Donor Conception Disclosure: Directive or Non-Directive Counselling?
Abstract It is widely agreed among health professionals that couples using donor insemination should be offered counselling on the topic of donor conception disclosure. However, it is clear from the literature that there has long been a lack of agreement about which counselling approach should be used in this case: a directive or a non-directive approach. In this paper we investigate which approach is ethically justifiable by balancing the two underlying principles of autonomy (non-directive approach) and beneficence (directive approach). To overrule one principle in favour of another, six conditions should be ful...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - April 26, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Treating Addictions: Harm Reduction in Clinical Care and Prevention
Abstract This paper examines the role of clinical practitioners and clinical researchers internationally in establishing the utility of harm-reduction approaches to substance use. It thus illustrates the potential for clinicians to play a pivotal role in health promoting structural interventions based on harm-reduction goals and public health models. Popular media images of drug use as uniformly damaging, and abstinence as the only acceptable goal of treatment, threaten to distort clinical care away from a basis in evidence, which shows that some ways of using drugs are far more harmful than others and that puniti...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - April 26, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Erratum to: AIDS Panic in the Twenty-First Century: The Tenuous Legal Status of HIV-Positive Persons in America
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - April 12, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Legal Standards for Brain Death and Undue Influence in Euthanasia Laws
Abstract A major appellate court decision from the United States seriously questions the legal sufficiency of prevailing medical criteria for the determination of death by neurological criteria. There may be a mismatch between legal and medical standards for brain death, requiring the amendment of either or both. In South Australia, a Bill seeks to establish a legal right for a defined category of persons suffering unbearably to request voluntary euthanasia. However, an essential criterion of a voluntary decision is that it is not tainted by undue influence, and this Bill falls short of providing adequate guidance...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - April 5, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

On Immunity: An Inoculation
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - April 5, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Hard to Believe
This article presents a review of Hard to Believe, a compelling documentary reporting the forced organ procurement and death of Chinese prisoners of conscience. The documentary is targeted to ignite political and public pressure to stop these practices that are thought to be motivated by financial and political gain. Narrated by journalist and author Ethan Gutmann, the documentary pricks at the collective conscience, as credible witnesses provide evidence that point to an abrogation of every ethical principle ascribed to legitimate organ procurement. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 30, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Preventing Torture in Nepal: A Public Health and Human Rights Intervention
Abstract In this article we address torture in military and police organizations as a public health and human rights challenge that needs to be addressed through multiple levels of intervention. While most mental health approaches focus on treating the harmful effects of such violence on individuals and communities, the goal of the project described here was to develop a primary prevention strategy at the institutional level to prevent torture from occurring in the first place. Such an approach requires understanding and altering the conditions that cause and sustain “atrocity producing situations” (Li...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 29, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Medicine for the City: Perspective and Solidarity as Tools for Making Urban Health
Abstract The United States has pursued policies of urban upheaval that have undermined social organization, dispersed people, particularly African Americans, and increased rates of disease and disorder. Healthcare institutions have been, and can be, a part of this problem or a part of the solution. This essay addresses two tools that healthcare providers can use to repair the urban ecosystem—perspective and solidarity. Perspective addresses both our ability to envision solutions and our ability to see in the space in which we move. Solidarity is our ability to appreciate our fellowship with other people, a m...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 29, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Fundamental Interventions: How Clinicians Can Address the Fundamental Causes of Disease
Abstract In order to enhance the “structural competency” of medicine—the capability of clinicians to address social and institutional determinants of their patients’ health—physicians need a theoretical lens to see how social conditions influence health and how they might address them. We consider one such theoretical lens, fundamental cause theory, and propose how it might contribute to a more structurally competent medical profession. We first describe fundamental cause theory and how it makes the social causes of disease and health visible. We then outline the sorts of “funda...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 29, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Power Day: Addressing the Use and Abuse of Power in Medical Training
Abstract Problem: Medical student mistreatment, as well as patient and staff mistreatment by all levels of medical trainees and faculty, is still prevalent in U.S. clinical training. Largely missing in interventions to reduce mistreatment is acknowledgement of the abuse of power produced by the hierarchical structure in which medicine is practiced. Approach: Beginning in 2001, Yale School of Medicine has held annual “Power Day” workshops for third year medical students and advanced practice nursing students, to define and analyse power dynamics within the medical hierarchy and hidden curriculum using l...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 15, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

“Born Like This / Into This”: Tuberculosis, Justice, and Futuristic Dinosaurs
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 10, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

For the New, the Former, and All Those Continuing On: We Offer Our Thanks
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 3, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Re-Examining the Origin and Application of Determination of Death by Neurological Criteria (DDNC)
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 2, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Ethical Imperative to Move to a Seven-Day Care Model
Abstract Whilst the nature of human illness is not determined by time of day or day of week, we currently structure health service delivery around a five-day delivery model. At least one country is endeavouring to develop a systems-based approach to planning a transition from five- to seven-day healthcare delivery models, and some services are independently instituting program reorganization to achieve these ends as research, amongst other things, highlights increased mortality and morbidity for weekend and after-hours admissions to hospitals. In this article, we argue that this issue does not merely raise instrum...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - February 16, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Extension of Belgium’s Euthanasia Law to Include Competent Minors
Abstract Following considerable debate, the practice of euthanasia was legalized in Belgium in 2002, thereby making Belgium one of the few places in the world where this practice is legal. In 2014 the law was amended for the first time. The 2014 amendment makes euthanasia legally possible for all minors who repeatedly and voluntarily request euthanasia and who are judged to possess “capacity of discernment” (regardless of their biological age), as well as fulfil a number of other criteria of due care. This extension of the 2002 euthanasia law generated a lot of national and international debate and has...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - February 3, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

MDR-TB, Isolation, and Anomie: Has Anyone Referred to Social Work?
Abstract MDR-TB and admission to isolation can induce a situation in which individuals are normless, unable to achieve the social goals that they have learned to pursue. Described as anomie, this situation can induce deviant behaviour. Addressing the psychosocial ethics of MDR-TB and isolation, this paper responds to the call for consideration of resource allocation and liberty. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - February 3, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Beyond Biomedicine: Relationships and Care in Tuberculosis Prevention
Abstract With attention to the experiences, agency, and rights of tuberculosis (TB) patients, this symposium on TB and ethics brings together a range of different voices from the social sciences and humanities. To develop fresh insights and new approaches to TB care and prevention, it is important to incorporate diverse perspectives from outside the strictly biomedical model. In the articles presented in this issue of the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, clinical experience is married with historical and cultural context, ethical concerns are brought to bear on global health, and structural analyses shed light upon ...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - February 2, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

What Do the Various Principles of Justice Mean Within the Concept of Benefit Sharing?
This article evaluates one of such ethical justifications and its meaning to benefit sharing, namely justice. We conducted a systematic review to map the various principles of justice that are linked to benefit sharing and analysed their meaning to the concept of benefit sharing. Five principles of justice (commutative, distributive, global, procedural, and compensatory) have been shown to be relevant in the nuances of benefit sharing in both global health research and bioprospecting. The review findings indicate that each of these principles of justice provides a different perspective for a different benefit sharing ratio...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 29, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Feeling Is Believing: Evaluative Conditioning and the Ethics of Pharmaceutical Advertising
Abstract A central goal in regulating direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription pharmaceuticals (DTCA) is to ensure that explicit drug claims are truthful. Yet imagery can also alter viewer attitudes, and the degree to which this occurs in DTCA is uncertain. Addressing this data gap, we provide evidence that positive feelings produced by images can promote favourable beliefs about pharmaceuticals. We had participants view a fictitious anti-influenza drug paired with unrelated images that elicited either positive, neutral or negative feelings. Participants who viewed positive images rated the influenza drug as...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 27, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Defining Ourselves: Personal Bioinformation as a Tool of Narrative Self-Conception
This article characterizes one particular aspect of personal utility: that derived from the role of personal bioinformation in identity construction. The suggestion that some kinds of information are relevant to identity is not in itself new. However, the account outlined here seeks to advance the debate by proposing a conception of the relationship between bioinformation and identity that does not depend on essentialist assumptions and applies beyond the narrow genetic contexts in which identity is customarily invoked. The proposal is that the identity-value of personal bioinformation may be understood in terms of its ins...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 22, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Reciprocity and Ethical Tuberculosis Treatment and Control
Abstract This paper explores the notion of reciprocity in the context of active pulmonary and laryngeal tuberculosis (TB) treatment and related control policies and practices. We seek to do three things: First, we sketch the background to contemporary global TB care and suggest that poverty is a key feature when considering the treatment of TB patients. We use two examples from TB care to explore the role of reciprocity: isolation and the use of novel TB drugs. Second, we explore alternative means of justifying the use of reciprocity through appeal to different moral and political theoretical traditions (i.e., vir...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 21, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

“But You Would Be the Best Mother”: Unwomen, Counterstories, and the Motherhood Mandate
Abstract This paper addresses and challenges the pronatalist marginalization and oppression of voluntarily childless women in the Global North. These conditions call for philosophical analyses and for sociopolitical responses that would make possible the necessary moral spaces for resistance. Focusing on the relatively privileged subgroups of women who are the targets of pronatalist campaigns, the paper explores the reasons behind their choices, the nature and methods of Western pronatalism, and distinguishes three specific sources of some of the more lasting, and stigmatizing attacks: popular culture, law and pol...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 21, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Do Spanish Hospital Professionals Educate Their Patients About Advance Directives?
The objective of this research was to determine the frequency of hospital-based physicians’ and nurses’ engagement in AD discussions in the hospital and which patient populations merit such efforts. A short question-and-answer-based survey of physicians and nurses taking care of inpatients was conducted at a university hospital in Madrid, Spain. In total, 283 surveys were collected from medical professionals, of whom 71 per cent were female, with an average age of thirty-four years. Eighty-four per cent had never educated patients about ADs because of lack of perceived responsibility, time, or general knowledge...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 21, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Medical Students’ Opinions About the Commercialization of Healthcare: A Cross-Sectional Survey
This study suggests that agreement with the assertions of commercialized healthcare might be prevalent among students at a considerable level. We argue that this level of agreement is not compatible with best practice in professional ethics and indicates the need for an educational intervention in order to have physicians who give priority to patients’ best interests in the face of market demands. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 18, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Assaults by Mentally Disordered Offenders in Prison: Equity and Equivalence
We describe the ethical framework and practical management of MDOs in England and Wales in the context of the move to equivalence of healthcare between hospital and prison. We consider the similarities and differences between prison and hospital management of the violent and challenging behaviours of MDOs. We argue that both types of institution can learn from each other and that equivalence of care should extend to equivalence of criminal proceedings in court and prisons for MDOs. We argue that any adjudication process in prison for MDOs is enhanced by the relevant involvement of mental health professionals and the articu...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 16, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Trojan Citation and the “Accidental” Plagiarist
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 16, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Effective Therapeutic Relationships Using Psychodynamic Psychotherapy in the Face of Trauma
Abstract The case of Xiang as described by Jane Carroll is indeed disconcerting well beyond the immediately apparent factors contained within the article. While Xiang’s direct medical expenses are excessive and his inability to pay for those expenses and further support his noncustodial family seem to be the main issues up for debate, Xiang, however, is likely going to need much more psychosocial support if he is to regain his previous independent functionality or retain any aspect of a quality of life whilst continuing his indefinitely isolated treatment. In this response, I briefly outline the probable eff...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 15, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Roman Catholic Church and the Repugnant Conclusion
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 15, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

From Exceptional to Liminal Subjects: Reconciling Tensions in the Politics of Tuberculosis and Migration
Abstract Controlling the movement of potentially infectious bodies has been central to Australian immigration law. Nowhere is this more evident than in relation to tuberculosis (TB), which is named as a ground for refusal of a visa in the Australian context. In this paper, I critically examine the “will to knowledge” that this gives rise to. Drawing on a critical analysis of texts, including interviews with migrants diagnosed with TB and healthcare professionals engaged in their care (n=19), I argue that this focus on border policing, rather than resettlement and the broader social determinants of heal...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 12, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Negotiating “The Social” and Managing Tuberculosis in Georgia
Abstract In this paper I utilize anthropological insights to illuminate how health professionals and patients navigate and negotiate what for them is social about tuberculosis in order to improve treatment outcomes and support patients as human beings. I draw on ethnographic research about the implementation of the DOTS (Directly Observed Therapy, Short Course) approach in Georgia’s National Tuberculosis Program in the wake of the Soviet healthcare system. Georgia is a particularly unique context for exploring these issues given the country’s rich history of medical professionalism and the insistence t...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 6, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

On TB Vaccines, Patients’ Demands, and Modern Printed Media in Times of Biomedical Uncertainties: Buenos Aires, 1920–1950
Abstract Reconstructing some of the experiences of people living with tuberculosis in Argentina in the first half of the twentieth century, as reflected not only in written and oral accounts but also in individual and collective actions, this article explores the ways in which patients came to grips with medical expertise in times of biomedical uncertainty. These negotiations, which inevitably included adaptations as well as confrontations, highlight a much less passive and submissive patient–physician relationship than is often assumed. Though patients were certainly subordinate to medical doctors’ kn...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 6, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Guidelines for Teaching Cross-Cultural Clinical Ethics: Critiquing Ideology and Confronting Power in the Service of a Principles-Based Pedagogy
Abstract This paper presents a pedagogical framework for teaching cross-cultural clinical ethics. The approach, offered at the intersection of anthropology and bioethics, is innovative in that it takes on the “social sciences versus bioethics” debate that has been ongoing in North America for three decades. The argument is made that this debate is flawed on both sides and, moreover, that the application of cross-cultural thinking to clinical ethics requires using the tools of the social sciences (such as the critique of the universality of the Euro-American construct of “autonomy”) within (...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 5, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Case for Reasonable Accommodation of Conscientious Objections to Declarations of Brain Death
Abstract Since its inception in 1968, the concept of whole-brain death has been contentious, and four decades on, controversy concerning the validity and coherence of whole-brain death continues unabated. Although whole-brain death is legally recognized and medically entrenched in the United States and elsewhere, there is reasonable disagreement among physicians, philosophers, and the public concerning whether brain death is really equivalent to death as it has been traditionally understood. A handful of states have acknowledged this plurality of viewpoints and enacted “conscience clauses” that require...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 5, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

A Not-So-Gentle Refutation of the Defence of Homeopathy
Abstract In a recent paper, Levy, Gadd, Kerridge, and Komesaroff attempt to defend the ethicality of homeopathy by attacking the utilitarian ethical framework as a basis for medical ethics and by introducing a distinction between evidence-based medicine and modern science. This paper demonstrates that their argumentation is not only insufficient to achieve that goal but also incorrect. Utilitarianism is not required to show that homeopathic practice is unethical; indeed, any normative basis of medical ethics will make it unethical, as a defence of homeopathic practice requires the rejection of modern natural scien...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 5, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Development and Public Health in the Himalaya: Reflections on Healing in Contemporary Nepal
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 5, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Ethics, Tuberculosis, and Compassion: Lessons From Praxis
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 5, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Need to Recognize Efforts From Developing Countries
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 5, 2016 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Memory Interventions in the Criminal Justice System: Some Practical Ethical Considerations
Abstract In recent years, discussion around memory modification interventions has gained attention. However, discussion around the use of memory interventions in the criminal justice system has been mostly absent. In this paper we start by highlighting the importance memory has for human well-being and personal identity, as well as its role within the criminal forensic setting; in particular, for claiming and accepting legal responsibility, for moral learning, and for retribution. We provide examples of memory interventions that are currently available for medical purposes, but that in the future could be used in ...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - December 29, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Ethics of Isolation for Patients With Tuberculosis in Australia
Abstract This case study examines the ethical dimensions of isolation for patients diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) in Australia. It seeks to explore the issues of resource allocation, liberty, and public safety for wider consideration and discussion. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - December 29, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Why Governments That Fund Elective Abortion Are Obligated to Attempt a Reduction in the Elective Abortion Rate
Abstract If elective abortion is publicly funded, then the government is obligated to take active measures designed to reduce its prevalence. I present two arguments for that conclusion. The first argument is directed at those pro-choice thinkers who hold that while some or all elective abortions are morally wrong, they still ought to be legally permitted and publicly subsidized. The second argument is directed at pro-choice thinkers who hold that there is nothing morally wrong with elective abortion and that it should be both legally permitted and publicly subsidized. The second argument employs premises that gen...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - December 29, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Ethical Responsibility for the Social Production of Tuberculosis
Abstract Approximately one in two hundred persons in the Marshall Islands have active tuberculosis (TB). We examine the historical antecedents of this situation in order to assign ethical responsibility for the present situation. Examining the antecedents in terms of Galtung’s dialectic of personal versus structural violence, we can identify instances in the history of the Marshall Islands when individual subjects made decisions (personal violence) with large-scale ecologic, social, and health consequences. The roles of medical experimenters, military commanders, captains of the weapons industry in particula...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - December 29, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Intellectual Property in Genetic Material
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - December 21, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

What Should We Eat? Biopolitics, Ethics, and Nutritional Scientism
Abstract Public health advocates, government agencies, and commercial organizations increasingly use nutritional science to guide food choice and diet as a way of promoting health, preventing disease, or marketing products. We argue that in many instances such references to nutritional science can be characterized as nutritional scientism. We examine three manifestations of nutritional scientism: (1) the simplification of complex science to increase the persuasiveness of dietary guidance, (2) superficial and honorific references to science in order to justify cultural or ideological views about food and health, an...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - December 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Last Cab to Darwin
Abstract Last Cab to Darwin is a film about physician-assisted suicide—specifically, a cab driver (Rex) diagnosed with metastatic cancer and his journey seeking the “machine” that will help him end his life. Along the way, Rex, who has never had a family, creates one, and the result is a reshaping of his values about life, death, and dying. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - December 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Why We Should Care About Ebola in West Africa and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in South Korea: Global Health Ethics and the Moral Insignificance of Proximity
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - December 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

“Leapin’ Lizards, Mr. Science”: Old Reflections on the New Archaeology (and Musings on Anthropology, Art, Bioethics, and Medicine)
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - December 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

A Strong Remedy to a Weak Ethical Defence of Homeopathy
Abstract In this article, I indicate and illustrate several flaws in a recent “ethical defence” of homeopathy. It transpires that the authors’ arguments have several features in common with homeopathic remedies, including strong claims, a lack of logic or evidence, and no actual effect. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - December 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Bioethics and Epistemic Scientism
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - December 8, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Love and Mercy
Abstract This is a review of the biographic drama Love and Mercy. More than a story of the evolution of The Beach Boys, it is the story of the lead Beach Boy, Brian Wilson, and his struggle with substance abuse, mental illness, family stress, emerging love, and a controlling psychologist. Interwoven are many bioethics themes, including the doctor–patient relationship, conflict of interest, autonomy, and patient welfare. For those unaware of the sadness and torment running directly alongside the sunny, bubbly life of The Beach Boys, this film is an eye-opener. It is also a great reminder of the importance of ...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - December 8, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

When Lack of Evidence Is Evidence of Lack
Abstract In their recent article “A Gentle Ethical Defence of Homeopathy,” Levy, Gadd, Kerridge, and Komesaroff use the claim that “lack of evidence is not equivalent to evidence of lack” as a component of their ethical defence of homeopathy. In response, this article argues that they cannot use this claim to shore up their ethical arguments. This is because it is false. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - December 2, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research