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Quantitative Comparison of Primary Cilia Marker Expression and Length in the Mouse Brain
AbstractPrimary cilia are small, special cellular organelles that provide important sensory and signaling functions during the development of mammalian organs and coordination of postnatal cellular processes. Dysfunction of primary cilia are thought to be the main cause of ciliopathies, a group of genetic disorders characterized by overlapping developmental defects and prominent neurodevelopmental features. Although, disrupted cilia-linked signaling pathways have been implicated in the regulation of numerous neuronal functions, the precise role of primary cilia in the brain are still unknown. Importantly, studies of recent...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Role of Exosomes Derived from miR-133b Modified MSCs in an Experimental Rat Model of Intracerebral Hemorrhage
AbstractIntracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has poor outcomes due to high mortality and morbidity, but until now, the effective treatments remain limited. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are vital regulators of gene expression and demonstrated to be linked to the pathogenesis of various central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Exosomes are considered as cell-to-cell communication vectors and secreted largely by mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). The present study investigated the role of miR-133b delivered by exosomes secreted from MSCs to brain tissues in rats after ICH. An autologous arterial blood ICH model in adult male Sprague –Dawl...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Endogenous Sex Steroids Dampen Neuroinflammation and Improve Outcome of Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice
AbstractThe role of biological sex in short-term and long-term outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains controversial. The observation that exogenous female sex steroids (progesterone and estrogen) reduce brain injury coupled with a small number of clinical studies showing smaller injury in women suggest that sex steroids may play a role in outcome from TBI. We used the controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of TBI in mice to test the hypothesis that after CCI, female mice would demonstrate less injury than male mice, related to the protective role of endogenous steroids. Indeed, adult females exhibit histologica...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effects of Melatonin on Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis Mice Via Anti-Oxidative Stress Activity
This study aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin on mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a widely used MS model, and its potential mechanism underlying the action of MT on anti-oxidative stress. Female C57BL/6 mice were injected with MOG35 –55 peptide to set up the EAE model, and for detection of the effect of melatonin (10 mg/kg i.p.) on the development and progression of EAE. Combining immunohistochemistry, biochemical technology and western blot approaches, the potential molecular mechanism of melatonin on EAE was evaluated as t he levels of oxidative stress and the expression of ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

In Silico Preliminary Association of Ammonia Metabolism Genes GLS , CPS1 , and GLUL with Risk of Alzheimer ’s Disease, Major Depressive Disorder, and Type 2 Diabetes
AbstractAmmonia is a toxic by-product of protein catabolism and is involved in changes in glutamate metabolism. Therefore, ammonia metabolism genes may link a range of diseases involving glutamate signaling such as Alzheimer ’s disease (AD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and type 2 diabetes (T2D). We analyzed data from a National Institute on Aging study with a family-based design to determine if 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in glutaminase (GLS), carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1), or glutamate-ammonia ligase (GLUL) genes were associated with AD, MDD, or T2D using PLINK software. HAPLOVIEW softwa...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

TGF- β1 Regulation of P-JNK and L-Type Calcium Channel Cav1.2 in Cortical Neurons
AbstractCentral nervous system (CNS) diseases can cause a series of neuronal lesions, which may be improved by the anti-apoptotic neuroprotection of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF- β1). In neurons, L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCC) are mainly composed of Cav1.2 subunits. Given the implication of TGF- β1 in numerous CNS diseases, we examined the neuroprotective effects of TGF-β1 on the Cav1.2 channel in the CNS. To simulate acute mechanical traumatic brain injury (TBI), we used a needle to create parallel scratches across plates, which were cultured for 9 h. Meanwhile, Fluo4-AM-loaded laser sc anning c...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Atorvastatin Attenuates Cognitive Deficits and Neuroinflammation Induced by A β 1–42 Involving Modulation of TLR4/TRAF6/NF-κB Pathway
AbstractInflammatory damage aggravates the progression of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) and the mechanism of inflammatory damage may provide a new therapeutic window for the treatment of AD. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated signaling can regulate the inflammatory process. However, changes in TLR4 signaling pathway induced by beta-amyloid (Aβ) have not been well c haracterized in brain, especially in the hippocampus. In the present study, we explored the changes of TLR4 signaling pathway induced by Aβ in the hippocampus and the role of atorvastatin in modulating this signal pathway and neurotoxicity induced ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

TOX3 Variants Are Involved in Restless Legs Syndrome and Parkinson ’s Disease with Opposite Effects
AbstractParkinson ’s disease (PD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) may be clinically and/or etiologically related, yet this association is under debate. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in theTOX3 gene locus were implicated in both RLS and PD genome-wide association studies (GWASs), suggesting a potential pleiotropy. Two case-control cohorts including 644 PD patients, 457 RLS patients, and 945 controls were genotyped for one known RLS-related SNP (rs3104767) and one PD-related SNP (rs4784226) in theTOX3 locus. The associations between genotype and PD and RLS risk were tested using multivariate regression models...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Induces Cell Cycle-Dependent Neuronal Apoptosis in Mice
AbstractIron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) with its unique magnetic and paramagnetic properties are popular in biomedical applications. Some of their neurotoxic mechanisms due to repeated administration are proven. However, we speculate that the neuronal damage might be due to apoptosis resulting from unusual cell cycle entry. Moreover, iron accumulation has been shown to be closely associated with most of the neurodegenerative disorders. Thus, in the current study, mice were orally (po) treated with the Fe2O3-NPs to investigate cell cycle-associated events/components and occurrence of apoptosis. A subsequent increase ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Examination of Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) as a Potential Biomarker in Heart Failure Patients
AbstractPituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic and multifunctional neuropeptide having neurotrophic, neuroprotective, and general cytoprotective actions in a variety of tissues based on its anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. Several studies have demonstrated its cardioprotective effects in vitro and in various animal models. However, few data are available on the presence of PACAP in human cardiac tissues and its role in the pathomechanism and progression of different cardiac disorders, particularly heart failure. Earlier, our research group has shown PAC1 recep...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Correction to: The Compassionate Side of Neuroscience: Tony Sermone ’s Undiagnosed Genetic Journey—ADNP Mutation
AbstractThe original version of this article unfortunately contained mistakes. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mycobacterium marinum Infection in Zebrafish and Microglia Imitates the Early Stage of Tuberculous Meningitis
AbstractMycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tuberculosis) invading and activating microglia causes the most serious subtypes of tuberculosis called tubercular meningitis. However, the developmental process of tubercular meningitis, especially the early phase, is poorly understood due to lacking well-established and well-accepted visible models in vitro and in vivo. Here, consistent with one recent report, we foundMycobacterium marinum (M. marinum) invade the zebrafish brain and subsequently cause granuloma-like structures. We further showed thatM.marinum, which shares similar characteristics withM.tuberculosis, can invade microg...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Activation of the Anti-Aging and Cognition-Enhancing Gene Klotho by CRISPR-dCas9 Transcriptional Effector Complex
We examined the transcriptional activation of the Klotho gene using three different systems: a Firefly luciferase (FLuc) and NanoLuc luciferase (NLuc) coincidence reporter system, a NLuc kn ock-in in Klotho 3′-UTR using CRISPR genomic editing, and two human cell lines: neuronal SY5Y cells and kidney HK-2 cells that express Klotho endogenously. The two sgRNAs enhanced Klotho expression at both the gene and protein levels. Our results show the feasibility of gene therapy for targeting Klotho using CRISPR technology. Enhancing Klotho levels has a therapeutic potential for increasing cognition and treating age-associated...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effect of Sevoflurane Anesthesia on Brain Is Mediated by lncRNA HOTAIR
AbstractPostoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients has been related to neurodegenerative disorders and mortality. Sevoflurane anesthesia has been implicated in both postoperative cognitive dysfunction and neurotoxicity. Given the advantages of using inhaled anesthetics like sevoflurane, it is important to understand how their usage results in neurotoxicity and subsequently devise ways to circumvent or attenuate the anesthetic-mediated induction in neurotoxicity. Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) are a group of>  200 bp long RNAs and show specific spatiotemporal expression profiles. Several recent re...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Mitochondria-Related Redox and Bioenergetics Effects of Gastrodin in SH-SY5Y Cells Exposed to Hydrogen Peroxide
AbstractMitochondrion is the main site of ATP production in animal cells and also orchestrates signaling pathways associated with cell survival and death. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to bioenergetics and redox impairment in human diseases, such as neurodegeneration and cardiovascular disease. Protective agents able to attenuate mitochondrial impairment are of pharmacological interest. Gastrodin (GAS; 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol 4-O-beta-d-glucoside) is a phenolic glucoside obtained from the Chinese herbal medicineGastrodia elata Blume and exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects in sever...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Antisecretory Factor Modulates GABA A Receptor Activity in Neurons
AbstractThe antisecretory factor is an endogenous protein found in all mammalian tissues investigated so far. It acts by counteracting intestinal hypersecretion and various forms of inflammation, but the detailed mechanism of antisecretory factor (AF) action is unknown. We tested neuronal GABAA receptors by means of AF-16, a potent AF peptide derived from amino acids 36 –51 from the NH2 part of AF. Cultured rat cerebellar granule cells were used, and the effects on the GABA-mediated chloride currents were determined by whole-cell patch clamp. Both the neurotransmitter GABA and AF-16 were added by perfusion of the exp...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

YAP Promotes Migration and Invasion of Human Glioma Cells
In this study, examined by wound healing assay, transwell assay, or live-imaging, we found that YAP downregulation inhibited glioma cell migration and invasion, while YAP over-expression promoted them. Interestingly, the above effect of YAP on immortalized glioma cells was recapitulated in cultured primary glioma cells. In addition, the protein level of N-cadherin and Twist, two important proteins involved in tumor invasion, increased after YAP over-expression. Meanwhile, YAP over-expression significantly increased the F-actin level and changed the distribution of F-actin, leading to cytoskeletal reorganization, which play...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Protects Astrocytes Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Upregulating the Caveolin-1/VEGF Signaling Pathway
AbstractA previous in vivo study demonstrated that intracerebroventricular injection of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in middle cerebral artery occlusion rats increased the expression of caveolin-1 (cav-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cerebral ischemia penumbra. Because astrocytes are the largest population in the brain, the aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the influence of bFGF on cav-1 and VEGF expression in rat astrocytes following oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R). For this, an ischemic model in vitro of oxygen glucose deprivation lasting for 6  h, followed b...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sonic Hedgehog Regulation of the Neural Precursor Cell Fate During Chicken Optic Tectum Development
In conclusion, we provide evidence that Shh regulates the neural precursor cell fate during chicken optic tectum development. Shh overexpression impairs neuronal migration and may affect the fate determination of transfected neurons. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - December 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Developmental Changes of Synaptic and Extrasynaptic NMDA Receptor Expression in Rat Cerebellar Neurons In Vitro
AbstractTransient expression of different NMDA receptors (NMDARs) plays a role in development of the cerebellum. Whether similar processes undergo during neuronal differentiation in culture is not clearly understood. We studied NMDARs in cerebellar neurons in cultures of 7 and 21  days in vitro (DIV) using immunocytochemical and electrophysiological approaches. Whereas at 7 DIV, the vast majority of neurons were immunopositive for GluN2 subunits, further synaptoginesis was accompanied by the time-dependent loss of NMDARs. In contrast to GluN2B- and GluN2C-containing NMDARs, which at 7 DIV exhibited homogenous distribu...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - December 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

CD200Fc Attenuates Retinal Glial Responses and RGCs Apoptosis After Optic Nerve Crush by Modulating CD200/CD200R1 Interaction
AbstractTo explore the hypothesis that CD200Fc, a CD200R1 agonist with anti-inflammatory properties, will inhibit retinal glial cells hyperactivation and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) apoptosis after optic nerve injury. CD200Fc was immediately administered after optic nerve crush (ONC) once by intravitreal injection. Rats were euthanized at 5  days after ONC. The density of RGCs was counted by immunostaining of retina flat mounts for Brn3a. TUNEL assay, immunoblotting analysis of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1(iba1) (microglia marker) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) (astrocytes and Müller c...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - December 26, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Suppression of Disheveled –Axin Domain Containing 1 (DIXDC1) by MicroRNA-186 Inhibits the Proliferation and Invasion of Retinoblastoma Cells
In this study, we aimed to investigate the biological function of DIDXDC1 in RB and the way in which its expression is regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). We foun d that DIXDC1 expression was significantly upregulated in RB cell lines. The silencing of DIXDC1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and Wnt signaling in RB cell lines. Interestingly, DIXDC1 was identified as a target gene of miR-186. The expression of DIXDC1 was negatively regulated by miR-186, and DIXDC1 expression was inversely correlated with miR-186 expression in RB clinical specimens. Overexpression of miR-186 ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - December 20, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Hot Genes in Schizophrenia: How Clinical Datasets Could Help to Refine their Role
AbstractWe investigated the effect of a set of SNPs within 5 genes identified by GWASs as possible risk genes for schizophrenia (SCZ) in two independent samples, comprising 176 SCZ patients and 326 controls of Korean origin and 83 SCZ patients and 194 controls of Italian origin. The PANSS was used to assess psychopathology severity and antipsychotic response (AR). Several clinical features were assessed at recruitment. In the Korean sample, the SP4 gene haplotype rs2282888-rs2237304-rs10272006-rs12673091 (p = 0.02) was associated with SCZ. In the Italian sample, PPP3CC rs11780915 (genotypic:p = ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - December 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Emerging Roles of Sirtuin 6 in Alzheimer ’s Disease
AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is imposing an increasing burden on society. Currently, AD is the leading cause of senile dementia worldwide. Despite the long existence of AD, there is lack of therapies for AD, suggesting that new and effective treatment strategy must be explor ed. At present, sirtuin pathway has attracted attention from the researchers due to its promising results in laboratory models of aging. In addition, our understanding in the roles of sirtuin 6 in AD has expanded. It has been identified to be involved in telomere maintenance, DNA repair, genome inte grity,...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - December 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Amyloid β-Derived Diffusible Ligands (ADDLs) Induce Abnormal Autophagy Associated with Aβ Aggregation Degree
In this study, we primarily defined the specific subsets of ADDLs, A-0, A-12, A-24, and A-48, which were generated from ADDL aggregation mixtures at different time courses of assembly. The secondary st ructures of ADDL subsets were detected by circular dichroism (CD). Neuronal or non-neuronal cells were exposed to the subsets of ADDLs in vitro, and then, autophagic markers were detected. Our results first showed that exogenous or endogenous LC3 puncta (autophagosomes) were induced in the cytoplasm of cells exposed to ADDLs and that the LC3 puncta were the strongest with A-24 exposure. Then, the CD spectroscopy data also in...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - December 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Picroside II Exerts a Neuroprotective Effect by Inhibiting mPTP Permeability and EndoG Release after Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats
AbstractMitochondrial membrane permeability is closely related to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. This paper explored the neuroprotective effect of picroside II (Picr), which inhibits the permeability of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and endonuclease G (EndoG) release from mitochondria into cytoplasm after cerebral I/R in rats. After 2  h of cerebral ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion in rats with different intervention measures, the neurobehavioral function, infarction volume, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) content in brain tissues were observed by modified neurological severity ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - December 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Human Umbilical Cord Blood CD45 + Pan-Hematopoietic Cells Induced a Neurotherapeutic Effect in Mice with Traumatic Brain Injury: Immunophenotyping, Comparison of Maternal and Neonatal Parameters, and Immunomodulation
AbstractHuman umbilical cord blood (HUCB) transplantation has become an alternative cell therapy for hematological and oncological malignancies in the clinic and is considered for neurological disorders. The heterogeneity in the content of the different stem and progenitor cells composing HUCB mononuclear cells (MNC) may influence their engraftment and neurotherapeutic effect. We hypothesized that CD45 pan-hematopoietic marker expression is heterogeneous in MNC, and therefore, CD45+ subpopulation enrichment for neurotherapy may provide a tool to overcome cellular variance in different HUCB units. We employed an immunomagne...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - December 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurotrophin Expression in Lymphocytes: a Powerful Indicator of Degeneration in Parkinson ’s Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Ataxia
AbstractDeregulated neurotrophin is an etiological factor in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases (ND) that are clinically different entities but characterised by similar limb dysfunction. Earlier validation of peripheral biomarkers can provide significant translational benefit to ND patients. We analysed brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) –tropomyosin possessing tyrosine-related kinase (Trk B) and its key downstream proteins which are implicated in ND such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ataxia. Blood from ND patients with PD, ALS and Ataxia with movement dysfu...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - December 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effect of Curcumin Against Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Via Mediating Autophagy and Inflammation
This study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of curcumin and investigate the underlying mechanism that mediates autophagy and inflammation in an animal model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Curcumin was delivered to Sprague Dawley male rats at a dose of 200  mg/kg curcumin by intraperitoneal injection 30 min after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). LY294002, a specific inhibitor of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, as well as anisomycin, an activator of TLR4/p38/MAPK, was administered by ventricle injection 30 min before MCAO. The same volume of saline was given as a control. Brain infarctio...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - December 15, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Calcitriol Reverses the Down-Regulation Pattern of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Genes in an In Vitro Calcification Model
This article discusses the use of calcitriol supplementation in patients with TSC, which can be a very interesting strategy due to its low cost and because it is already used in various therapies. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - December 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effect of CLIP3 Upregulation on Astrocyte Proliferation and Subsequent Glial Scar Formation in the Rat Spinal Cord via STAT3 Pathway After Injury
In this study, we aimed to identify the expression of CLIP3 in the spinal cord as well as its role in mediating astrocyte activation and glial scar formation after SCI by establishing an acute traumatic SCI model in male adult rats. Western blot analysis revealed that CLIP3 increased gradually after injury, reached a peak at day 3. The immunohistochemistry staining showed the same result in white matter. With double immunofluorescence staining, we found that CLIP3 was expressed in glial cells and significant changes of CLIP3 expression occurred in astrocytes during the pathological process. Statistical analysis demonstrate...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - December 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Comparative Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles Involved in Calcium Signaling Pathways Using the NLVH Animal Model of Schizophrenia
In this study, we evaluated the expression profile changes of genes that intervene in the calcium signaling pathway, in young and adult Wistar rats, using the animal model of neonatal lesion in ventral hippocampus (NLVH) (a recognized animal model for schizophrenia) and compared to the group of control animals (Sham). Through microarray technology, gene expression profiles were obtained from the three brain areas (nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus) of young male Wistar rats (45  days) and adults (90 days) whether or not subjected to NLVH. The calcium signaling pathway reported a greater number...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - December 6, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Abundant Focal Adhesion Kinase Causes Aberrant Neuronal Migration Via Its Phosphorylation at Tyr925
AbstractThe process of neuronal migration is precisely regulated by different molecules during corticogenesis. The FAK (focal adhesion kinase) plays a critical role in embryogenesis and is involved in cell motility through focal adhesions, but the underlying mechanisms on inordinate expression are unclear. To investigate the effect of FAK overexpression on neuronal migration spatiotemporally, mice FAK was transfected into the neurons in vivo by electroporation. Results showed that exogenous FAK distributed in the cytoplasm (in vivo) and co-localized with vinculin (in vitro) and induced aberrant neuronal migration via phosp...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - December 5, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effect of Testosterone on TRPV1 Expression in a Model of Orofacial Myositis Pain in the Rat
AbstractRecent clinical studies have revealed sex differences in response to transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonist-induced pain. However, the mechanism of these differences in TRPV1-related chronic pain remains unclear. In the present study, we investigate the effects of inflammation and gonadal hormones on TRPV1 expression in trigeminal ganglia. Inflammatory pain was modeled by injecting complete Freund ’s adjuvant (CFA) into the left masseter muscle in rats. TRPV1 mRNA and protein levels in the trigeminal ganglia of male and female rats following CFA injection were assessed. CFA-induced changes i...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - December 5, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Magnesium Lithospermate B Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation in BV2 Microglial Cells and Attenuates Neurodegeneration in Lipopolysaccharide-Injected Mice
AbstractChronic inflammation in the brain plays a critical role in major neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer ’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and multiple sclerosis (MS). Microglia, the resident macrophages and intrinsic components of the central nervous system (CNS), appear to be the main effectors in this pathological process. Magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) is one of the major bioactive co mponents ofRadix Salviae miltiorrhizae, which has been documented to protect neurons against multiple types of neuronal injury. However, its functions on microglia and the related neuroinflammation remai...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - December 1, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The GABRB3 Polymorphism and its Association with Schizophrenia
AbstractThe aim of this study was to explore whether schizophrenia occurrence is associated with polymorphisms in the 5 ′ regulatory region ofGABRB3 (gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor beta 3, subunit gene). The study included 324 patients with schizophrenia and 327 unaffected participants; all individuals were northern Han Chinese. Genotype and haplotype frequency distributions were compared for the 2 groups by means of PCR amplification and direct sequencing of the promoter region ofGABRB3. The genotype distribution among control participants was in accordance with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Five common s...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - December 1, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

ATP7B Mutation Detection and Pathogenicity Analysis: One Atypical Case of Wilson ’s Disease with Adrenocortical Insufficiency
AbstractWilson ’s disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective function of the copper-transporting ATP7B protein. Symptoms are typically related to the brain and liver, while endocrinologic abnormalities are rare. Here, we reported a 12-year-old female patient that was initially presented with unusual skin darkening and low serum level of adrenocorticotropic hormone and diagnosed as having adrenocortical insufficiency. We further screened the mutation inATP7B by direct DNA sequencing and found compound heterozygous mutations: a known pathogenic mutation in exon8:c.2333G>T (Arg778Leu) inherit...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - November 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Differential Expression of Ion Channels in Adult and Neonatal Rat Ventral Respiratory Column
AbstractIn mammals, the neural control of breathing is attributed to circuits distributed along the ventral respiratory column (VRC) in the ventrolateral medulla. The VRC contains the kernel for generation of the inspiratory phase of respiratory rhythm and nuclei involved in central chemoreception. During development, the respiratory rhythm, as well as central chemosensitivity, adjusts to meet the changing physiological requirements associated with increased body weight and size. Gene expression in VRC ontogeny is well characterized. However, little is known about gene expression in the VRC during postnatal development. He...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - November 23, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Genetic Variants Within Molecular Targets of Antipsychotic Treatment: Effects on Treatment Response, Schizophrenia Risk, and Psychopathological Features
AbstractSchizophrenia (SCZ) is a common and severe mental disorder. Genetic factors likely play a role in its pathophysiology as well as in treatment response. In the present study, we investigated the effects of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 9 genes involved with antipsychotic (AP) mechanisms of action. Two independent samples were recruited. The Korean sample included 176 subjects diagnosed with SCZ and 326 healthy controls, while the Italian sample included 83 subjects and 194 controls. AP response as measured by the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) was the primary outcome, while the ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - November 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

G2A as a Threshold Regulator of Inflammatory Hyperalgesia Modulates Chronic Hyperalgesia
In this study, we overexpressed or knocked-down G2A gene expression in DRG to explore the roles of G2A. G2A overexpression reduced the infiltrat ion of acute immune cells (granulocytes) and attenuated hyperalgesia at 90 to 240 min after CFA injection. G2A knockdown increased the number of immune cells before CFA injection and prolonged the inflammatory hyperalgesia after CFA injection. G2A may serve as a threshold regulator in neurons to at tenuate the initial nociceptive and inflammatory signals, modulating the chronic state of hyperalgesia. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - November 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tetrandrine Alleviates Nociception in a Rat Model of Migraine via Suppressing S100B and p-ERK Activation in Satellite Glial Cells of the Trigeminal Ganglia
AbstractSensitization and activation of the trigeminal ganglia have been implicated in the pathology of migraine. Satellite glial cells (SGCs), a specialized type of glial cells that ensheathe trigeminal neurons, may be critical for peripheral nociceptive sensitization. Tetrandrine (TET), an alkaloid extracted from a traditional Chinese herb, exerts an inhibitory effect on glial activation in vitro and has been used in various neurologic diseases. The current study investigated the effect of TET on nitroglycerin (NTG)-induced trigeminal sensitization and examined potential signaling pathways related to SGC activation in th...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - November 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mice Lacking EGR1 Have Impaired Clock Gene (BMAL1) Oscillation, Locomotor Activity, and Body Temperature
In conclusion, the present study provides the first evidence that the circadian clock in the SCN is disturbed in mice deficient of EGR1. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - November 14, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

PAX3 Promotes Cell Migration and CXCR4 Gene Expression in Neural Crest Cells
In this study, we retrieved a potential PAX3 binding element in the promoter of theCXCR4 gene, and we further found that PAX3 could promote the expression of CXCR4 and facilitate the migration of NCs. We finally demonstrated that PAX3 could bind the promoter region ofCXCR4 and increaseCXCR4 transcription by luciferase assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). These findings suggested that PAX3 is a pivotal modulator of NC migration via regulating CXCR4 expression. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - November 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

C-myb Plays an Essential Role in the Protective Function of IGF-1 on Cytotoxicity Induced by A β 25–35 via the PI3K/Akt Pathway
AbstractThere have been numerous reports about neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer ’s disease. Nevertheless, the molecules responsible for the neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease are basically unknown. Recent findings indicate that the cellular myeloblastosis (c-myb) regulates neural progenitor cell proliferation. In the current study, the function of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) against cell toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells induced by β-amyloid 25–35 (Aβ25 –35) and its molecular mechanism were investigated. It was found that p25 protein production was raised by A β2...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - November 6, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

New Data from Pdfgb ret/ret Mutant Mice Might Lead to a Paradoxical Association Between Brain Calcification, Pericytes Recruitment and BBB Integrity
AbstractData of mice with PDGF-B-truncating mutation (Pdgfbret/ret) from different research groups indicate that the malfunction of this protein leads to reduced pericyte recruitment, loss of Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) integrity and bilateral brain calcification. This makes these mice important models for Primary Brain Calcification and pericyte-BBB correlation studies. The global brain pericyte count is reduced inPdgfbret/ret mice, with higher BBB permeability. We have overlapped the data from other research groups into a figure to further analyze the findings. Calcifications form within midbrain, interbrain, basal forebra...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - November 2, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Endogenous TRPV4 Expression of a Hybrid Neuronal Cell Line N18D3 and Its Utilization to Find a Novel Synthetic Ligand
We examined whether a mouse sensory neuronal line, N18D3, shows the sensory TRP expressions and their functionality. In Ca2+ imaging and electrophysiology with these cells, putative TRPV4-mediated responses were observed. TRPV4-specific sensory modalities including sensitivity to a specific agonist, hypotonicity, or an elevated temperature were reproduced in N18D3 cells. Electrophysiological and pharmacological profiles conformed to those from native TRPV4 of primarily cultured neurons. The TRPV4 expression in N18D3 was also confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. Thus, N18D3 cells may represent TRPV4-expressing sen...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 31, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tau Diagnostics and Clinical Studies
Abstract:This short editorial provides our point of view of the first EURO TAU meeting focusing on tau diagnostics and clinical studies. We cover postmortem analyses toward the identification of new biomarkers, tau imaging as a diagnostic biomarker, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling with emphasis on tau fragments, blood tests and genetic evaluations for sporadic cases, treatment aspects, drug development and points for future developments toward disease modification of devastating tauopathies. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Effect of Moringa peregrina Extract on Learning and Memory: Role of Oxidative Stress
AbstractOxidative stress interferes with the functional roles of the hippocampus and results in cognitive decline. Antioxidant supplementation has a cognitive enhancing activity through protecting hippocampus brain cells from the damaging effects of the reactive oxygen species. The dried methanolic extract of the aboveground parts ofMoringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori (Moringaceae) was hypothesized to have memory-enhancing activity via its antioxidative properties. HPLC and LC-MS methods were used for qualitative analysis of the marker compounds. Six major compounds of the methanolic extract ofM. peregrina were identified, n...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 30, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Let-7d microRNA Attenuates 6-OHDA-Induced Injury by Targeting Caspase-3 in MN9D Cells
AbstractParkinson ’s disease (PD) mainly results from the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), and the exact underlying mechanisms of the loss of DA neurons in PD remains largely unclear. The results of our previous work showed that let-7d was significantly dow nregulated in a 6-OHDA-induced cellular model of PD. However, the exact effect of let-7d on DA neural cells was unclear. In MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cells, we used a let-7d mimic and inhibitor to upregulate and downregulate the expression of let-7d, respectively, a cell counting kit to assess cell viabil...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 29, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prolonged Morphine Treatment Alters Expression and Plasma Membrane Distribution of β-Adrenergic Receptors and Some Other Components of Their Signaling System in Rat Cerebral Cortex
In this study, we investigated the effect of a 10-day treatment with high doses of morphine (10 mg/kg per day) on maj or components and functional state of the β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) signaling system in the rat cerebral cortex. β-ARs were characterized by radioligand binding assays and amounts of various G protein subunits, adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms, G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), and β-a rrestin were examined by Western blot analysis. AC activity was determined as a measure of functionality of the signaling system. We also assessed the partitioning of selected signaling prot...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research