RNA Sequencing of Peripheral Blood Revealed that the Neurotropic TRK Receptor Signaling Pathway Shows Apparent Correlation in Recovery Following Spinal Cord Injury at Small Cohort
In this study, the molecular mechanisms involved in SCI were investigated. Clinical peripheral blood samples from normal individuals and patients with incomplete SCI (ISCI) and complete SCI (CSCI) were analyzed by RNA-Seq. The expression levels ofEPHA4,CDK16,BAD,MAP2 Normal 2,EGR, andRHOB differed significantly between the SCI group and normal individuals, and these results were verified by q-PCR. A gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis showed that differentially expressed genes were mostly enriched for the neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway. We verified the expression of neurotrophic factors and found that they ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

PACAP Attenuates Optic Nerve Crush-Induced Retinal Ganglion Cell Apoptosis Via Activation of the CREB-Bcl-2 Pathway
AbstractRetinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis is considered an important pathological hallmark of glaucoma. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic peptide with potent neuroprotective properties. In our previous study, we found that the expression of PACAP and its high-affinity receptor PACAP receptor type 1 (PAC1R) increased markedly after optic nerve crush (ONC), and occurred mainly in the ganglion cell layer of the retina. This suggests that the upregulation of PACAP may play a vital role in inhibiting RGC death after ONC. Therefore, in the present study, we investigate the specific e...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

CADASIL with Atypical Clinical Symptoms, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Novel Mutations: Two Case Reports and a Review of the Literature
AbstractCerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a hereditary microangiopathy with adult onset caused by a missense mutation in theNOTCH3 gene in chromosome 19p13. It presents with autosomal dominant arteriopathy, subcortical infarctions, and leukoencephalopathy. Its common clinical presentations are seen as recurrent strokes, migraine or migraine-like headaches, progressive dementia, pseudobulbar paralysis, and psychiatric conditions. Two patients with CADASIL syndrome, whose diagnosis was made based on clinical course, age of onset, imaging findings, and gene...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Mechanism of Rap1 Regulates N-cadherin to Control Neuronal Migration
AbstractRap1 and N-cadherin regulate glia-independent translocation of cortical neurons. It remains unclear how Rap1 regulates N-cadherin-mediated neuronal migration. Here, we overexpressed Rap1gap in mouse brains (embryonic day 16) to inactivate Rap1, and observed that neurons did not migrate to the outer layer. We confirmed that Rap1 was involved in the regulation of late neurons in vivo. Rap1gap overexpression and Rap1 suppression in CHO cells decreased the expression of cytoskeletal proteins such as tubulin. Changes in the expression of cell morphology regulators, such as N-cadherin and β-catenin, were also observ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Downregulation of AIF-2 Inhibits Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion of Human Glioma Cells via Mitochondrial Dysfunction
In conclusion, we found that AIF-2 plays a key role in promoting cell proliferation, invasion, and migration via regulating AIF-1-related mitochondrial cascades. Downregulation of the candidate oncogene AIF-2 might constitute a strategy to kill human glioma cells. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Identification of Important Invasion-Related Genes in Non-functional Pituitary Adenomas
The objective of this study was to diagnose important genes and pathways related to the invasiveness of NFPAs and gain more insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of NFPAs. The gene expression profiles of GSE51618 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database with 4 non-invasive NFPA samples, 3 invasive NFPA samples, and 3 normal pituitary gland samples. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are screened between invasive NFPA samples and normal pituitary gland samples, followed by pathway and ontology (GO) enrichment analyses. Subsequently, a protein –protein interaction (PPI) network was const...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Role of Oxidative Stress in Tuberculous Meningitis: a Clinico-Radiological Correlation
We report oxidative stress markers in the patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and correlate these with clinico-radiological severity and outcome. Fifty-six patients with TBM diagnosed on the basis of clinical, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and magnetic resonance (MRI) were included. Plasma glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in the patients and 55 matched healthy controls. Hospital death was noted. Disabilities at 3 and 6  months were categorized using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) as poor (mRS >  2) or good (mRS ≤ 2). The...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Separate Gene Transfers into Pre- and Postsynaptic Neocortical Neurons Connected by mGluR5-Containing Synapses
AbstractmGluR5-containing synapses have essential roles in synaptic plasticity, circuit physiology, and learning, and dysfunction at these synapses is implicated in specific neurological disorders. As mGluR5-containing synapses are embedded in large and complex distributed circuits containing many neuron and synapse types, it is challenging to elucidate the roles of these synapses and to develop treatments for the associated disorders. Thus, it would be advantageous to deliver different genes into pre- and postsynaptic neurons connected by a mGluR5-containing synapse. Here, we develop this capability: The first gene transf...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 10, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Association Between Neuropsychological Function with Serum Vitamins A, D, and E and hs-CRP Concentrations
AbstractVitamin status and the presence of subclinical inflammation may affect cognitive performance and behavior. We have investigated the relationship between serum fat soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, and E) and inflammatory markers with aggression and cognitive abilities, in a population of healthy adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 940 adolescent girls was performed. Serum concentrations of vitamins A, D, and E, hs-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and antibody titers to Hsp27 (anti-Hsp27) were measured. Hematological indices including lymphocyte, neutrophil, platelet counts, and red blood cell distribution width (RDW...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Chronic Antipsychotic Treatment Modulates Aromatase (CYP19A1) Expression in the Male Rat Brain
AbstractAntipsychotic drugs, known as the antagonists of dopaminergic receptors, may also affect a large spectrum of other molecular signaling pathways in the brain. Despite the numerous ongoing studies on neurosteroid action and regulation, there are no reports regarding the influence of extended treatment with typical and atypical neuroleptics on brain aromatase (CYP19A1) expression. In the present study, we assessed for the first time aromatase mRNA and protein levels in the brain of rats chronically (28  days) treated with olanzapine, clozapine, and haloperidol using quantitative real-time PCR, end-point RT-PCR, a...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dynamic Effects of Ioversol on the Permeability of the Blood-Brain Barrier and the Expression of ZO-1/Occludin in Rats
In this study, we observed the dynamic effect and potential mechanism of ioversol on the BBB in rats. Eighty-one healthy rats were randomly divided into a normal control group (n = 9), ioversol group (n = 36), and 0.9% NaCl group (n = 36); the latter two groups were separately subdivided into four groups based on time points after treatment (0.5, 3, 6, and 24 h) (n = 9/group). Permeability of the BBB was measured by an Evans Blue (EB) assay. Levels of the tight junction (TJ) proteins ZO-1 and occludin were determined by western blot and immunofluorescence stainin...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Correction to: Investigation of Neuregulin-1 and Glial Cell-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Rodent Astrocytes and Microglia
The original version of this article unfortunately contained mistakes in the author group and affiliation sections. Author Markus H. Schwab ’s name was incorrectly presented as “H. Markus Schwab” and his affiliations were incorrectly assigned as “1 and 3” instead of “2 and 3”. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Is Associated with the Risk of Cognitive Impairment: a Meta-Analysis
AbstractThe present meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the interaction between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the risk of cognitive impairment. The studies that fulfilled certain inclusion criteria were selected from online databases including PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Data extraction and quality assessment were conducted, and subgroup analysis was performed according to the study area, population sources, and types of cognitive impairment. Publication bias and sensitivity analysis were evaluated. In total, 30 studies from 25 articles, including 2 case-control studies, 9 cohort studies, and 19 cross-secti...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Neuroprotective Effect of miR-181a After Oxygen –Glucose Deprivation/Reperfusion and the Associated Mechanism
AbstractThe level of miR-181a decreases rapidly in N2a cells following oxygen –glucose deprivation/reperfusion, but its role in this process is unclear. Reelin, a regulator of neuronal migration and synaptogenesis, is a predicted target of miR-181a. We hypothesized that miR-181a reduces neuronal apoptosis and protects neurons by targeting reelin. Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac) is a protein located in mitochondria that regulates apoptosis. The pro-apoptotic effect of Smac is achieved by reversing the effects of apoptosis-inhibiting proteins (IAPs), particularly X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Animal Weight Is an Important Variable for Reliable Cuprizone-Induced Demyelination
AbstractAn elegant model to study mechanisms operant during oligodendrocyte degeneration and subsequent demyelination is the cuprizone model. In that model, mice are intoxicated with the copper chelation agent cuprizone which results in early oligodendrocyte stress, oligodendrocyte apoptosis, and, finally, demyelination. Here, we systematically investigated to what extent the animals ’ weight at the beginning of the cuprizone intoxication period is critical for the reproducibility of the cuprizone-induced pathology. We can demonstrate that a negative correlation exists between the two variables “extent of cupri...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Application of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Study with Artificial Neural Networks
AbstractAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) includes different neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in social communication, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities. Based on the importance of early diagnosis for effective therapeutic intervention, several strategies have been employed for detection of the disorder. The artificial neural network (ANN) as a type of machine learning method is a common strategy. In the current study, we extracted genomic data for 487 ASD patients and 455 healthy individuals. All individuals were genotyped in certain single-nucleotide polymorphisms...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - April 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Euxanthone Ameliorates Sevoflurane-Induced Neurotoxicity in Neonatal Mice
This study was designed to investigate whether euxanthone can confer neuroprotective activities against sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity and to determine the associated molecular mechanisms. Neonatal Sprague-Dawley (male) rats were exposed to sevoflurane with or without euxanthone treatment. The behavioral data of rats were collected at P41 (the beginning of the adult stage). The hippocampal tissue was obtained following exposure to sevoflurane. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the hippocampal tissue was determined by a commercial kit. The expression of apoptotic markers and inflammatory cytokines was determined...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prognostic Role of Chicken Ovalbumin Upstream Promoter Transcription Factor II in Isocitrate Dehydrogenase-Mutant Glioma with 1p19q Co-Deletion
AbstractBackgroundChicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II is known to play a crucial role in the tumor microenvironment. However, the role of NR2F2 in gliomas is unknown.MethodsThe genomic and clinical data of 530 cases of lower grade gliomas (LGGs) patients and 167 cases of glioblastoma (GBM) patients in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were extracted for analysis. R2 and UCSC Xena browser were used for Kaplan –Meier survival in the GSE16011 dataset and TCGA dataset, respectively. GraphPad Prism 7 was used to compare the differences in NR2F2 expression between various groups and subtypes.ResultsLGG...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Apparent Correlations Between AMPK Expression and Brain Inflammatory Response and Neurological Function Factors in Rats with Chronic Renal Failure
AbstractTo explore the correlations between AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression and brain inflammatory response and neurological function factors in rats with chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure models in rats were established, and the healthy control group (normal group) was set. Chronic renal failure model rats were divided into model group (without any treatment), control group (intraperitoneal injection of normal saline), A-769662 group (intraperitoneal injection of AMPK specific activator), and compound C group (intraperitoneal injection of AMPK specific inhibitor). The results of HE staining showe...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Inhibition of MSK1 Promotes Inflammation and Apoptosis and Inhibits Functional Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury
In this study, we found that MSK1 is gradually decreased, starting 1  day after spinal cord injury and to its lowest level 3 days post-injury, after which it gradually increased. To further investigate the possible function of MSK1 in spinal cord injury, we interfered with its expression by utilizing a small interfering RNA (siRNA)-encoding lentivirus, which was in jected into the injured spinal cord to inhibit local expression. After MSK1 inhibition, we found that the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β were increased. Moreover, the expression of IL-10 was decrea...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Compound Heterozygote for GCH1 Mutation Represents a Case of Atypical Dopa-Responsive Dystonia
In this study, the entireGCH1 gene was screened in 14 Indian DRD patients and their family members. A family was identified where the proband was found to be a compound heterozygote forGCH1 (p.R184H and p.V204I) variants; the former variant being inherited from the father and the latter from the mother. All other family members harboring one of theseGCH1 variants were asymptomatic except for one (heterozygous for p.R184H) who was diagnosed with DRD. In silico analyses predicted these two variants to be pathogenic and disruptive to GCH1enzymatic activity. This proband was misdiagnosed as cerebral palsy and remained untreate...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Rab7b Overexpression –Ameliorated Ischemic Brain Damage Following tMCAO Involves Suppression of TLR4 and NF-κB p65
In this study, by investigating a rat model with cerebral stroke, we foun d that Rab7b was upregulated in the rat brain following the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Functionally, overexpression of Rab7b in the brain by DNA transfection reduced cerebral infarction and improved neurological outcome following tMCAO, suggesting that Rab7b alleviates ische mic brain damage. Mechanistically, Rab7b overexpression suppressed the expression of TLR4 and NF-κB p65 and also inhibited the activation of NF-κB p65. Furthermore, Rab7b overexpression suppressed the production of proinflammatory mediators in...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A Causal Relationship in Spinal Cord Injury Rat Model Between Microglia Activation and EGFR/MAPK Detected by Overexpression of MicroRNA-325-3p
AbstractMicroglial activation and inflammatory response played an important role in the secondary injury of spinal cord injury (SCI). Several microRNAs were associated with this procedure, but the underlying molecular mechanism was poorly understood. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups: SCI group (n = 7), agomiR-325-3p group (n = 7), and their control groups. Expression of miR-325-3p and proteins in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway was evaluated in microglia from SCI rats and primary microglia/BV2 cells activated...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tuftelin Is Required for NGF-Induced Differentiation of PC12 Cells
AbstractNerve growth factor (NGF) promotes pleiotropic gene transcription-dependent biological effects, in neuronal and non-neuronal cells, including survival, proliferation, differentiation, neuroprotection, pain, and angiogenesis. It is hypothesized that during odontogenesis, NGF may be implicated in morphogenetic and mineralization events by affecting proliferation and/or differentiation of dental cells. Tuftelin belongs to the enamel associated teeth proteins and is thought to play a role in enamel mineralization. We previously reported that tuftelin transcript and protein, which are ubiquitously expressed in various t...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Expression Profile of Selected MicroRNAs in the Peripheral Blood of Multiple Sclerosis Patients: a Multivariate Statistical Analysis with ROC Curve to Find New Biomarkers for Fingolimod
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) as a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) has been associated with dysregulation of several genes including miRNAs. In the present study, we assessed transcript levels of seven miRNAs (miR-96-5p, miR-211-5p, miR-15a, miR-34a-5p, miR-204-5p, miR-501-5p, and miR-524-5p) in the peripheral blood of MS patients compared with healthy subjects in association with response to fingolimod treatment. Expression levels of miR-211-5p and miR-34a-5p were significantly decreased in MS patients compared with healthy subjects (P values of 0.002 and 0.47). While subgroup analysis sho...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Influence of miR-301a Inhibition in Experimental Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Rat Models Through Targeting NDRG2
The objective of this study is to find out the potential influence of miR-301a in an experimental cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) rat model through targetingNDRG2. Rats with cerebral I/R injury were constructed and classified into model, miR-301a inhibitor, miR-301a mimic, NC (negative control), siNDRG2, NDRG2, and miR-301a inhibitor + si-NDRG2 groups, as well as another sham group. Cerebral infarct volume and cell apoptosis were observed by TTC staining and TUNEL staining. The targeting relationship between miR-301a andNDRG2 was verified by luciferase assay. ELISA, qRT-PCR, and Western blot were used to detect the exp...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Activation of the Oxytocin Receptor Modulates the Expression of Synaptic Adhesion Molecules in a Cell-Specific Manner
AbstractSynaptic cell adhesion molecules, including neurexins and neuroligins, mediate the formation and maintenance of connections between neuronal cells. Although neurexins and neuroligins are known to interact with each other in a calcium-dependent manner and several neuropeptides have been shown to act through G protein-coupled receptors to increase intracellular calcium levels, no studies have examined the role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in association with adhesion molecules. Given that oxytocin receptors are located on presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes and that oxytocin exerts direct effects on neuronal excit...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Combined Inhibition of HDAC and EGFR Reduces Viability and Proliferation and Enhances STAT3 mRNA Expression in Glioblastoma Cells
AbstractChanges in expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs), which epigenetically regulate chromatin structure, and mutations and amplifications of theEGFR gene, which codes for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), have been reported in glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and malignant type of brain tumor. There are likely interplays between HDACs and EGFR in promoting GBM progression, and HDAC inhibition can cooperate with EGFR blockade in reducing the growth of lung cancer cells. Here, we found that either HDAC or EGFR inhibitors dose-dependently reduced the viability of U87 and A-172 human GBM cells. In U87 ce...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Somatostatin-Mediated Changes in Microtubule-Associated Proteins and Retinoic Acid –Induced Neurite Outgrowth in SH-SY5Y Cells
AbstractSomatostatin (SST) is a growth hormone inhibitory peptide involved in regulation of several physiological responses of cells including neurotransmission, cell migration, maturation, and neurite formation. In the present study, we examined the role of SST inall-trans retinoic acid (RA) –induced progression of neurite outgrowth in SH-SY5Y cells. We also determined the morphological and developmental changes in prominent intracellular markers of neurite growth including microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), neuron-specific III β-tubulin (TUJ1), and Tau. Here, we present eviden ce that SST is a molecular ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Insights into the Potential Role of Mercury in Alzheimer ’s Disease
AbstractMercury (Hg), which is a non-essential element, is considered a highly toxic pollutant for biological systems even when present at trace levels. Elevated Hg exposure with the growing release of atmospheric pollutant Hg and rising accumulations of mono-methylmercury (highly neurotoxic) in seafood products have increased its toxic potential for humans. This review aims to highlight the potential relationship between Hg exposure and Alzheimer ’s disease (AD), based on the existing literature in the field. Recent reports have hypothesized that Hg exposure could increase the potential risk of developing AD. Also, ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

MicroRNA-211-5p Enhances Analgesic Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Inflammatory Visceral Pain in Rats by Suppressing ERK Signaling
AbstractDexmedetomidine (DEX) is a high-selectivity α2 adrenergic receptor agonist. The present study aimed to characterize the analgesic effects of DEX on TNBS-induced chronic inflammatory visceral pain (CIVP) in rats and to evaluate whether its antinociceptive effect is regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) and the ERK pathway. TNBS with or without DEX was administered to 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats. These rats were randomly classified into four groups: control, TNBS, vehicle, and DEX groups. Pain behaviors were assessed by the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR), thermal withdrawal latency (TWL), and mechanical withdrawal...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Secretin Prevents Apoptosis in the Developing Cerebellum Through Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL
AbstractSecretin (SCT) is involved in a variety of physiological processes and has been implicated in preventing apoptosis during brain development. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying its neuroprotective effects. The B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family proteins, such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, determine the commitment of neurons to apoptosis. In SCT knockout mice, we found reduced transcript levels of anti-apoptotic genes Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, but not of pro-apoptotic gene Bax, in the developing cerebellum. SCT treatment on ex vivo cultured cerebellar slices triggered a time-dependent increase of Bcl-2 an...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Pharmacological Manipulation of Trk, p75NTR, and NGF Balance Restores Memory Deficit in Global Ischemia/Reperfusion Model in Rats
AbstractLong-term memory impairment is reported in more than 50% of cardiac arrest survivors. Monosialoganglioside (GM1) provided neuroprotection in experimental models of stroke but failed to replicate its promise clinically for unknown reasons. GM1 stimulates the release of nerve growth factor (NGF), which is synthesized as a precursor protein (pro-NGF) that either mediates apoptosis through the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) or is cleaved by the protease furin (FUR) to yield mature NGF, the latter supporting survival through tropomyosin kinase receptor (Trk). The flavanol epicatechin (EPI) inhibits p75NTR-mediated s...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cascade Signals of Papaverine Inhibiting LPS-Induced Retinal Microglial Activation
AbstractStudies have shown that papaverine can inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation. The retinal primary microglia of newborn SD rats were isolated and purified, and a LPS-induced microglia activation model was established. The protein phosphorylation level of the signaling pathway was detected by western blotting. The transcription and expression of TNF- α, IL-1β, and IL-10 were respectively detected by RT-PCR and ELISA to observe the abnormal activation of primary microglia. The cAMP inhibitor Rp-isomer, PKA inhibitor H89, and MEK inhibitor U0126 were separately added to further inves...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Glucocorticoid Receptor Stimulation Resulting from Early Life Stress Affects Expression of DNA Methyltransferases in Rat Prefrontal Cortex
AbstractEarly life stress initiates long-term neurobiological changes that affect stress resilience and increased susceptibility to psychopathology. Maternal separation (MS) is used to cause early life stress and it induces profound neurochemical and behavioral changes that last until adulthood. The molecular pathways of how MS affects the regulation of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmt) in brain have not been entirely characterized. We evaluated MS effects onDnmt1, Dnmt3a andDnmt3b expression, DNMT enzyme activity and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) recruitment to differentDnmt loci in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of Wistar rats. ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Smad Anchor for Receptor Activation and Phospho-Smad3 Were Upregulated in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
AbstractSmad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) is an important regulator of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling by recruiting Smad2/3 to TGF-β receptors. We recently demonstrated that the expressions of SARA and level of downstream phospho-Smad3 (p-Smad3) were upregulated in the brain in the epileptic rat model, but were never examined in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In t his study, we examined the expressions of SARA and level of p-Smad3 in brain tissues of TLE patients using immunohistochemistry and western blot to demonstrate that SARA activation in neurons is sufficient to f...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Limb Remote Ischemic Preconditioning Reduces Repeated Ketamine Exposure-Induced Adverse Effects in the Developing Brain of Rats
AbstractProlonged or repeated exposure to ketamine, a common anesthetic in pediatrics, has been shown to induce neurotoxicity and long-term neurocognitive deficits in the developing brain. Therefore, identification of potential therapeutic targets for preventing or alleviating such neurodegeneration and neuroapoptosis induced by ketamine is urgently needed. Remote ischemic preconditioning of the limb provides neuroprotection in different models of cerebral injury. Thus, the present study aimed to assess whether remote ischemic preconditioning could have a neuroprotective effect against neurotoxicity induced by ketamine. In...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Angiogenic Gene Profiles in Laser-Microdissected Microvessels and Neurons from Ischemic Penumbra of Rat Brain
AbstractAngiogenesis is induced immediately after cerebral ischemia and plays a pivotal role in the strategy against ischemic injury. We hypothesized that the coordinated interaction between microvessels and neurons was altered immediately after stroke, and microvessels and neurons would show the temporal specificity of angiogenic gene profiles after cerebral ischemia. Microvessels and neurons were harvested in the ischemic penumbra of rat brain using the PixCell II laser capture microdissection (LCM) instrument. After RNA isolation, T7 and gene-specific primer RNA linear amplification were performed, and angiogenic functi...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

PAX3 Promotes Proliferation of Human Glioma Cells by WNT/ β-Catenin Signaling Pathways
AbstractThe PAX3 (paired box 3) gene plays an important role in embryonic development, diseases, and cancer formation. Our preliminary studies have shown that PAX3 gene is upregulated in glioma cells, which is associated with a worse prognosis. Moreover, PAX3, by facilitating cell proliferation and invasion and inhibiting cell apoptosis, plays an oncogenic role in glioma. However, the specific molecular mechanism of PAX3 acting as an oncogene in glioma remains unclarified. In the present study, we have found that PAX3 overexpression was observed in high grade glioma and predicted a worse prognosis. PAX3 overexpression did ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - March 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Ghrelin Promotes Cortical Neurites Growth in Late Stage After Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation/Reperfusion Injury
In this study, we explored the effects of acyl ghrelin on cultured organotypic brain slices and cortical neurons which were injured by oxygen–glucose deprivation/reperfusion(OGD/ R) for 7 days. The underlying molecular mechanisms were deciphered based on label-free proteomic analysis. Acyl ghrelin treatment promoted neurite (axons and dendrites) growth and alleviated the neuronal damage in both cultured brain slices and neurons. Proteomic analysis showed that cell division control protein 42 (Cdc42) mediates the effects of acyl ghrelin on neurite growth. Acyl ghrelin stimulated the expression of Cdc42 and neurit...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Neuroprotective Effect of Histamine H4 Receptor Antagonist on Dopaminergic Neurons in Parkinson ’s Disease
AbstractThis research was aimed to explore the neuroprotective effects of histamine H3 and H4 receptor antagonists on dopaminergic (DA) neurons in Parkinson ’s disease (PD) model rats induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and their mechanism. The changes of the level of monoamine neurotransmitters, the number and morphology of TH-positive cells, and inflammatory factors in the striatum were used to evaluate the protective effects of H3 and H4 receptor antagonists on PD rats. The effects of histamine H4 receptor antagonist on the activation of microglial cell in PD rat and cells of PD model were observed, further expl...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Current and Potential Approaches for Defining Disease Signatures: a Systematic Review
AbstractIdentifying disease signatures in order to facilitate accurate diagnosis/treatment has been the focus of research efforts in the last decade. However, the term “disease signature” has not been properly defined, resulting in inconsistencies between studies, as well as limited ability to fully utilize the tools/information available in the evolving field of healthcare big data. Research was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systema tic Review and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The search (in PubMed, Cochrane, and Web of Science) was limited to English articles published up to 31...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

NF1 Somatic Mutation in Dystrophic Scoliosis
AbstractScoliosis is a common manifestation of neurofibromatosis type 1, causing significant morbidity. The etiology of dystrophic scoliosis in neurofibromatosis type 1 is not fully understood and therapies are lacking. Somatic mutations inNF1 have been shown in tibial pseudarthrosis providing rationale for similar processes in neurofibromatosis type 1 –associated dystrophic scoliosis. Spinal samples from surgical procedures with matched peripheral blood of two individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 and dystrophic scoliosis were obtained and DNA extracted. Next generation sequencing of various spinal sections as w...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Iron Deficiency, Cognitive Functions, and Neurobehavioral Disorders in Children
AbstractMore than 25% of the world ’s population is affected by anemia, of which more than 50% suffers from iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Children below 7 years of age are the population group that is most vulnerable to iron deficiency. Iron is an essential element in brain metabolism. Iron deficiency can cause changes in neurotra nsmitter homeostasis, decrease myelin production, impair synaptogenesis, and decline the function of the basal ganglia. Therefore, IDA adversely affects cognitive functions and psychomotor development. Research has shown that iron deficiency is a frequent comorbidity in attention-defic...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

LATS2 Inhibits Malignant Behaviors of Glioma Cells via Inactivating YAP
AbstractWe previously reported that LATS2, the upstream serine/threonine kinase of Yes-associated protein (YAP), is downregulated in gliomas and exhibits negative correlation with the prognosis of glioma patients. In this work, we aimed to explore the role and mechanism of large tumor suppressor kinase (LATS2) in the progression of malignant gliomas. We found that over-expression of LATS2 inhibited glioma cell proliferation and migration/invasion, while LATS2 downregulation promoted them. Mechanistically, LATS2 promoted the phosphorylation of YAP without affecting YAP mRNA expression. Inconsistent with some previous report...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Expression Profiling of Notch Signalling Pathway and Gamma-Secretase Activity in the Brain of Ts1Cje Mouse Model of Down Syndrome
AbstractNotch signalling pathway is involved in the proliferation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs), to inhibit neuronal cell commitment and to promote glial cell fate. Notch protein is cleaved by gamma-secretase, a multisubunit transmembrane protein complex that releases the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and subsequently activates the downstream targets. Down syndrome (DS) individuals exhibit an increased number of glial cells (particularly astrocytes), and reduced number of neurons suggesting the involvement of Notch signalling pathway in the neurogenic-to-gliogenic shift in DS brain. Ts1Cje is a DS mouse model that ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Curcumin Alleviates β Amyloid-Induced Neurotoxicity in HT22 Cells via Upregulating SOD2
In this study, the HT22 neuronal cells were exposed to Aβ to imitate neuronal injury in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). After 24-h treatment, 10 μM Aβ decreased cell viability and mitochondrial functions, including mitochondrial complex activities and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and also downregulated anti-oxidants SOD2, glutathione (GSH), and catalase (CAT) levels (P 
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Treatment with MQA, a Derivative of Caffeoylquinic Acid, Provides Neuroprotective Effects against Cerebral Ischemia Through Suppression of the p38 Pathway and Oxidative Stress in Rats
In conclusion, we observed MQA was an effective treatment for cerebral ischemic injury in rats. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dietary Energy Restriction Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment in a Mouse Model of Traumatic Brain Injury
AbstractTraumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common causes of neurological damage in young people. It was previously reported that dietary restriction, by either intermittent fasting (IF) or daily caloric restriction (CR), could protect neurons against dysfunction and degeneration in animal models of stroke and Parkinson ’s disease. Recently, several studies have shown that the protein Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) plays a significant role in the induced neuroprotection following dietary restriction. In the present study, we found a significant reduction of SIRT1 levels in the cortex and hippocampus in a mouse model o...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Electroacupuncture Reduced Apoptosis of Hippocampal Neurons in Mice with Cerebral Infarction by Regulating the Notch3 Signaling Pathway
This study is designed to explore the effect of electric acupuncture on the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons through the Notch3 signaling pathway. A middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) mouse model was generated by thread embolization. A Y-maze was used to test cognitive function (learning and memory). The apoptosis factor caspase-3 was identified through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). TTC staining was used to evaluate the cerebral infarction area. Apoptosis of hippocampal neurons was identified by TUNEL staining and flow cytometry. The expression levels of genes and proteins related to the Notch3 signali...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - February 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research