The BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Promotes Changes in the Neuronal Integrity and Alters the Time Perception
AbstractStudies at the molecular level aim to integrate genetic and neurobiological data to provide an increasingly detailed understanding of phenotypes related to the synchronization ability and brain oscillations in time perception. Genetic variation as a modifying factor at cellular and neurochemical levels permeates several neurofunctional aspects in time-lapse duration concentrating from milliseconds to hours. Thus, the review presents theBDNF Val66Met polymorphism association in a dynamic frame of brain neurotrophic factor expression in the adaptation, integrity, and neuronal synchronism processes in the ability to e...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - November 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Association Between IL7R Promoter Polymorphisms and Multiple Sclerosis in Turkish Population
In conclusion, this is the first study to show a significant association between the IL7R promoter polymorphisms and the age of onset of MS. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - November 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Protective Effect of PACAP on Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Kidney Injury of Male and Female Rats: Gender Differences
AbstractPituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide that exerts general cytoprotective effects, including protection in different kidney disorders. The aim of our study was to investigate the ischemia/reperfusion-induced kidney injury of male and female rats to confirm the protective effects of PACAP in the kidney and to reveal possible gender differences.Male and female Wistar rats underwent unilateral renal artery clamping followed by 24-h, 48-h, or 14-day reperfusion. PACAP was administered intravenously before arterial clamping in half of the rats. Tubular damage, cytokine expression pa...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - November 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Role of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases (ERK) in the Regulation of mGlu5 Receptors in Neurons
In this study, we investigated the role of a prime kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1), in the phosphorylation and regulation of mGlu5 receptors in vitro and in striatal neurons. We found that recombinant ERK1 proteins directly bound to the C-terminal tail (CT) of mGlu5 receptors in vitro. Endogenous ERK1 also interacted with mGlu5 receptor proteins in adult rat striatal neurons in vivo. The kinase showed the ability to phosphorylate mGlu5 receptors. A serine residue in the distal region of mGlu5 CT was found to be a primary phosphorylation site sensitive to ERK1. In functional studies, we found that pha...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - November 15, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Biomarker and Drug Target Discovery Using Quantitative Proteomics Post-Intracerebral Hemorrhage Stroke in the Rat Brain
AbstractThe pathological mechanisms of acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remain unknown and unverified. In the present study, we used quantitative proteomics to elucidate the pathological mechanisms and to identify novel biomarker and therapeutic target candidates via tissue proteome in a rat model of acute ICH. Rats were experimentally induced with ICH (n = 6) or Sham (n = 6), and their brain tissue was obtained by 24 h. The TMT-LC–MS/MS-based proteomics approach was used to quantify the differential proteomes across brain tissue, and the results were further analyzed by ingenuity...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - November 14, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Ischemic Conditions Affect Rerouting of Tau Protein Levels: Evidences for Alteration in Tau Processing and Secretion in Hippocampal Neurons
AbstractThe spreading of misfolded protein species contributes to the propagation of harmful mediators in proteinopathies, including Alzheimer ’s disease (AD). Cellular stress circumstances, such as abnormal protein accumulation or nutrient deprivation, elicit the secretion of soluble misprocessed proteins and insoluble aggregates via multiple mechanisms of unconventional secretion. One of them consists in the rerouting of autophagic vac uoles towards exocytosis, an unconventional type of autophagy mediated by caspase-3 activation under starvation. Ischemic injury is a starvation condition characterized by oxygen/nut...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - November 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Role of MicroRNAs in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
AbstractAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a serious neurodegenerative disease that affects motor neurons and leads to death within 2 to 3  years after the first symptoms manifest. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression in fundamental cellular processes and, post-transcriptionally, the translation levels of target mRNA transcripts. We searched PubMed for studies that examined miRNAs in ALS patients and attempted to group the results in order to find the strongest miRNA candidate for servings as an ALS biomarker. The studies on humans so far have been diverse, yielding c...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - November 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Spatiotemporal Expression Changes of PACAP and Its Receptors in Retinal Ganglion Cells After Optic Nerve Crush
In this study, a significant upregulation of PACAP and PAC1R in the retina after ONC was observed in both protein and RNA levels. The peak level of PACAP and PAC1R expression could be found on the fifth day following ONC. In addition, immunofluorescent labeling indicated that PACAP and PAC1R were localized mainly in RGCs. On the contrary, VPAC1R and VPAC2R were hardly detected in the retina. Collectively, the spatiotemporal expression of PACAP and its high-affinity receptor PAC1R were remarkably changed after ONC, and mainly expressed in the ganglion cell layer of the retina. This suggested that the upregulation of PACAP a...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - November 10, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Alleviates Expression of A β 1–40 and α-, β-, and γ-Secretases in the Cortex and Hippocampus of APP/PS1 Double Transgenic Mice
AbstractTo examine the effect of subcutaneous injection of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) on the expression of the amyloid protein (A β1 –40), α-secretase (ADAM10), β-secretase (BACE1), and γ-secretase (PS1) in APP/PS1 double transgenic mice. APP/PS1 double transgenic mice and wild-type mice were divided into wild-type group, wild-type therapy group, transgenome group, and transgenic therapy group. Subcutaneous injection of IGF-1 (50 μ g/kg day) was administered once daily to the wild-type therapy group and transgenic therapy group for 8 weeks, respectively. The expressio...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - November 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

NLRP1 and NTN1 , Deregulated Blood Differentially Methylated Regions in Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients
AbstractEpigenetic dysregulation has been known to be involved in neurodegenerative diseases, including amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The aim of this study was to investigate the genome-wide DNA methylation analysis, in order to identify epigenetic dysregulation in blood from patients with MCI. Here, we investigated whether epigenetic dysregulation in MCI and whether such an aberration could be detected in blood circulation. Genome-wide bisulfite sequencing targeted 84 million bases covering 3.7 million CpG sites was comparatively analyzed in MCI and control groups. And correlation between DNA methylation and t...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - November 5, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for RT-PCR Expression Analysis of Candidate Genes Involved in Morphine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference Mice
The objective of this study is to find out a set of optimal reference genes to standardize the gene expression of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) mice. During the process, eight reference genes were chosen. Then, the stability of their expression in two different brain tissues (Caudate Putamen and Hippocampus) was tested in two developmental stages (puberty and adult) under two treatments (physiological saline as control and morphine). Based on two algorithm-based methods (geNorm and NormFinder), which can rank and assess the stability of expression of eight reference genes, thereby quantifying the tran...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - November 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Intracerebroventricular A β-Induced Neuroinflammation Alters Peripheral Immune Responses in Rats
AbstractAn important marker in Alzheimer disease (AD) is the abnormal production and accumulation of β-amyloid peptide (Aß) in brain. It produces oxidative damage in neurons and inflammation due to its neurotoxic properties. The present study was designed to investigate neuroinflammation (hippocampal levels of ROS, nitrite, TNF-α, and IL-1β), neurodegeneration (plaques and chromatolysis in hi ppocampus), and memory impairments (working memory and reference memory) and the effect of this neuroinflammation on some peripheral immunological parameters such as phagocytic activity of blood WBC and...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 31, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Preventive Effect of Two New Neurotensin Analogues on Parkinson ’s Disease Rat Model
In conclusion, the NT approach represents an attractive strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 30, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Correction to: PACAP/PAC1 Regulation of Inflammation via Catecholaminergic Neurons in a Model of Multiple Sclerosis
The original version of this article unfortunately contained mistakes. The captured article title and corresponding author were incorrect. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Diagnostic and Severity-Tracking Biomarkers for Autism Spectrum Disorder
AbstractAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder afflicting about one in every 68 children. It is behaviorally diagnosed based on a triad of symptoms, including impairment in communication, impairment in sociability and abnormal and stereotypic behavior. The subjectivity of behavioral diagnosis urges the need for clinical biomarker tests to improve and complement ASD diagnosis and treatment. Over the past two decades, researchers garnered a broad range of biomarkers associated with ASD and often correlating with the severity of ASD, which includes metabolic and genetic biomarkers or neuroimaging abno...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Immune Cells After Ischemic Stroke Onset: Roles, Migration, and Target Intervention
AbstractIschemic stroke is one of the leading health issues and the major cause of permanent disability in adults worldwide. Energy depletion and hypoxia occurring after ischemic stroke result in cell death, which activates resident glia cells and promotes the peripheral immune cells breaching into brain performing various functions even contradictory effects. The infiltration of immune cells may mediate neuron apoptosis and escalate ischemic damage, while it enhances neuron repair, differentiation, and neuroregeneration. The central nervous system (CNS) is immune-privileged site as it is separated from the peripheral immu...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tau Protein Squired by Molecular Chaperones During Alzheimer ’s Disease
AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive neuronal loss, caused by misfolding and accumulation of tau and Amyloid β-42. Cellular mechanisms involving phosphatases, chaperones, ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and aggresomes solubilize or remove these toxic aggr egates. Chaperones such as Hsp70 and Hsp90 functions in folding tau to its native form or in the downstream degrade and eliminated tau from the cell. Chaperones are involved in lysosomal degradation of tau by a process called chaperone mediated autophagy (CMA). In pathological conditions, chaperones fa...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Association of MicroRNAs with the Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Ependymoma
In conclusion, molecular alterations in ependymoma involve miRNAs. In our report, we review the level of evidence for the biomarker candidacy of identified miRNAs. Confirmatory studies are necessary to establish robust biomarkers for the clinical management of ependymoma. Proteins regulated by differentially expressed miRNAs are additional candidate biomarkers and may offer targets for novel therapeutic interventions. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

MiR-29a-Mediated CD133 Expression Contributes to Cisplatin Resistance in CD133 + Glioblastoma Stem Cells
In this study, we further explored the mechanism underlying CD133-mediated cisplatin resistance in glioblastoma stem cells. We sorted human glioblastoma T98G and U87MG cells into CD133+ and CD133− pools and measured apoptosis and CD133 expression levels in response to cisplatin treatment. We predicted candidate microRNAs that might target CD133 and assessed their levels in cisplatin-treated CD133+ cells. Finally, we overexpressed miR-29a in CD133+ cells and tested its effects in cisplatin-mediated apoptosis and survival of CD133+ tumor bearing mice receiving cisplatin treatment. We found that CD133+ glioblastoma stem...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Interleukin 6 (IL-6) Gene Are Associated with Suicide Behavior in an Iranian Population
AbstractPrevious association studies have demonstrated the association between immune regulatory genes and suicide behavior. Among these genes are those coding for cytokines. In the present study, we genotyped two interleukin 6 (IL-6) variants (rs2069845 and rs1800795) in 320 suicide attempters, 236 suicide completers, and 341 individuals without any history of psychiatric disorders or suicide ideation. The rs2069845 was not associated with suicide behavior. The rs1800795 C allele was significantly more common among suicide completers compared with suicide attempters (OR (95% CI)  = 1.33 (1.04–1.71)), a...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Increased Oxidative Stress as a Risk Factor in Chronic Idiopathic Axonal Polyneuropathy
AbstractChronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP) is a disorder with insidious onset and slow progression, where no etiology is identified despite appropriate investigations. We aimed to investigate the role of oxidative stress as a risk factor for the pathogenesis of CIAP. Sera of patients with CIAP were tested for protein carbonyl (PC) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8H). As a control group, we recruited patients with gluten neuropathy. Twenty-one patients with CIAP and 21 controls were recruited. The two groups did not differ significantly regarding demographics or clinical characteristics (i.e., neuropathy type or d...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Euxanthone Attenuates A β 1–42 -Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis by Triggering Autophagy
In conclusion, euxanthone exerts its neuroprotective effect against A β1-42 by inducing autophagy, indicating its potential therapeutic role in AD. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Relative Telomere Length and Stroke Risk in a Chinese Han Population
This study aimed to further understand the role of relative telomere length (RTL) in susceptibility to stroke and investigate the association regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1 (RETL1) gene polymorphisms and RTL. RTL was measured using the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) from 300 stroke patients and 299 healthy controls. Genotyping was performed using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. The results indicated that stroke patients had significantly shorter median RTL than controls (P 
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Antioxidant and Anti-Apoptotic Activity of Octadecaneuropeptide Against 6-OHDA Toxicity in Cultured Rat Astrocytes
AbstractOxidative stress, associated with various neurodegenerative diseases, promotes ROS generation, impairs cellular antioxidant defenses, and finally, triggers both neurons and astroglial cell death by apoptosis. Astrocytes specifically synthesize and release endozepines, a family of regulatory peptides, including the octadecaneuropeptide (ODN). We have previously reported that ODN acts as a potent neuroprotective agent that prevents 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic neuronal death. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential glioprotective effect of ODN on 6-OHDA-induced oxidative stress and cell death in...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Altered S100 Calcium-Binding Protein B and Matrix Metallopeptidase 9 as Biomarkers of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Hippocampus Sclerosis
AbstractMesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most common form of partial epilepsy. The aim of the present study is to highlight possible and suitable biomarkers that can help in the diagnosis and prognosis of this intractable form of epilepsy. The study was carried out on 30 epileptic patients of both sexes with complex partial seizures, having an age ranging from 4 to 30  years and were selected from the outpatient epilepsy clinic at the Kasr El-Aini Hospital in Cairo, Egypt. Thirty healthy children and young adults, age- and sex-matched to the patients, were included...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Translocation Associated Membrane Protein 1 Contributes to Chronic Constriction Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain in the Dorsal Root Ganglion and Spinal Cord in Rats
AbstractNeuropathic pain is a severe debilitating state caused by injury or dysfunction of somatosensory nervous system, and the clinical treatment is still challenging. Translocation associated membrane protein 1 (TRAM1), an adapter protein, participates in a variety of transduction pathways and mediates the biological functions such as cell proliferation, activation, and differentiation. However, whether TRAM1 is involved in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain is still unclear. In our study, we reported the role of TRAM1 in the maintenance of neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) on rats. By west...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Different Pain States of Trigeminal Neuralgia Make Significant Changes in the Plasma Proteome and Some Biochemical Parameters: a Preliminary Cohort Study
AbstractTrigeminal neuralgia (TN) with chronic and severe neuropathic pain leads to remarkable interference in daily living activities of patients. Unknown molecular mechanisms involved in TN pathophysiology are a challenge for complete treatment of the disease. The present study was conducted to investigate changes in the plasma proteome beside biochemical parameters, including calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), nitric oxide (NO), amino acids, and vitamin D (Vit D) in different pain states in TN patients. Plasma samples were obtained from the control group (#13) and patients with purely paroxysmal type of classical T...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Expression of Hypoxia-Induced Gene 1 (Higd1a) in the Central Nervous System of Male and Female Rats Differs According to Age
AbstractHIGD1A (hypoxia-induced gene domain protein-1a), a mitochondrial inner membrane protein present in various cell types, has been mainly associated with anti-apoptotic processes in response to stressors. Our previous findings have shown that Higd1a mRNA is widely expressed across the central nervous system (CNS), exhibiting an increasing expression in the spinal cord from postnatal day 1 (P1) to 15 (P15) and changes in the distribution pattern from P1 to P90. During the first weeks of postnatal life, the great plasticity of the CNS is accompanied by cell death/survival decisions. So we first describe HIGD1A expressio...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Serum Oxidative Stress Marker Levels in Unmedicated and Medicated Patients with Schizophrenia
AbstractOxidative stress has been suggested to be involved in schizophrenia, but studies have demonstrated inconsistent results on oxidative stress marker level/activity in patients with schizophrenia. In order to clarify the circulating oxidative stress marker level/activity in patients with schizophrenia, this study recruited 80 schizophrenia patients (40 first-episode, drug-free and 40 chronically medicated patients) and 80 controls to analyze serum activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and levels of lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde (M...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Knockdown of miR-372 Inhibits Nerve Cell Apoptosis Induced by Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury via Enhancing Autophagy by Up-regulating Beclin-1
AbstractTo investigate the role of miR-372/Beclin-1 on nerve cell apoptosis induced by spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury (SCII). We established in vivo and in vitro SCII model. MiR-372 and Beclin-1 expressions in spinal cord tissues of SCII rats and SCII nerve cells were measured. The cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. MiR-372 inhibitor was used to reduce miR-372 expression. Dual luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm the interaction between miR-372 and Beclin-1. MiR-372 expression in spinal cord tissues of SCII rats and SCII nerve cells was increased, while Beclin-1 expression was decreased. Knock...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Molecular Mechanisms Mediating Diabetic Retinal Neurodegeneration: Potential Research Avenues and Therapeutic Targets
AbstractDiabetic retinopathy (DR) is a devastating complication of diabetes with a prevalence rate of 35%, and no effective treatment options. Since the most visible clinical features of DR are microvascular irregularities, therapeutic interventions often attempt to reduce microvascular injury, but only after permanent retinal damage has ensued. However, recent data suggests that diabetes initially affects retinal neurons, leading to neurodegeneration as an early occurrence in DR, before onset of the more noticeable vascular abnormalities. In this review, we delineate the sequence of initiating events leading to retinal de...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Independent and Combined Effects of Omega-3 and Vitamin B12 in Ameliorating Propionic Acid Induced Biochemical Features in Juvenile Rats as Rodent Model of Autism
AbstractMetabolites of proper fatty acids modulate the inflammatory response and are essential for normal brain development; equally, abnormal fatty acid metabolism plays a critical role in the pathology of autism. Currently, dietary supplements are often used to improve the core symptoms of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study analyzed the effects of orally supplemented omega-3 ( ω-3) and vitamin B12 on ameliorating oxidative stress and impaired lipid metabolism in a propionic acid (PPA)-induced rodent model of autism, together with their effect on the gut microbial composition, where great fluctuations...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Association of CILP , COL9A2 and MMP3 Gene Polymorphisms with Lumbar Disc Degeneration in an Indian Population
In this study, we analyzed the role of a few important single nucleotide polymorphisms in cartilage intermediate layer protein (CILP), collagen 9A2 (COL9A2) and matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) genes in LDD from an Indian population. Two hundred patients with LDD and 200 healthy controls were recruited for the study. Genotyping was performed by allelic discrimination assay. The rs2073711 polymorphism (CILP gene - GG genotype) was associated with reduced risk of LDD in the Indian population (OR  = 0.43,p = 0.016). The rs591058 polymorphism (MMP3 gene - TT genotype) is found to be associated with...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Independent and Combined Effects of Omega-3 and Vitamin B12 in Ameliorating Propionic Acid Induced Biochemical Features in Juvenile Rats as Rodent Model of Autism
AbstractMetabolites of proper fatty acids modulate the inflammatory response and are essential for normal brain development; equally, abnormal fatty acid metabolism plays a critical role in the pathology of autism. Currently, dietary supplements are often used to improve the core symptoms of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study analyzed the effects of orally supplemented omega-3 ( ω-3) and vitamin B12 on ameliorating oxidative stress and impaired lipid metabolism in a propionic acid (PPA)-induced rodent model of autism, together with their effect on the gut microbial composition, where great fluctuations...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Association of CILP , COL9A2 and MMP3 Gene Polymorphisms with Lumbar Disc Degeneration in an Indian Population
In this study, we analyzed the role of a few important single nucleotide polymorphisms in cartilage intermediate layer protein (CILP), collagen 9A2 (COL9A2) and matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) genes in LDD from an Indian population. Two hundred patients with LDD and 200 healthy controls were recruited for the study. Genotyping was performed by allelic discrimination assay. The rs2073711 polymorphism (CILP gene - GG genotype) was associated with reduced risk of LDD in the Indian population (OR  = 0.43,p = 0.016). The rs591058 polymorphism (MMP3 gene - TT genotype) is found to be associated with...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Leptin Signaling in the Control of Metabolism and Appetite: Lessons from Animal Models
AbstractObesity has become a major health concern in modern times, as it significantly increases the risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and some types of cancer. The obesity epidemic has brought considerable attention to the molecular mechanisms through which adipocyte-secreted adipokines regulate physiological processes involved in metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Among them, leptin is considered as one of the principal regulators of a variety of physiological processes, including appetite and energy metabolism, through its binding to a variety of receptors and in particular...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Quinolinic Acid-Induced Huntington Disease-Like Symptoms Mitigated by Potent Free Radical Scavenger Edaravone —a Pilot Study on Neurobehavioral, Biochemical, and Histological Approach in Male Wistar Rats
In this study, we demonstrated for the first time the neuroprotective role of edaravone (Eda) (5 and 10  mg/kg b.w.), a potent free radical scavenger against the unilateral stereotaxic induction of quinolinic acid (QA) (300 nm/4 μl saline)-induced Huntington disease (HD)-like symptoms in behavioral, biochemical, and histological features in male Wistar rats striatum. QA induction, which mimics the early stage of HD, commonly causes oxidative stress to the cell and decreases the antioxidant defense mechanism by altering the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyls, and nitrate concentration (NO...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Role of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles in a Paraquat-Induced Model of Oxidative Stress: Emergence of Neuroprotective Results in the Brain
AbstractParaquat (PQ), as a widely used herbicide, enhances the formation of free radicals and oxidative stress. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs) are one of the most utilized and effective nanoparticles having strong antioxidative properties and inhibiting free radicals. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of CeNPs on brain oxidative toxic stress injury induced with PQ. The male rats were treated intraperitoneally daily with PQ (50  mg/kg/day) and CeNPs (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg/day) alone or in combination for 2 weeks. After treatments, the brain tissue samples were collected. Oxidative toxic stress bio...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

OIP5 Expression Sensitize Glioblastoma Cells to Lomustine Treatment
In conclusion, our data shows that OIP5 expression in GBM cells seems to be able to enhance lomustine cytotoxic effects, reinforcing that this gene is a potential therapeutic target and putative molecular biomarker for treatment response in GBM. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Leptin Signaling in the Control of Metabolism and Appetite: Lessons from Animal Models
AbstractObesity has become a major health concern in modern times, as it significantly increases the risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and some types of cancer. The obesity epidemic has brought considerable attention to the molecular mechanisms through which adipocyte-secreted adipokines regulate physiological processes involved in metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Among them, leptin is considered as one of the principal regulators of a variety of physiological processes, including appetite and energy metabolism, through its binding to a variety of receptors and in particular...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Quinolinic Acid-Induced Huntington Disease-Like Symptoms Mitigated by Potent Free Radical Scavenger Edaravone —a Pilot Study on Neurobehavioral, Biochemical, and Histological Approach in Male Wistar Rats
In this study, we demonstrated for the first time the neuroprotective role of edaravone (Eda) (5 and 10  mg/kg b.w.), a potent free radical scavenger against the unilateral stereotaxic induction of quinolinic acid (QA) (300 nm/4 μl saline)-induced Huntington disease (HD)-like symptoms in behavioral, biochemical, and histological features in male Wistar rats striatum. QA induction, which mimics the early stage of HD, commonly causes oxidative stress to the cell and decreases the antioxidant defense mechanism by altering the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyls, and nitrate concentration (NO...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Role of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles in a Paraquat-Induced Model of Oxidative Stress: Emergence of Neuroprotective Results in the Brain
AbstractParaquat (PQ), as a widely used herbicide, enhances the formation of free radicals and oxidative stress. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs) are one of the most utilized and effective nanoparticles having strong antioxidative properties and inhibiting free radicals. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of CeNPs on brain oxidative toxic stress injury induced with PQ. The male rats were treated intraperitoneally daily with PQ (50  mg/kg/day) and CeNPs (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg/day) alone or in combination for 2 weeks. After treatments, the brain tissue samples were collected. Oxidative toxic stress bio...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

OIP5 Expression Sensitize Glioblastoma Cells to Lomustine Treatment
In conclusion, our data shows that OIP5 expression in GBM cells seems to be able to enhance lomustine cytotoxic effects, reinforcing that this gene is a potential therapeutic target and putative molecular biomarker for treatment response in GBM. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dexmedetomidine Relieves Acute Inflammatory Visceral Pain in Rats through the ERK Pathway, Toll-Like Receptor Signaling, and TRPV1 Channel
In this study, we aimed to characterize the antinociceptive effects of DEX in acute inflammatory visceral pain (AIVP) induced by acetic acid in rats and to evaluate whether antinociception was regulated by the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathw ay, Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, and transient receptor potential (TRP) channel. Acetic acid was administered to 30 male rats with or without DEX. Rats were divided into six groups, as follows: control, disease (received no treatment before acetic acid administration), vehicle-treated, low-do se DEX (lDEX), medium-dose DEX (mDEX), and high-dose DEX (hDE...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

HIF-1 α/Beclin1-Mediated Autophagy Is Involved in Neuroprotection Induced by Hypoxic Preconditioning
AbstractHypoxic preconditioning (HPC) exerts a protective effect against hypoxic/ischemic brain injury, and one mechanism explaining this effect may involve the upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). Autophagy, an endogenous protective mechanism against hypoxic/ischemic injury, is correlated with the activation of the HIF-1 α/Beclin1 signaling pathway. Based on previous studies, we hypothesize that the protective role of HPC may involve autophagy occurring via activation of the HIF-1α/Beclin1 signaling pathway. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of HPC on oxygen-glucose deprivation/r...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Ferroptosis, a Recent Defined Form of Critical Cell Death in Neurological Disorders
AbstractFerroptosis is a recently defined form of cell death with the involvement of iron and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is distinct from apoptosis, autophagy and other forms of cell death. Emerging evidence suggested that iron accumulation and lipid peroxidation can be discovered in various neurological diseases, accompanied with reduction of glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4). In addition, ferroptotic inhibitors have been shown to protect neurons, and recover the cognitive function in disease animal models. This review summarizes the mechanisms underlying ferroptosis and reviews the contribut...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Potential of Extracellular Vesicles in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Indications
AbstractExtracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-bound vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles. EVs are nanometer sized, found in physiological fluids such as urine, blood, cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), with a capacity of transferring various biological materials such as microRNAs, proteins, and lipids among cells without direct cell-to-cell contact. Many cells in the nervous system have been shown to release EVs. These vesicles are involved in intercellular communication and a variety of biological processes such as modulation of immune response, signal transduction, and transport of genetic materials with low immun...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

PAXX Participates in Base Excision Repair via Interacting with Pol β and Contributes to TMZ Resistance in Glioma Cells
In conclusion, the PAXX contributes to a variety of DNA repair pathways and TMZ resistance. Therefore, inhibition of PAXX may provide a promising way to overcome TMZ resistance and improve TMZ therapeutic effects in glioma treatment. (Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience)
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Co-Administration of Progesterone and Melatonin Attenuates Ischemia-Induced Hippocampal Damage in Rats
AbstractStroke is the second leading reason for death worldwide and is one of the fundamental causes of long-term disabilities. The aim of this investigation was to assess the impact of combined administration progesterone (PROG) and melatonin (MEL) on stroke complications. Male Wistar rats (9 –10 weeks) weighing 250–300 g were used as a part of this examination. They were randomly separated into eight groups (nine rats for every group). Common carotid arteries on the two sides clamped (BCCAO model) with non-traumatic clips for 20 min. At that point, the rats were treated with 8 m g/kg PROG,...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - October 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research