert better therapeutic effects in animals with CNS disease. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research