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Periodic Variation of AAK1 in an A β 1–42 -Induced Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease
In this study, we investigated AAK1 levels in AD model mice over time. Aβ1 –42 was used to establish a mouse AD model, and the Morris water maze test was used to characterize the time course of A β1 –42-induced cognition changes. ELISA was used to determine AAK1 levels in plasma and A β1 –42 levels in brain tissues. Subsequently, the protein or gene levels of AAK1, AP-2, and Rab5 (an early endosome marker) were tested in each group. The cognitive function of A β1 –42-induced mice was significantly declined compared to control group, and the deficits reached a peak on day 14, but ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - May 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pathogenesis of Alzheimer ’s Disease Examined Using a Modified Puri-Li Model that Incorporates Calcium Ion Homeostasis
AbstractThe Puri-Li kinetic model is modified to include neuronal calcium ion homeostasis to study the effect of calcium ions on the production of amyloid-β peptides (A β), microglia, and astroglia during the pathogenesis of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD). This is carried out by solving the modified Puri-Li model under steady-state conditions. The derived expressions show that the inclusion of calcium ions has altered the steady-state populations ofA β, microglia, and astroglia. The calcium ions activate the synthesis ofA β which in turn increases the calcium ions entering the cytoplasm of the neuronal...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - May 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Co-expression of β Subunits with the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Na V 1.7: the Importance of Subunit Association and Phosphorylation and Their Effects on Channel Pharmacology and Biophysics
In conclusion, co-expression of β subunits with NaV1.7 α, to better mimic the native channel properties, may be ineffective in cases when subunits are not associated, as shown in our experiments with β2. The β3 subunit significantly influences the function of NaV1.7 α and, together with the phosphorylation of the channel, regulates its biophysical and pharmacological properties. These are important findings to take into account when considering the role of NaV1.7 channel in pain signaling. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - May 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

GABA A Receptor Density Is Not Altered by a Novel Herbal Anxiolytic Treatment
AbstractAnxiety disorders are highly prevalent and considered a major public health concern worldwide. Current anxiolytics are of limited efficacy and associated with various side effects. Our novel herbal treatment (NHT), composed of four constituents, was shown to reduce anxiety-like behavior while precluding a common side effect caused by current anxiolytics, i.e., sexual dysfunction. Nevertheless, NHT ’s mechanism of action is yet to be determined. There is evidence that some medicinal herbs interact with the GABAergic system. Therefore, we aimed to examine whether NHT’s anxiolytic-like effect is exerted by...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - May 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Transcriptome Profiling Reveals PHLDA1 as a Novel Molecular Marker for Ischemic Cardiomyopathy
AbstractIschemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) represents a worldwide health issue owning to its high sudden death rate. Easy diagnosis and effective treatment of ICM are still lacking. Identification of novel molecular markers will help illustrate the pathophysiology of ICM and facilitate its diagnosis and targeted treatment. Transcription profiling could be an easy and efficient way for identifying new markers. However, the mega data in the available database may contain a large number of false-positive hits. To identify the true marker for ICM, we systematically compared available microarray datasets in the GEO database and iden...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - May 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

CRISPR/Cas9, the Powerful New Genome-Editing Tool for Putative Therapeutics in Obesity
AbstractThe molecular technology known asclusteredregularlyinterspacedpalindromicrepeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) is revolutionizing the field of medical research and deepening our understanding of numerous biological processes. The attraction of CRISPR/Cas9 lies in its ability to efficiently edit DNA or modulate gene expression in living eukaryotic cells and organisms, a technology that was once considered either too expensive or scientifically risky. CRISPR/Cas9 has been successfully applied in agriculture to develop the next generation of disease-resistant plants. Now, the capability of gene editing has ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - May 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Mechanism of Hyperalgesia and Anxiety Induced by Remifentanil: Phosphorylation of GluR1 Receptors in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex
AbstractThe anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a key role in regulating mood in animals, especially anxiety, and is also a brain region that is indispensable to pain perception. Postoperative anxiety is closely related to the experience of pain. Remifentanil is a commonly used surgical analgesic. The mechanism of supraspinal hyperalgesia caused by remifentanil remains unclear. We used animal models to simulate postoperative hyperalgesia and studied the GluR1 AMPA receptor subunit in the ACC using western blots and immunocytochemistry. Behavioral tests were used to estimate anxiety levels. We found no significant change ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - May 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Meta-Analysis of the Association between GABA Receptor Polymorphisms and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
This study aimed to investigate the association between ASD and the GABA receptor SNPs in chromosomal region 15q11–q13. The association was calculated by the overall odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). We used sensitivity analyses and the assessment of publication bias in our meta-analysis. Eight independent case-control studies involving 1408 cases and 2846 healthy controls were analyzed, namely, 8 studies forGABRB3 SNPs as well as 4 studies forGABRA5 andGABRG3 polymorphisms. The meta-analysis showed thatGABRB3 polymorphisms in general are not significantly associated with autism [OR  =&thins...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - May 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Resveratrol Protects Purkinje Neurons and Restores Muscle Activity in Rat Model of Cerebellar Ataxia
In conclusion, post-treatment with resveratrol evidently ameliorated motor performance as well as muscle activity accompanied by a protection of Purkinje cells in ataxic rats. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - May 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Role of Apolipoprotein E and Ethanol Exposure in Age-Related Changes in Choline Acetyltransferase and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression in the Mouse Hippocampus
AbstractDisruption of apolipoprotein E (APOE) is responsible for age-dependent neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment. Elderly individuals are more sensitive than young individuals to the effects of ethanol (EtOH), particularly those affecting cognition. We investigated the role of APOE deficiency and EtOH exposure on age-dependent alterations in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein expression in the mouse hippocampus. Three-month-old (young) and 12-month-old (aged)ApoE-knockout (ApoE-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were treated with saline or 2  g/kg EtOH, and...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - May 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Association Study of ANRIL Genetic Variants and Multiple Sclerosis
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder of central nervous system with several genetic and environmental risk factors. Genes with regulatory roles on immune system have been implicated in its pathogenesis. Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to control some aspects of immune response. Among them isantisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL) whose involvement in NF- κB signaling pathway has been highlighted. In the current study, we evaluated the association between rs1333045, rs4977574, rs1333048, and rs10757278 variants ofANRIL and MS risk in a population of 410 I...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Exosomes Secreted by Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Contribute to Angiogenesis of Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Following Oxygen –Glucose Deprivation In Vitro Through MicroRNA-181b/TRPM7 Axis
In this study, we identified the role of exosomal microRNA-181b-5p (181b-Exos) in regulating post-stroke angiogenesis. The results of migration assay and capillary network formation assay showed that exosomes secreted by ADSCs (ADSCs-Exos) promoted the mobility and angiogenesis of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed that microRNA-212-5p (miR-212-5p) and miR-181b-5p were upregulated in BMECs subjected to the brain extract of the middle cerebral artery occlusion rats. The migration distance and tube length were...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 29, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Form 3D Clusters Following Intraventricular Transplantation
In conclusion, transplanted MSC formed intraventricular cell clusters and exhibited a sh ort life span in vivo. Xenogeneically in contrast to syngeneically transplanted MSC triggered a T cell-mediated graft rejection indicating that MSCs are not as immune privileged as previously assumed. However, MSC may mediate their effects by a “hit and run” mechanism and future studies will show whether syngeneically or xenogeneically transplanted MSCs exert better therapeutic effects in animals with CNS disease. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Proteomic Analysis of Cerebral Cortex Extracts from Sus scrofa with Induced Hemorrhagic Stroke
AbstractCerebrovascular diseases, including stroke and micro stroke, are the main causes of death in contemporary society. Hemorrhagic stroke is the fast emerging defficiency in the brain function resulting from disturbance of blood supply to the brain caused by the rapture of blood vessels (Lopez et al. in Proteomics Clin Appl 6:190 –200,2012). The influence of a model hemorrhagic stroke on white pigs with the change in the protein profile of their cortical samples 24 h and 2 months after the stroke was examined using mass-spectrometric analysis. Different proteins (n = 30) were identified, and their c...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of Post-Weaning Chronic Stress on Nociception, Spinal Cord μ-Opioid, and α2-Adrenergic Receptors Expression in Rats and Their Offspring
AbstractStressful situations can change biological process in human and animal, and some of these changes may transfer to the next generations. We used a communication box to induce chronic electrical foot-shock stress in rats. Tail flick latency and formalin test were done to determine the level of pain sensation. Real-time RT-PCR was used to measure the level of spinal cord μ-opioid (MOR) and α2-adrenergic receptors (α2-AR) mRNA. We demonstrate that chronic stress can change nociception and leads to hyperalgesia. Moreover, spinal cord MOR mRNA level decreased following chronic stress. We did not observe an...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

microRNA-21 Confers Neuroprotection Against Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury and Alleviates Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption in Rats via the MAPK Signaling Pathway
AbstractThe mechanism contributing to blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, involved in poststroke edema and hemorrhagic transformation, is important but elusive. We investigated microRNA-21 (miR-21)-mediated mechanism in the disruption of BBB following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Rats with cerebral I/R injury were prepared after middle cerebral artery occlusion and subsequent reperfusion. The underlying regulatory mechanisms of miR-382 were investigated with treatment of miR-382 mimics, miR-382 inhibitors, or SB203580 (an inhibitor of the MAPK signaling pathway) prior to I/R modeling. Compared with sham-op...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Sertoli Cells Avert Neuroinflammation-Induced Cell Death and Improve Motor Function and Striatal Atrophy in Rat Model of Huntington Disease
In conclusion, our results indicate that SCs provide a supportive environment, with potential therapeutic benefits aimed at HD. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 21, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Schwann-Cell Autophagy, Functional Recovery, and Scar Reduction After Peripheral Nerve Repair
AbstractThe functional outcome after peripheral nerve repair is often unpredictable for many reasons, e.g., the severity of neuronal death and scarring. Axonal degeneration significantly affects outcomes. Post-injury axonal degeneration in peripheral nerves is accompanied by myelin degradation initiated by Schwann cells (SCs), which activate autophagy, a ubiquitous cytoprotective process essential for degrading and recycling cellular constituents. Scar formation occurs concomitantly with nerve insult and axonal degeneration. The association between SC autophagy and the mechanisms of nerve scar formation is still unknown. A...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Inhibition of Astrocyte Connexin 43 Channels Facilitates the Differentiation of Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Under Hypoxic Conditions In Vitro
In conclusion, these findings suggested that astrocytic Cx43 hemichannel inhibition could potentially improve OPC maturation by attenuating AMPAR-mediated glutamate signaling. Astrocytic Cx43 hemichannels could serve as a potential therapeutic target for remyelination after chronic hypoxia. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Impact of Five VDR Polymorphisms on Multiple Sclerosis Risk and Progression: a Case-Control and Genotype-Phenotype Study
The objective of this study was to investigate the association between five vitamin D receptor polymorphisms (EcoRV, FokI, ApaI, TaqI, and BsmI) and multiple sclerosis susceptibility and its course. The study was carried out as a case-control and genotype-phenotype study, consisted of 296 Czech multiple sclerosis patients and 135 healthy controls. Genotyping was carried out using polymerase chain reaction and restriction analysis. In multiple sclerosis men, allele and/or genotype distributions differed in EcoRV, TaqI, BsmI, and ApaI polymorphisms as compared to controls (EcoRV,pa = 0.02; Taq,pg = 0.02,pa = 0.02; BsmI,pg = ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Potential Role of Toll-Like Receptor 4 in Mediating Dopaminergic Cell Loss and Alpha-Synuclein Expression in the Acute MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson ’s Disease
In this study, we aimed at investigating the dopaminergic cell loss and alpha-synuclein (α-SYN) expression in TLR4-deficient mice (TLR4−/−) acutely exposed to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), a pharmacological PD model. TLR4 ablation restrained the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), as assessed by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein expression. Intriguingly, TLR4−/− mice showed massive α-SYN protein accumulation in the midbrain along with high α-SYN mRNA levels in cerebral cortex, striatum, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Contrary to expecta...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Wnt3a Ectopic Expression Interferes Axonal Projection and Motor Neuron Positioning During the Chicken Spinal Cord Development
In conclusion, we proposed that Wnt3a regulates neuronal morphology, which subsequently disrupts axonal projection and motor neuron positioning during spinal cord development. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Assessment of Protein Prenylation Pathway in Multiple Sclerosis Patients
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder with several genetic and environmental factors being implicated in its pathogenesis. Protein prenylation as one of the important posttranslational modifications of proteins has crucial role in immune system regulation. In the current case –control study, we compared expression of five genes coding for the different subunits of proteins implicated in protein prenylation in 50 Iranian MS patients with those of healthy subjects. No significant difference has been found inFNTA andPGGT1B expressions between cases and controls. Spearman correlation analysis...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Determining the Effect of the HNMT , STK39 , and NMD3 Polymorphisms on the Incidence of Parkinson ’s Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, and Multiple System Atrophy in Chinese Populations
AbstractLarge-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies have identified several loci linked to sporadic Parkinson ’s disease (PD). However, the roles of some important loci, such asHNMT Thr105Ile,STK39 rs2390669, andNMD3 rs34016896, have not been clarified in Chinese populations. Accumulating evidence indicates that some common clinicopathological characteristics are shared by different neurodegenerative diseases. Consequently, we conducted a large sample study to investigate associations between these variants and PD, multiple system atrophy (MSA), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in Chinese popu...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 21, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Therapeutic Potential of Pretreatment with Allograft Sertoli Cells Transplantation in Brain Ischemia by Improving Oxidative Defenses
This study is to evaluate possible neuroprotective effects of SCs transplantation on ischemic damage. Rats were divided into three experimental groups including sham, control, and SCs-treated group. In this study, SCs were isolated from testis of rats and were transplanted into the right striatum by using stereotaxic surgery. After a week, ischemic surgery was performed. Twenty-four hours later, rats were scarified and different regions of the brain including the cortex, the piriform cortex-amygdala (Pir-Amy), and the striatum were collected and preserved in − 80 °C for further investigations. This st...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Expression Analysis of Vitamin D Signaling Pathway Genes in Epileptic Patients
AbstractVitamin D deficiency has been detected in epileptic patients. Vitamin D participates in neuroprotection, brain cell proliferation, and differentiation. Consequently, vitamin D supplementation has been suggested as an alternative treatment in epileptic patients. We aimed at assessment of vitamin D signaling pathway in epileptic patients. In the present study, we evaluated vitamin D serum concentration as well as expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and genes encoding for vitamin D activating enzyme 1-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) and deactivating enzyme 24-hyroxylase (CYP24A1) in epileptic patients compared wit...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Differential Expression of Klotho in the Brain and Spinal Cord is Associated with Total Antioxidant Capacity in Mice with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
In conclusion, for the first time, this study demonstrated a significant positive correlation between Klotho and TAC changes during the pathogenesis of EAE. It is suggested that Klotho may have neuroprotective activity through the regulation of redox system. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Regulation of Monoamine Oxidase A Gene Expression by Distinct Variable Number Tandem Repeats
AbstractThe monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) uVNTR (upstream variable number tandem repeat) is one of the most often cited examples of a gene by environment interaction (GxE) in relation to behavioral traits. However,MAOA possesses a second VNTR, 500  bp upstream of the uVNTR, which is termed d- or distal VNTR. Furthermore, genomic analysis indicates that there are a minimum of two transcriptional start sites (TSSs) forMAOA, one of which encompasses the uVNTR within the 5 ′ untranslated region of one of the isoforms. Through expression analysis in semi-haploid HAP1 cell lines genetically engineered in order to knockou...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Association Study of VMAT1 Polymorphisms and Suicide Behavior
AbstractGenetic association studies have linked suicide behavior with genes encoding transporters of monoamine. Variants in thevesicular monoamine transporter 1 (VMAT1) have been previously shown to be associated with several psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, their association with suicide behavior has not been explored. In the present study, we genotyped three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2270637, rs1390938, and rs2279709) within this gene in 100 individuals who attempted suicide, 236 suicide victims, and 300 control subjects without any history of psychiatric disorders or ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors Inhibit Fyn Activity in the Rat Striatum In Vivo
AbstractThe Src family kinase (SFK) is a subfamily of non-receptor tyrosine kinases. SFK members, Src and especially Fyn, are expressed in the striatum. These SFK members are involved in the regulation of neuronal and synaptic activities and are linked to the pathogenesis of a variety of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Given the fact that muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptors are highly expressed in striatal neurons and are critical for the regulation of striatal function, we investigated the role of mACh receptors in the regulation of SFKs in the adult rat striatum in vivo. We found that pharmacologi...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Valproic Acid Promotes Survival of Facial Motor Neurons in Adult Rats After Facial Nerve Transection: a Pilot Study
This study provides an experimental evidence for better understanding the mechanism of injury and repair of peripheral facial paralysis. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Trichostatin A and Sirtinol Regulate the Expression and Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Histone Deacetylases in All-Trans Retinoic Acid-Induced Differentiation of Neuroblastoma Cells
AbstractNeuroblastoma cell differentiation is a valuable model for studying therapeutic methods in neuroblastoma and the mechanisms of neuronal differentiation. Here, we used trichostatin A (TSA) and sirtinol, which are inhibitors of cHDACs and sirtuins, respectively, to show that classical histone deacetylases (cHDACs) and sirtuins (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog; SIRTs) affect all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. After first determining neurite elongation and expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and high size neurofilament as useful differentiation marke...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

CpG Island Methylation Patterns in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis
AbstractDNA methylation may predispose to multiple sclerosis (MS), as aberrant methylation in the promoter regions across the genome seems to underlie several processes of MS. We have currently determined the methylation status of eight genes in relapsing-remitting MS patients. Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) was used to determine the status of 31 CpG islands, located across eight genes, in 33 healthy individuals and 66 MS patients (33 in relapse and 33 in remission). The methylation levels in the examined sites ranged from 0 to 31%. Methylation positivity for RUNX3 and CDKN2...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Relative Abundance of Proteins in Blood Plasma Samples from Patients with Chronic Cerebral Ischemia
AbstractA comparative protein profile analysis of 17 blood plasma samples from patients with ischemia and 20 samples from healthy volunteers was carried out using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. The analysis of measurements was performed using the proteomics search engine OMSSA. Normalized spectrum abundance factor (NSAF) in the biological samples was assessed using SearchGUI. The findings of mass spectrometry analysis of the protein composition of blood plasma samples demonstrate that the depleted samples are quite similar in protein composition and relative abundance of proteins. By comparing them with the contr...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Updated Meta-Analysis of BIN1 , CR1 , MS4A6A , CLU , and ABCA7 Variants in Alzheimer ’s Disease
AbstractGenome-wide association studies (GWAS) have associated several genetic variants with late-onset Alzheimer ’s disease (LOAD), a neurodegenerative disease. Among those, rs3764650ABCA7, rs6656401CR1, and rs744373BIN1 were associated as risk factors for LOAD, while rs11136000CLU and rs610932MS4A6A were protective. Recently, several case-control studies have investigated the association of these polymorphisms with AD. However, not all meta-analyses analyzed these variants across different ethnic groups. Therefore, we performed an updated meta-analysis of rs3764650ABCA7, rs6656401CR1, rs744373BIN1, rs11136000CLU, a...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Whole-Genome Expression Microarray Combined with Machine Learning to Identify Prognostic Biomarkers for High-Grade Glioma
AbstractThe aim of our study is to build a framework for a better understanding of high-grade glioma (HGG) prognostic-related biomarkers. Whole-genome gene expression microarray was performed to identify differently expressed genes between HGGs and low-grade diffuse gliomas. Several machine learning algorithms were used to filter prognostic-related genes. One hundred ninety-three HGG patients after surgical resection were selected for survival analysis. Immunohistochemistry were performed on these tumor samples to analyze IDH1 mutation status and protein expression of WEE1. qRT-PCR, western blotting, transwell assays, and ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

NKCC1 Inhibition Attenuates Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion-Induced White Matter Lesions by Enhancing Progenitor Cells of Oligodendrocyte Proliferation
In conclusion, NKCC1 inhibition might significantly ameliorate chronic cerebral hypoperfusion-induced WMLs and cognitive impairment by enhancing progenitor cells of oligodendrocyte proliferation, and this protective function of bumetanide might be mediated by modulation of the MAPK signaling pathway. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Analysis of Housekeeping Genes for Accurate Normalization of qPCR Data During Early Postnatal Brain Development
AbstractMaturation of the neocortex during the first three postnatal weeks is a complex process that is characterized by different time courses of maturation of different areas of the neocortex. Analysis of gene expression using quantitative PCR after reverse transcription during this period of ontogeny and comparison of different cortical areas require optimal selection of reference genes for correct normalization of the data. Here, we compared expression of nine reference genes in the somatosensory and visual areas of the neocortex at the age of 5, 8, 10, 13, and 20  days. Using widely used GeNorm and NormFinder app...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 28, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Phospholipase D1 Signaling: Essential Roles in Neural Stem Cell Differentiation
AbstractPhospholipase D1 (PLD1) is generally accepted as playing an important role in the regulation of multiple cell functions, such as cell growth, survival, differentiation, membrane trafficking, and cytoskeletal organization. Recent findings suggest that PLD1 also plays an important role in the regulation of neuronal differentiation of neuronal cells. Moreover, PLD1-mediated signaling molecules dynamically regulate the neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs). Rho family GTPases and Ca2+-dependent signaling, in particular, are closely involved in PLD1-mediated neuronal differentiation of NSCs. Moreover, PLD...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Quantitative Comparison of Primary Cilia Marker Expression and Length in the Mouse Brain
AbstractPrimary cilia are small, special cellular organelles that provide important sensory and signaling functions during the development of mammalian organs and coordination of postnatal cellular processes. Dysfunction of primary cilia are thought to be the main cause of ciliopathies, a group of genetic disorders characterized by overlapping developmental defects and prominent neurodevelopmental features. Although, disrupted cilia-linked signaling pathways have been implicated in the regulation of numerous neuronal functions, the precise role of primary cilia in the brain are still unknown. Importantly, studies of recent...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Role of Exosomes Derived from miR-133b Modified MSCs in an Experimental Rat Model of Intracerebral Hemorrhage
AbstractIntracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has poor outcomes due to high mortality and morbidity, but until now, the effective treatments remain limited. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are vital regulators of gene expression and demonstrated to be linked to the pathogenesis of various central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Exosomes are considered as cell-to-cell communication vectors and secreted largely by mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). The present study investigated the role of miR-133b delivered by exosomes secreted from MSCs to brain tissues in rats after ICH. An autologous arterial blood ICH model in adult male Sprague –Dawl...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Endogenous Sex Steroids Dampen Neuroinflammation and Improve Outcome of Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice
AbstractThe role of biological sex in short-term and long-term outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains controversial. The observation that exogenous female sex steroids (progesterone and estrogen) reduce brain injury coupled with a small number of clinical studies showing smaller injury in women suggest that sex steroids may play a role in outcome from TBI. We used the controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of TBI in mice to test the hypothesis that after CCI, female mice would demonstrate less injury than male mice, related to the protective role of endogenous steroids. Indeed, adult females exhibit histologica...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effects of Melatonin on Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis Mice Via Anti-Oxidative Stress Activity
This study aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin on mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a widely used MS model, and its potential mechanism underlying the action of MT on anti-oxidative stress. Female C57BL/6 mice were injected with MOG35 –55 peptide to set up the EAE model, and for detection of the effect of melatonin (10 mg/kg i.p.) on the development and progression of EAE. Combining immunohistochemistry, biochemical technology and western blot approaches, the potential molecular mechanism of melatonin on EAE was evaluated as t he levels of oxidative stress and the expression of ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

In Silico Preliminary Association of Ammonia Metabolism Genes GLS , CPS1 , and GLUL with Risk of Alzheimer ’s Disease, Major Depressive Disorder, and Type 2 Diabetes
AbstractAmmonia is a toxic by-product of protein catabolism and is involved in changes in glutamate metabolism. Therefore, ammonia metabolism genes may link a range of diseases involving glutamate signaling such as Alzheimer ’s disease (AD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and type 2 diabetes (T2D). We analyzed data from a National Institute on Aging study with a family-based design to determine if 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in glutaminase (GLS), carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1), or glutamate-ammonia ligase (GLUL) genes were associated with AD, MDD, or T2D using PLINK software. HAPLOVIEW softwa...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 13, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

TGF- β1 Regulation of P-JNK and L-Type Calcium Channel Cav1.2 in Cortical Neurons
AbstractCentral nervous system (CNS) diseases can cause a series of neuronal lesions, which may be improved by the anti-apoptotic neuroprotection of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF- β1). In neurons, L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCC) are mainly composed of Cav1.2 subunits. Given the implication of TGF- β1 in numerous CNS diseases, we examined the neuroprotective effects of TGF-β1 on the Cav1.2 channel in the CNS. To simulate acute mechanical traumatic brain injury (TBI), we used a needle to create parallel scratches across plates, which were cultured for 9 h. Meanwhile, Fluo4-AM-loaded laser sc anning c...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Atorvastatin Attenuates Cognitive Deficits and Neuroinflammation Induced by A β 1–42 Involving Modulation of TLR4/TRAF6/NF-κB Pathway
AbstractInflammatory damage aggravates the progression of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) and the mechanism of inflammatory damage may provide a new therapeutic window for the treatment of AD. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated signaling can regulate the inflammatory process. However, changes in TLR4 signaling pathway induced by beta-amyloid (Aβ) have not been well c haracterized in brain, especially in the hippocampus. In the present study, we explored the changes of TLR4 signaling pathway induced by Aβ in the hippocampus and the role of atorvastatin in modulating this signal pathway and neurotoxicity induced ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

TOX3 Variants Are Involved in Restless Legs Syndrome and Parkinson ’s Disease with Opposite Effects
AbstractParkinson ’s disease (PD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) may be clinically and/or etiologically related, yet this association is under debate. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in theTOX3 gene locus were implicated in both RLS and PD genome-wide association studies (GWASs), suggesting a potential pleiotropy. Two case-control cohorts including 644 PD patients, 457 RLS patients, and 945 controls were genotyped for one known RLS-related SNP (rs3104767) and one PD-related SNP (rs4784226) in theTOX3 locus. The associations between genotype and PD and RLS risk were tested using multivariate regression models...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Induces Cell Cycle-Dependent Neuronal Apoptosis in Mice
AbstractIron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) with its unique magnetic and paramagnetic properties are popular in biomedical applications. Some of their neurotoxic mechanisms due to repeated administration are proven. However, we speculate that the neuronal damage might be due to apoptosis resulting from unusual cell cycle entry. Moreover, iron accumulation has been shown to be closely associated with most of the neurodegenerative disorders. Thus, in the current study, mice were orally (po) treated with the Fe2O3-NPs to investigate cell cycle-associated events/components and occurrence of apoptosis. A subsequent increase ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Examination of Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) as a Potential Biomarker in Heart Failure Patients
AbstractPituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic and multifunctional neuropeptide having neurotrophic, neuroprotective, and general cytoprotective actions in a variety of tissues based on its anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. Several studies have demonstrated its cardioprotective effects in vitro and in various animal models. However, few data are available on the presence of PACAP in human cardiac tissues and its role in the pathomechanism and progression of different cardiac disorders, particularly heart failure. Earlier, our research group has shown PAC1 recep...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Correction to: The Compassionate Side of Neuroscience: Tony Sermone ’s Undiagnosed Genetic Journey—ADNP Mutation
AbstractThe original version of this article unfortunately contained mistakes. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - January 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research