The Role of Oxidative Stress in Peripheral Neuropathy
AbstractPeripheral neuropathy (PN) is a common disease affecting about 5% of the general population after the age of 50. Causes of PN are numerous and include genetic, diabetes, alcohol, vitamin deficiencies, and gluten sensitivity among others. This systematic review aimed to study the association between oxidative stress and PN in an attempt to better understand PN pathogenesis. A computer-based, systematic search was conducted on the PubMed database, and ensuing data from included articles was analyzed and discussed in this review. Sixty-nine papers were eligible and were used for this review. Peripheral neuropathy is a...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Associations Between Genomic Variants in lncRNA-TRPM2-AS and lncRNA-HNF1A-AS1 Genes and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex genetic trait characterized by demyelination of central nervous system (CNS), inflammation, and progressive neurological dysfunction. There is evidenced that autophagy and stress mechanisms are tightly linked with MS. Previous studies have demonstrated that LncRNAs TRPM2-AS and HNF1A-AS1 are involved in oxidative stress and autophagy, respectively. In the current study, we investigated the association of TRPM2-AS and HNF1A-AS1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with MS risk in 300 Iranian patients and 300 healthy controls. Our results have shown that T allele of the rs933151...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Ketamine Affects the Expression of ErbB4 in the Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex of Rats
This study investigated the effect of ketamine on the expression of ErbB4 (considered a schizophrenia candidate gene) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of rats. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, low-dose, medium-dose and high-dose groups. The low-dose, medium-dose and high-dose groups were intraperitoneally injected with 15  mg/kg, 30 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg ketamine, respectively, twice a day (9:00 a.m. and 9:00 p.m.); the control group was administered normal saline. The treatment lasted 7 days. After treatment, rats were euthanized, and their brain tissues were collected and the...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Correction to: Limb Remote Ischemic Preconditioning Reduces Repeated Ketamine Exposure-Induced Adverse Effects in the Developing Brain of Rats
The original version of this article unfortunately contained mistakes in Fig.  2c, d and Funding section. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Expression of the CGRP Family of Neuropeptides and their Receptors in the Trigeminal Ganglion
AbstractThe calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) family of neuropeptides, consists of CGRP, adrenomedullin, amylin, and calcitonin. The receptors consist of either calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) or calcitonin receptor (CTR) which for function needs an accessory protein, receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). CGRP has a pivotal role in primary headaches but the role of the other members of the CGRP family of peptides in headaches is not known. Here, we describe the expression of these molecules in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) to understand more on their possible role(s). Single or double immunohistochemist...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Does the CD33 rs3865444 Polymorphism Confer Susceptibility to Alzheimer ’s Disease?
AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is a complex genetic disorder. To date, published data have reported conflicting results on the role of CD33 rs3865444 polymorphism in AD. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of rs3865444 on AD in a large cohort of Greek native patients with AD. We also conducted a met a-analysis by pooling information from different studies on the same topic. Patients with AD (n = 327) and healthy controls (n = 327) were analyzed and genotyped for rs3865444. Single locus analyses were run to explore possible associations betweenCD33 rs3865444 polymorphism and...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Increased Neuroprotective Microglia and Photoreceptor Survival in the Retina from a Peptide Inhibitor of Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 (MyD88)
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that blocking MyD88-mediated signaling early in retinal degeneration promotes transition of microglia towards a neuroprotective anti-inflammatory phenotype, resulting in enhanced photoreceptor survival. We also tested whether systemic delivery of a pharmacologic MyD88 inhibitor has therapeutic potential. Therd10 mouse model of retinal degeneration was injected intraperitoneally with increasing doses of a MyD88 blocking peptide or control peptide early in degeneration, and inflammatory responses and photoreceptor survival were measured at specific time points using flow cytometry, cyt...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Study of the gut Microbiome Profile in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: a Single Tertiary Hospital Experience
AbstractThe role of gut microbiome was recently raised in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of this study was to elucidate changes in gut microbiome in Egyptian autistic children and its possible correlation with the severity of autism and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. The gut bacterial microbiome of 41 ASD children, 45 siblings, and 45 healthy controls were analyzed using quantitative SYBR Green real-time PCR technique targeting 16S rRNA of selected bacteria. The gut microbiome of ASD children and their siblings contained a higher relative abundance ofBact...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Modulating Pro-inflammatory Cytokines, Tissue Damage Magnitude, and Motor Deficit in Spinal Cord Injury with Subventricular Zone-Derived Extracellular Vesicles
ConclusionThe results of the present study showed that SVZ-EVs therapy ameliorate inflammation, tissue damage, and motor deficit in traumatic spinal cord injury. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 14, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

HDAC and MAPK/ERK Inhibitors Cooperate To Reduce Viability and Stemness in Medulloblastoma
AbstractMedulloblastoma (MB), which originates from embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) or neural precursors in the developing cerebellum, is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. Recurrent and metastatic disease is the principal cause of death and may be related to resistance within cancer stem cells (CSCs). Chromatin state is involved in maintaining signaling pathways related to stemness, and inhibition of histone deacetylase enzymes (HDAC) has emerged as an experimental therapeutic strategy to target this cell population. Here, we observed antitumor actions and changes in stemness induced by HDAC inhibition...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

TGF β and Wnt Signaling Pathways Cooperatively Enhance Early Dopaminergic Differentiation of the Unrestricted Somatic Stem Cells
AbstractSo far no evidence is available as to whether TGF β and Wnt signaling pathways cooperatively modulate dopaminergic differentiation of the adult stem cells. To investigate the interaction between the two pathways in early dopaminergic differentiation, we cultured the newly introduced unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs) in neuron differentiation media followed by treatments with inducers and inhibitors of Wnt and TGF beta pathways either alone or in combinations. Our results showed that the level of Nurr-1 as a marker for dopaminergic neuron precursors and that of the nuclear β-catenin as the key effect...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 10, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Lixisenatide Reduced Damage in Hippocampus CA1 Neurons in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Possibly Via the ERK/P38 Signaling Pathway
AbstractGlucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut-derived peptide that has various physiological actions. One of its main actions is the regulation of blood glucose level when it is elevated as it potentiates insulin release. It is also known that GLP-1 protects neurons from damage caused by neurodegenerative diseases. Lixisenatide is one of the GLP-1 analogues that has a strong affinity to the GLP-1 receptor. Experimental animal studies have shown that it holds a neuroprotective effect in Parkinson, myocardial, and cerebral ischemic disease animal models. The beneficial effect of lixisenatide on the brain after cerebral is...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 10, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

An Endogenous Ligand of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor 6-Formylindolo[3,2-b]Carbazole (FICZ) Is a Signaling Molecule in Neurogenesis of Adult Hippocampal Neurons
In this study for the first time, we demonstrated that the endogenous ligand of AHR, FICZ, has a positive effect on short- and long-term memory as well as learning skills. This ability is possibly mediated by the AHR-Wnt/ß-catenin cross-talk. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 10, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Identification of a Mutation in SPG11 in an Iranian Patient with Spastic Paraplegia and Ears of the Lynx Sign
This study shows the role of WES in the identification of disease-causing mutations in a disease such as HSP which can be caused by diverse mutations in several genes. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 10, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Association Analysis Between the rs1899663 Polymorphism of HOTAIR and Risk of Psychiatric Conditions in an Iranian Population
AbstractRecent studies have shown contribution of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the pathogenesis of a number of psychiatric disorders. In the current study, we investigated the association between a single nucleotide polymorphism in the lncRNAHOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) and risk of diverse neuropsychiatric conditions in Iranian population. The selected polymorphism (rs1899663) is an intronic variant of this lncRNA which has been associated with several cancers in different populations. This SNP was genotyped in 323 individuals with methamphetamine addiction, 55 children with attention-deficit hyper...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 8, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Evaluation of Expression of STAT Genes in Immune-Mediated Polyneuropathies
AbstractImmune-mediated polyneuropathies are acquired conditions that can be categorized to acute and chronic forms based on the disease course. Although the basic mechanism of these conditions has not been clarified yet, genes that regulate immune responses are putative contributors in their development. In the current study, we assessed expression ofsignal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1-3 andSTAT5a genes in peripheral blood of 51 patients and 40 healthy subjects. Expression ofSTAT1 was higher in female patients compared with female controls (Posterior Beta  = 3.622,P = 0.044...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 8, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Differential Expression Hallmarks of Interneurons in Different Types of Focal Cortical Dysplasia
AbstractFocal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is the main cause of medically intractable pediatric epilepsy. Previous studies have suggested that alteration of cortical interneurons and abnormal cytoarchitecture have been linked to initiation and development for seizure. However, whether each individual subpopulation of cortical interneurons is linked to distinct FCD subtypes remains largely unknown. Here, we retrospectively analyzed both control samples and epileptic specimens pathologically diagnosed with FCD types Ia, IIa, or IIb. We quantified three major interneuron (IN) subpopulations, including parvalbumin (PV)-, somatosta...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 8, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effects of Ethyl Pyruvate against Aluminum Chloride-Induced Alzheimer ’s Disease in Rats via Inhibiting Toll-Like Receptor 4
AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the formation of insoluble deposits of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques within the parenchyma of the brain. The present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective role of ethyl pyruvate against in vitro and in vivo model of al uminum chloride (AlCl3)-induced AD. Effect of ethyl pyruvate (5, 10, 20, 40  mM) against AlCl3 (1250  μM)-induced neurotoxicity in primary neuron-glial mixed cell culture was evaluated using cell viability assays (MTT assay as well as calcein-AM/propidium iodide fluorescent dyes). In v...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Knockdown of MCM10 Gene Impairs Glioblastoma Cell Proliferation, Migration and Invasion and the Implications for the Regulation of Tumorigenesis
AbstractMinichromosome maintenance 10 (MCM10) plays an important role in DNA replication and is expressed in a variety of tumors, including glioma. However, its role and mechanism in glioma remain elusive. The purpose of this study was to examine the molecular function of MCM10 in glioblastoma cell lines in vitro and to further investigate the molecular mechanisms in the network mediated by MCM10. Cell proliferation, invasion, and migration were investigated in the absence of MCM10 mediated by RNA interference (RNAi) in U87 and U251 cell lines. Microarray data were obtained from U87 cells infected with a lentivirus express...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Interaction of opioid with insulin/IGFs signaling in Alzheimer's disease
AbstractAlzheimer's disease is associated with biochemical and histopathological changes characterized by molecular abnormalities. Due to the lack of effective treatments for Alzheimer's disease, many attempts have been made to find potential therapies to reduce or even return neuronal loss after disease initiation. Alzheimer's disease is also touted as type III diabetes, showing an association with insulin signaling. The large distribution of the insulin receptor on the cell surface and its regulatory role in the central nervous system suggests that the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease could be ascribed to insulin sign...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cytokines, Masticatory Muscle Inflammation, and Pain: an Update
The objective of this review is to discuss several types of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators and their relation with inflammatory pain in masticatory muscles. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tumor Microenvironment Characterization in Glioblastoma Identifies Prognostic and Immunotherapeutically Relevant Gene Signatures
In this study, TMEScore can be used as a new prognostic marker to predict the survival of GBM patients, and as a potential predictor of immune checkpoint inhibitor response. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Reduction of Human DNA Contamination in Clinical Cerebrospinal Fluid Specimens Improves the Sensitivity of Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing
In this study, a total of 20 meningitis patients were enrolled, including 10 definitively diagnosed tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and 10 definite cryptococcal meningitis (CM) cases. To evaluate the effect of reduced human DNA in the sensitivity of mNGS detection, three specimen-processing protocols were performed: (i) To remove human DNA, saponin, a nonionic surfactant, was used to selectively lyse white cells in CSF followed by DNase treatment prior to the extraction of DNA; (ii) to reduce host DNA, CSF was centrifuged to remove human cells, and the supernatant was collected for DNA extraction; and (iii) DNA extraction fro...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Depressive Emotionality Moderates the Influence of the BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism on Executive Functions and on Unconscious Semantic Priming
In this study, we therefore aimed at investigating whether BDNF Val66Met genotype modulates masked and unmasked semantic priming as well as executive functions and whether sadness is a moderator of these associations. We collected data ofN = 155 participants measuring reaction times (RTs) as well as error rates (ERs) in masked and unmasked semantic priming paradigms using a lexical decision task. We assessed the primary emotion of SADNESS using the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale (ANPS) and working memory using digit spa n forward and backward tasks. Met+ carriers showed reduced RT priming and increa...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 30, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Ethical Dilemmas Linked to Fragile X Testing of Minors —a Preliminary Survey Among Professionals
AbstractAsymptomatic female carriers of the FMR1 premutation at childbearing age have been mostly identified through prenatal genetic testing, which is routinely proposed in Israel. During the last few years, a premutation phenotype in males and females has been defined —FXAND, including neuropsychiatric disorder, learning difficulties, endocrine dysfunction, and premature ovarian failure. So when a family at risk is identified, should individuals be tested for premutation even if minors? In order to understand what professionals’ views are with regard to testi ng FMR1 premutation in minors, we performed a ques...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 28, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

PMP22 Gene –Associated Neuropathies: Phenotypic Spectrum in a Cohort from India
AbstractReports of spectrum of clinical manifestations inPMP22 gene –associated neuropathies (duplication/mutations) are scarce. To identify the frequency ofPMP22 gene variations and establish their genotype-phenotype correlation. Patients with suspected genetic demyelinating neuropathy (n = 128) underwent evaluation for copy number variations and point mutations inPMP22 gene by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and direct sequencing respectively. Of these, only 27 patients (M:F:19:8) from 18 families hadPMP22 gene –associated neuropathy; they were subsequently analyzed for g...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 28, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Effect of Exosomes Derived from Bone Marrow Stem Cells in Combination with Rosuvastatin on Functional Recovery and Neuroprotection in Rats After Ischemic Stroke
In this study, neuroprotection and functional recovery of exosomes in combination with rosuvastatin have been investigated. Sixty adult male Wistar rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Exosome at the dose of 100  μg and/or rosuvastatin at the dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 7 days were administered to rats as a therapeutic strategy. The elevated body swing test (EBST) and Garcia score were conducted as behavioral tests for the measurement of functional recovery. The histopathological and immunohistochemical an alyses were also performed for the assessment of infarcted volume and neurop...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Two Novel SNPs in the PLCL2 Gene Associated with Large Artery Atherosclerotic Stroke Identified by Fine-Mapping
AbstractA genome-wide association study (GWAS) reported that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4618210 in thePLCL2 gene is related to myocardial infarction (MI) in the Japanese population, but no study has examined the correlation ofPLCL2 with ischemic stroke (IS). The present study was designed to investigate whether the genetic variation inPLCL2 is associated with large artery atherosclerotic (LAA) stroke in a Han Chinese population. Tagging SNPs (tSNPs) of thePLCL2 gene were determined by a fine-mapping strategy and were genotyped by improved multiplex ligation detection reaction (iMLDR) technology in 669 LAA s...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Alpha B-Crystallin Overexpression Protects Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis Through the Akt Pathway
AbstractAlpha B-crystallin (aBC), a member of the small heat shock protein family, is expressed in mature oligodendrocytes (mOLs), but not in oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Our previous study found that the survival rate of OPCs was lower than that of mOLs under oxidative stress, suggesting that aBC may play a protective role in mOLs. In the present study, we investigated the effects of aBC overexpression on oxidative stress-induced cell injury in OPCs and examined the underlying mechanisms. We observed that the survival rates of aBC-overexpressed OPCs were significantly higher than those of control cells under ox...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Role of Metallothionein-1 and Metallothionein-2 in the Neuroprotective Mechanism of Sevoflurane Preconditioning in Mice
This study investigated the protective effects and mechanisms of sevoflurane preconditioning (SPC) on neurons in ischemic mice. After SPC, mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Cerebral infarction area, cell apoptosis, and metallothionein-1 (MT-1) and metallothionein-2 (MT-2) expressions in MCAO mice were analyzed. Mouse primary neurons were isolated and cultured to determine the location of metallothioneins (MTs) using immunofluorescence. Neurons transfected with MT-siRNA, exogenous MTs, or sh-MTF-1 were subjected to SPC and/or oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), and MT-1/MT-2 expression and neurot...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 17, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Clinical and Molecular Characterization of Three Novel ARHGEF9 Mutations in Patients with Developmental Delay and Epilepsy
AbstractMutations in the rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 9 gene (ARHGEF9) are present in patients with heterogeneous phenotypes including psychomotor developmental delay and variable degrees of epilepsy. Malfunction of collybistin (CB) encoded byARHGEF9 leading to impaired clustering of gephyrin-dependent glycine receptors and γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAα) receptors is a crucial pathogenic mechanism. Here, we report on three patients with epilepsy and mental retardation. We studied three male patients with epilepsy and mild to moderate mental retardation. We conducted targeted panel sequencing of ge...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 15, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Changes in the Neurochemical Characterization of Enteric Neurons in the Porcine Duodenum After Administration of Low-Dose Salmonella Enteritidis Lipopolysaccharides
In this study, the impact of a low single dose ofSalmonella Enteritidis LPS on the duodenal enteric neurons immunoreactive to substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP-27), and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) was studied using a double immunofluorescence technique. During the study, it was shown that even a low dose of LPS affects the number of enteric neurons containing the neuropeptides studied, and these changes were dependent on the type of the enteric plexus. The most visible changes concerned the SP-like immunoreactive (LI) ne...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 14, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Stathmin Regulates Spatiotemporal Variation in the Memory Loop in Single-Prolonged Stress Rats
AbstractPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is closely related to brain structures of the memory loop such as the hippocampus, amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The fear genestathmin plays an important role in regulating fear memory. However, whether the fear genestathmin is related to fear memory loop anomalies caused by PTSD is unclear. A single-prolonged stress (SPS) rat model of PTSD was constructed. Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: the control group, SPS 1-day group, SPS 4-day group, SPS 7-day group, and SPS 14-day group. Then, we measured the protein and mRNA expression of stathmin, p-st...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Non-motor Symptoms in Parkinson ’s Disease Patients with Parkin Mutations: More Depression and Less Executive Dysfunction
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to identify differences between genetically undefined (GU) early-onset Parkinson ’s disease (EOPD) patients and carriers ofParkin mutations on non-motor symptoms (NMSs). EOPD patients (N = 261) underwent targeted sequencing of Parkinson’s disease (PD) related genes. Among them, 53 cases carried homozygous or compound heterozygousParkin mutations (Parkin group) while 208 did not carry known causative PD mutations or risk factors ofGBA orParkin heterozygous mutations (GU group). NMSs were evaluated by face-to-face interviews, self-completed questionnaires and re...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 11, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Correction to: Whole Exome Sequencing Identifies Two Novel Mutations in the Reticulon 4 –Interacting Protein 1 Gene in a Chinese Family with Autosomal Recessive Optic Neuropathies
The original version of this article unfortunately contained mistakes in the affiliation section. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 11, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of Intracerebroventricular Glycogen Phosphorylase Inhibitor CP-316,819 Infusion on Hypothalamic Glycogen Content and Metabolic Neuron AMPK Activity and Neurotransmitter Expression in Male Rat
AbstractBrain glycogen is a vital energy source during metabolic imbalance. Metabolic sensory neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) shape glucose counter-regulation. Insulin-induced hypoglycemic (IIH) male rats were infused  icv with the glycogen breakdown inhibitor CP-316,819 (CP) to investigate whether glycogen-derived fuel controls basal and/or hypoglycemic patterns of VMN gluco-regulatory neuron energy stability and transmitter signaling. CP caused dose-dependent amplification of basal VMN glycogen content and either mobilization (low dose) or augmentation (high dose) of this depot during IIH. Dru...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 11, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Decreased mRNA Expressions of CD40L in Patients with Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder
AbstractNeuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an autoimmune disease that preferentially affects central nerve system. Herein, we evaluated changes of CD40L and CD40 mRNA expressions in NMOSD and controls to explore their potential roles in development of NMOSD. The expressions ofCD40L andCD40 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with NMOSD and healthy controls were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare expression levels ofCD40L andCD40 mRNA between groups, and Spearman correlation analysis was performed to evaluate correlation betwee...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 10, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Clinical and Molecular Characteristics of Two Chinese Children with Infantile Sandhoff Disease and Review of the Literature
AbstractInfantile Sandhoff disease is an autosomal recessive inherited disease primarily characterized by cherry red spots in the retina, muscle weakness, seizure, truncal hypotonia, hyperacusis, developmental delay and regression. The pathogenic genetic defects of the HEXB gene, which encodes the β subunit of the hexosaminidase A (ɑβ) and hexosaminidase B (ββ) enzymes, cause deficiency of both the Hex A and Hex B enzymes, resulting in the deposition of GM2 ganglion glycerides in the lysosomes of the central nervous system and somatic cells. The aim of this study was to discover disease- causing varian...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Correction to: Phosphomimetic Mutation of Glycine Transporter GlyT1 C-Terminal PDZ Binding Motif Inhibits its Interactions with PSD95
The original version of this article unfortunately contained two mistakes. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Phenotypic Differences in Primary Murine Microglia Treated with NOD1, NOD2, and NOD1/2 Agonists
AbstractThe purpose of the study was studying the influence of different NOD agonists on the morphological phenotype of primary murine microglia and to examine their influence on characteristic cytokines. Primary CD11b-positive cells were isolated from the brain of neonatal mice. The microglial phenotype of the cells was examined by ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule (Iba)1 staining. After14 days in culture, these cells were stimulated by iE-DAP, L18-MDP, or M-TriDAP as NOD1, NOD2, and NOD1/2 agonists, respectively. The cellular morphology was recorded and compared to the phenotype of cells cultured in medium alone o...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 7, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dynamic Alterations of Brain Injury, Functional Recovery, and Metabolites Profile after Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion in Rats Contributes to Potential Biomarkers
In conclusion, the results suggest that some small molecule metabolites participate in the brain injury and functional recovery during cerebral I/R, which is of great significance to the development of therapeutic drugs and diagnostic markers. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Correlation Between Vitamin D Receptor ( VDR ) Gene Polymorphisms and Autism: A Meta-analysis
AbstractVitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms are risk factors for autism. We performed a systematic meta-analysis to explore the relationship betweenVDR gene polymorphisms and autism. A literature review of articles from Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Springer was conducted up to January 28, 2019. The association between SNPs and autism was calculated using pooled odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Additionally, tests for heterogeneity, publication bias, and sensitivity were conducted. Six eligible studies with a total of 2001 participants (1045 cases and 956 controls) were included. Meta-ana...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Expression Analysis of lncRNAs in Refractory and Non-Refractory Epileptic Patients
AbstractLong non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders such as epilepsy. In the current study, we evaluated expression of eight lncRNAs in 80 epileptic patients (40 refractory and 40 non-refractory ones) and 40 normal individual using quantitative real-time PCR. Bayesian regression model showed significant higher expression ofUCA1 in both refractory and non-refractory groups compared with controls (posterior beta of relative expression (RE) =  2.03,P value  = 0.003, and posterior beta of RE = 4.05,P value  
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Can Mesenchymal Stem Cells Act Multipotential in Traumatic Brain Injury?
AbstractTraumatic brain injury (TBI), a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, will probably become the third cause of death in the world by the year 2020. Lack of effective treatments approved for TBI is a major health problem. TBI is a heterogeneous disease due to the different mechanisms of injury. Therefore, it requires combination therapies or multipotential therapy that can affect multiple targets. In recent years, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation has considered one of the most promising therapeutic strategies to repair of brain injuries including TBI. In these studies, it has bee...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 2, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tryptophan Improves Memory Independent of Its Role as a Serotonin Precursor: Potential Involvement of Microtubule Proteins
In this study, we demonstrated that acute administration of tryptophan modulates spatial and object-recognition memory independent of its role as a serotonin precursor. One possible explanation for the observed improvement in memory is through the interaction between tryptophan and microtubule proteins. Microtubules are key components involved in the morphological and functional development of neurons. Moreover, several models suggest that microtubule dynamics contributes to neural network connectivity, information processing, and memory storage. Here, we examined the interaction between tryptophan and microtubules and ind...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 2, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Gypenosides Prevent H 2 O 2 -Induced Retinal Ganglion Cell Apoptosis by Concurrently Suppressing the Neuronal Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Response
In conclusion, our data indicate that neuroprotection by Gp involves its antioxidation and anti-inflammation effects. Gp prevents apoptosis through a mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. This finding might provide novel insights into understanding the mechanism of the neuroprotective effects of gypenosides in the treatment of optic neuritis. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 2, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

mTOR Expression in Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex Is Downregulated in a Rat Model of Schizophrenia Induced by Chronic Administration of Ketamine
This study aimed to explore whether the administration of ketamine in rats causes changes in mTOR (mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin) expression in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Ketamine was used to establis h an animal model of schizophrenia. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group (normal saline), low-dose group (15 mg/kg ketamine), middle-dose group (30 mg/kg ketamine), and high-dose group (60 mg/kg ketamine). The rats were intraperitoneally injected with ketamine or normal sali ne twice a day (9 AM and 9 PM) for 7 consecutive days. Immunohistochemistry was used to dete...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 2, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

TSPO Modulates IL-4-Induced Microglia/Macrophage M2 Polarization via PPAR- γ Pathway
In this study, we demonstrate using a primary microglia polarization model that, during the M2 polarization of microglia, the protein expression of translocator protein (TSPO) was decreased and peroxisome proliferator –activated receptor (PPAR-γ) activation was observed. In addition, we found TSPO antagonist PK11195 treatment enhanced PPAR-γ expression in M2-polarized microglia, while TSPO agonist FGIN-1-27 and TSPO overexpression in microglia significantly suppressed PPAR-γ expression in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Then, real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression of M2 polariz...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - December 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Associations Between Two Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in NINJ2 Gene and Risk of Psychiatric Disorders
AbstractNINJ2 encodes a transmembrane protein that contributes in neurodevelopment and regeneration of neurons. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within this gene have been associated with Alzheimer ’s disease, ischemic stroke, and multiple sclerosis. The rs11833579 and rs3809263 SNPs have been associated with risk of ischemic stroke in Iranian population. While theNINJ2 rs12425791 has been with risk of ischemic stroke in East Asian population, the rs11833579 has not been associated with this condition either in East Asian population or Chinese Han population. In the current project, we genotyped rs11833579 and ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - December 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Adenosine and NMDA Receptors Modulate Neuroprotection-Induced NMDA Preconditioning in Mice
AbstractThe severity score of quinolinic acid (QA)-induced seizures was investigated after N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) preconditioning associated with adenosine receptors. Also, the levels of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors and subunits of NMDA receptors in the hippocampi of mice were determined to define components of the resistance mechanism. Adult CF-1 mice were treated intraperitoneally with saline or NMDA (75  mg/kg), and some mice were treated intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) with 0.1 pmol of adenosine receptor antagonists 8-cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT; receptor A1) or ZM241385 (receptor A2A) 0, 1, or 6 &...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - December 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research