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Assisted Dying in Australia and Limiting Court Involvement in Withdrawal of Nutrition and Hydration
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 29, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Rearranging Deck Chairs on a Sinking Ship?
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 26, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Engendering Harm: A Critique of Sex Selection For “Family Balancing”
AbstractThe most benign rationale for sex selection is deemed to be “family balancing.” On this view, provided the sex distribution of an existing offspring group is “unbalanced,” one may legitimately use reproductive technologies to select the sex of the next child. I present four novel concerns with granting “family balancing” as a justification for se x selection: (a) families or family subsets should not be subject to medicalization; (b) sex selection for “family balancing” entrenches heteronormativity, inflicting harm in at least three specific ways; (c) the logic of aff...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 24, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Ethics of Discharging Asylum Seekers to Harm: A Case From Australia
AbstractIn February 2016 a twelve-month-old asylum seeker, who came to be know as Baby Asha, was transferred from Nauru and hospitalized in Brisbane. This case came to public attention after Doctors refused to discharge Asha as she would have been returned to detention on Nauru. What in other circumstances would have been considered routine clinical care, quickly turned into an act of civil disobedience. This paper will discuss the ethical aspects of this case, along with its implications for clinicians and the broader healthcare community. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 24, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Truth Disclosure Practices of Physicians in Jordan
In conclusion, most respondents opt to disclose the truth; however, the vast majority of these respondents make exceptions. Instances of non-disclosure are primarily motivated by sociocultural constructs. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 24, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Disciplining Bioethics: The Debate Over Human Embryo Research
AbstractJ. Benjamin Hurlbut ’s bookExperiments in Democracy: Human Embryo Research and the Politics of Bioethics is an historiographical analysis of the American debate over embryo research. It covers more than four decades of this debate and uses key actors, bodies, and events as empirical evidence for its analysis. At a first glance, it might seem like a book that tells a story, butExperiments in Democracy is much more than that. Hurlbut uses the chapters of this narrative as case studies through which to examine practices of deliberative democracy and the role played by scientists and ethicists in the deliberative...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 24, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Ethical Implications in Vaccine Pharmacotherapy for Treatment and Prevention of Drug of Abuse Dependence
AbstractDifferent immunotherapeutic approaches are in the pipeline for the treatment of drug dependence. “Drug vaccines” aim to induce the immune system to produce antibodies that bind to drugs and prevent them from inducing rewarding effects in the brain. Drugs of abuse currently being tested using these new approaches are opioids, nicotine, cocaine, and methamphetamine. In human clinical trials, “cocaine and nicotine vaccines” have been shown to induce sufficient antibody levels while producing few side effects. Studies in humans, determining how these vaccines interact in combination with their t...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 19, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Law as Clinical Evidence: A New ConstitutiveModel of Medical Education and Decision-Making
AbstractOver several decades, ethics and law have been applied to medical education and practice in a way that reflects the continuation during the twentieth century of the strong distinction between facts and values. We explain the development of applied ethics and applied medical law and report selected results that reflect this applied model from an empirical project examining doctors ’ decisions on withdrawing/withholding treatment from patients who lack decision-making capacity. The model is critiqued, and an alternative “constitutive” model is supported on the basis that medicine, medical law, and m...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 18, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Minority Veterans Are More Willing to Participate in Complex Studies Compared to Non-minorities
ConclusionsMinorities were more likely to be willing to participate in complex studies compared to non-minorities. Low health literacy and therapeutic misconception are important mediators when considering willingness to participate in clinical research. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - December 19, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

A Critical View of “On TB Vaccines, Patients’ Demands, and Modern Printed Media in Times of Biomedical Uncertainties: Buenos Aires, 1920–1950”
AbstractThe putative Pueyo ’s vaccine was a commercial venture that obtained marketing authorization in 1946, a turbulent period of Argentine history. After a few months, health authorities withdrew financial support from the state to buy the vaccine and required patients to sign a written consent to receive that product. A n independent investigation did not find any evidence of benefit in non-clinical and clinical evaluation of the putative vaccine. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - December 18, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Narrative Identity in Third Party Reproduction: Normative Aspects and Ethical Challenges
AbstractIn the last few decades, assisted reproduction has introduced new challenges to the way people conceive and build their families. While the numbers of donor-conceived (DC) individuals have increased worldwide, there are still many controversies concerning access to donor information. Is there a fundamental moral right to know one ’s genetic background? What does identity in DC families mean? Is there any relationship between identity formation and disclosure of genetic origins? These questions are addressed by analysing core regulatory discourse (ethical recommendations and codes of practice). This analysis s...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - December 12, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Beyond Trust: Plagiarism and Truth
AbstractAcademic misconduct distorts the relationship between scientific practice and the knowledge it produces. The relationship between science and the knowledge it produces is, however, not something universally agreed upon. In this paper I will critically discuss the moral status of an act of research misconduct, namely plagiarism, in the context of different epistemological positions. While from a positivist view of science, plagiarism only influences trust in science but not the content of the scientific corpus, from a constructivist point of view both are at stake. Consequently, I argue that discussions of research ...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - December 12, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

An Exploration of the Protective Effects of Investigators ’ Ethical Awareness upon Subjects of Drug Clinical Trials in China
This article analyses deficiencies in the protection of subjects in clinical drug trials under China ’s current laws and regulations; it emphasizes that investigators, as practitioners who have direct contact with subjects, play significant roles in protecting and safeguarding subjects’ rights and interests. The paper compares the status quo in China in this area to that of other countries and discusses ways China might enhance the protection of rights and interests of trial subjects, such as enhancing the ethical awareness of investigators through training, improving laws and regulations, and strengthening the...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - December 11, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Predictive Psychiatric Genetic Testing in Minors: An Exploration of the Non-Medical Benefits
AbstractPredictive genetic testing for susceptibility to psychiatric conditions is likely to become part of standard practice. Because the onset of most psychiatric diseases is in late adolescence or early adulthood, testing minors could lead to early identification that may prevent or delay the development of these disorders. However, due to their complex aetiology, psychiatric genetic testing does not provide the immediate medical benefits that current guidelines require for testing minors. While several authors have argued non-medical benefits may play a crucial role in favour of predictive testing for other conditions,...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - December 11, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Disclosure is Inadequate as a Solution to Managing Conflicts of Interest in Human Research
This article discusses some of the problems of relying on disclosure as a solution to address conflicts of interest in research, including the added complexities around institutional conflicts of interest. The case of Dan Markingson illustrates these issues and highlights the vulnerable position relying on disclosure as a solution leaves research participants in. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - December 11, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Mode 2 Knowledge Production in the Context of Medical Research: A Call for Further Clarifications
AbstractThe traditional researcher-driven environment of medical knowledge production is losing its dominance with the expansion of, for instance, community-based participatory or participant-led medical research. Over the past few decades, sociologists of science have debated a shift in the production of knowledge from traditional discipline-based (Mode 1) to more socially embedded and transdisciplinary frameworks (Mode 2). Recently, scholars have tried to show the relevance of Mode 2 knowledge production to medical research. However, the existing literature lacks detailed clarifications on how a model of Mode 2 knowledge...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - December 11, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Knowing, Anticipating, Even Facilitating but Still not Intending: Another Challenge to Double Effect Reasoning
AbstractA recent administrative law decision in Victoria, Australia, applied double effect reasoning in a novel way. Double effect reasoning has hitherto been used to legitimate treatments which may shorten life but where the intent of treatment is pain relief. The situation reviewed by the Victorian tribunal went further, supporting actions where a doctor agrees to provide pentobarbitone (Nembutal) to a patient at some time in the future if the patient feels at that time that his pain is unbearable and he wants to end his life. The offer to provide the drug was described as a palliative treatment in that it gave reassuran...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - December 11, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Protecting Participants in Thought Experiments: The Role of the Research Ethics Committee
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - December 8, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Controlling futures? Online Genetic Testing and Neurodegenerative Disease
AbstractOnline personalized genetic testing services offer accessible and convenient options for satisfying personal curiosity about health and obtaining answers about one ’s genetic provenance. They are especially attractive to healthy people who wish to learn about their future risk of disease, as Paul Mason’s (2017) case study of “Jordan” illustrates. In this response, we consider how online genetic testing services are used by people diagnosed with a common neurodegenerative disease, Parkinson’s disease, to gain a sense of certainty regarding the future. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - December 1, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Reflecting Before Testing
AbstractThis response is a comment on the case of Jordan presented by Mason (2017). A key perspective we can take from this case is a consideration of: consumer motivations for testing, whether they have enough information and time to make a decision, and if the test they seek is entirely appropriate for them at their current stage of life. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - November 20, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Power to the People?
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - November 15, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Dangers of Direct-to-Consumer Genetic  Testing for Alzheimer’s Disease
AbstractThe overarching issue with this case study is poor regulation and quality control over direct-to-consumer genetic testing, delivered in the absence of any medical oversight. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - November 13, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Personal Genomic Testing, Genetic Inheritance, and Uncertainty
AbstractThe case outlined below is the basis for theIn That Case section of the “Ethics and Epistemology of Big Data” symposium. Jordan receives reports from two separate personal genomic tests that provide intriguing data about ancestry and worrying but ambiguous data about the potential risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. What began as a personal curiosity about gen etic inheritance turns into an alarming situation of medical uncertainty. Questions about Jordan’s family tree are overshadowed by even more questions about Alzheimer’s disease and healthy ageing. As a parent, Jordan is unsur...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - November 8, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Future Emerges from the Past
AbstractThe case of Jordan (Mason2017) highlights the gamble of connecting with the past through genomic testing. Unfortunately for Jordan, his genomic testing identified two variant genes which account for up to 75 per cent of early-onset Alzheimer ’s disease cases. Furthermore, his children were identified as having a 50 per cent risk of inheriting the gene which corresponds to the majority of early-onset Alzheimer’s disease cases. Now Jordan is not only burdened with the foreknowledge that he will most likely develop Alzheimer’s diseas e at a relatively young age but also burdened with the knowledge th...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - November 8, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Ethics and Epistemology of Big Data
AbstractIn this Symposium on theEthics and Epistemology of Big Data, we present four perspectives on the ways in which the rapid growth in size of research databanks —i.e. their shift into the realm of “big data”—has changed their moral, socio-political, and epistemic status. While there is clearly something different about “big data” databanks, we encourage readers to place the arguments presented in this Symposium in the context of longstanding deb ates about the ethics, politics, and epistemology of biobank, database, genetic, and epidemiological research. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - November 8, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

When Doctors and Parents Don ’t Agree: The story of Charlie Gard
AbstractThis discussion  follows a series of high profile cases involving a terminally ill child, Charlie Gard. These cases are significant as they trace the complexities that arise when parents and medical teams do not agree as well as addressing the question of whether there is a right to access experimental treatment. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - November 6, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Parents ’ and Physicians’ Perceptions of Children’s Participation in Decision-making in Paediatric Oncology: A Quantitative Study
AbstractThe goal is to present how shared decision-making in paediatric oncology occurs from the viewpoints of parents and physicians. Eight Swiss Pediatric Oncology Group centres participated in this prospective study. The sample comprised a parent and physician of the minor patient (
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - October 11, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The President ’s Physician: An African Play
AbstractThis review examines issues relating to biomedical ethics and literature in the African dramaThe President ’s Physician by Emmanuel Babatunde Omobowale. The play investigates the psychological dilemma of Doctor Bituki Warunga, a personal physician to General Kalunga Ntibantunganyah who brutally and inhumanely rules Wavaria, a fictional African country. The doctor is faced with deciding to uphold the ethics of his profession versus terminating the tyrant ’s life to set the nation free. The play aims to help budding medical doctors rightly inculcate the principles of medical ethics—autonomy, benefic...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - October 11, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Ethics of Biomedical Big Data
AbstractThe availability of diverse sources of data related to health and illness from various types of modern communication technology presents the possibility of augmenting medical knowledge, clinical care, and the patient experience. New forms of data collection and analysis will undoubtedly transform epidemiology, public health, and clinical practice, but what ethical considerations come in to play? With a view to analysing the ethical and regulatory dimensions of burgeoning forms of biomedical big data, Brent Daniel Mittelstadt and Luciano Floridi have brought together thirty scholars in an edited volume that forms pa...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - October 7, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Digital Humanitarians: How Big Data Is Changing the Face of Humanitarian Response
AbstractThis is a review of Patrick Meier ’s 2015 book,Digital Humanitarians: How Big Data Is Changing the Face of Humanitarian Response. The book explores the role of technologies such as high-resolution satellite imagery, online social media, drones, and artificial intelligence in humanitarian responses during disasters such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake. In this analysis, the book is examined using a humanitarian health ethics perspective. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - October 5, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Issues of Freedom and Happiness in Moral Bioenhancement: Continuing the Debate With a Reply to Harris Wiseman
AbstractDuring the previous years, Harris Wiseman has devoted substantial attention to my stance on voluntary moral bioenhancement. He argued that he has been influenced by that position, but nonetheless criticized it. I haven ’t replied to his criticisms yet and wish to do so now. One of the reasons is to avoid my position being misrepresented. By replying to Wiseman’s criticisms, I also wish to clarify those issues in my standpoint that might have given rise to some of the misinterpretations. With the same purpose i n mind, I will demarcate my concept of voluntary moral bioenhancement from related standpoints...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - October 5, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Morally-Relevant Similarities and Differences Between Assisted Dying Practices in Paradigm and Non-Paradigm Circumstances: Could They Inform Regulatory Decisions?
AbstractThere has been contentious debate over the years about whether there are morally relevant similarities and differences between the three practices of continuous deep sedation until death, physician-assisted suicide, and voluntary euthanasia. Surprisingly little academic attention has been paid to a comparison of the uses of these practices in the two types of circumstances in which they are typically performed. Acomparative domains of ethics analysis methodological approach is used in the paper to compare 1) the use of the three practices in paradigm circumstances, and 2) the use of the practices in paradigm circum...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - October 5, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Biomedical Big Data: New Models of Control Over Access, Use and Governance
AbstractEmpirical evidence suggests that while people hold the capacity to control their data in high regard, they increasingly experience a loss of control over their data in the online world. The capacity to exert control over the generation and flow of personal information is a fundamental premise to important values such as autonomy, privacy, and trust. In healthcare and clinical research this capacity is generally achieved indirectly, by agreeing to specific conditions of informational exposure. Such conditions can be openly stated in informed consent documents or be implicit in the norms of confidentiality that gover...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - October 5, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Big Data and Health Research —The Governance Challenges in a Mixed Data Economy
AbstractDenmark is a society that has already moved towards Big Data and a Learning Health Care System. Data from routine healthcare has been registered centrally for years, there is a nationwide tissue bank, and there are numerous other available registries about education, employment, housing, pollution, etcetera. This has allowed Danish researchers to study the link between exposures, genetics and diseases in a large population. This use of public registries for scientific research has been relatively uncontroversial and has been supported by facilitative regulation that allows data to be used without the consent of dat...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - October 4, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Criminal Prohibition of Wrongful Re ‑identification: Legal Solution or Minefield for Big Data?
AbstractThe collapse of confidence in anonymization (sometimes also known as de-identification) as a robust approach for preserving the privacy of personal data has incited an outpouring of new approaches that aim to fill the resulting trifecta of technical, organizational, and regulatory privacy gaps left in its wake. In the latter category, and in large part due to the growth of Big Data –driven biomedical research, falls a growing chorus of calls for criminal and penal offences to sanction wrongful re-identification of “anonymized” data. This chorus cuts across the fault lines of polarized privacy law ...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - September 14, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Health Professionals “Make Their Choice”: Pharmaceutical Industry Leaders’ Understandings of Conflict of Interest
AbstractConflicts of interest, stemming from relationships between health professionals and the pharmaceutical industry, remain a highly divisive and inflammatory issue in healthcare. Given that most jurisdictions rely on industry to self-regulate with respect to its interactions with health professionals, it is surprising that little research has explored industry leaders ’ understandings of conflicts of interest. Drawing from in-depth interviews with ten pharmaceutical industry leaders based in Australia, we explore the normalized and structural management of conflicts of interest within pharmaceutical companies. W...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - September 14, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Measles Vaccination is Best for Children: The Argument for Relying on Herd Immunity Fails
This article examines an argument which may negatively influence measles vaccination uptake. According to the argument, an individual child in a highly vaccinated society may be better off by being non-vaccinated; the child does not risk vaccine adverse effects and is protected against measles through herd immunity. Firstly, the conclusion of the argument is challenged by showing that herd immunity ’s protection is unreliable and inferior to vaccination. Secondly, the logic of the argument is challenged by showing that the argument is inherently self-defeating and therefore logically inconsistent. In practice the arg...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - August 16, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Exploring Vaccine Hesitancy Through an Artist –Scientist Collaboration
AbstractThis project explores vaccine hesitancy through an artist –scientist collaboration. It aims to create better understanding of vaccine hesitant parents’ health beliefs and how these influence their vaccine-critical decisions. The project interviews vaccine-hesitant parents in the Netherlands and Finland and develops experimental visual-narrative means t o analyse the interview data. Vaccine-hesitant parents’ health beliefs are, in this study, expressed through stories, and they are paralleled with so-called illness narratives. The study explores the following four main health beliefs originating fr...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - August 16, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

A Feminist Critique of Justifications for Sex Selection
AbstractThis paper examines dominant arguments advocating for the procreative right to undergo sex selection for social reasons, based on gender preference. I present four of the most recognized and common justifications for sex selection: the argument from natural sex selection, the argument from procreative autonomy, the argument from family balancing, and the argument from children ’s well-being. Together these represent the various means by which scholars aim to defend access to sex selection for social reasons as a legitimate procreative choice. In response, I contend that these justifications are flawed and oft...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - August 16, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

A 450 Year Old Turkish Poem, Art as a Qualitative Investigation Tool, Buddhist Deathways, Karma and Eudaimonia in Death and Organ Donation: The Wonders of Truly Diverse Bioethical Inquiry!
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - August 16, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Stretching the Boundaries of Parental Responsibility and New Legal Guidelines for Determination of Brain Death
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - August 16, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

A Virtuous Death: Organ Donation and Eudaimonia
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - August 16, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Access to High Cost Cancer Medicines Through the Lens of an Australian Senate Inquiry —Defining the “Goods” at Stake
AbstractCancer is a major burden on populations and health systems internationally. The development of innovative cancer medicines is seen as a significant part of the solution. These new cancer medicines are, however, expensive, leading to limited or delayed access and disagreements among stakeholders about which medicines to fund. There is no obvious resolution to these disagreements, with stakeholders holding firmly to divergent positions. Access to cancer medicines was recently explored in Australia in a Senate Inquiry into theAvailability of New, Innovative, and Specialist Cancer Drugs in Australia. We analysed the re...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - July 18, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Erratum to: Bioethics and Biopolitics: Presents and Futures of Reproduction
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - July 3, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Including People with Dementia in Research: An Analysis of Australian Ethical and Legal Rules and Recommendations for Reform
AbstractResearch is crucial to advancing knowledge about dementia, yet the burden of the disease currently outpaces research activity. Research often excludes people with dementia and other cognitive impairments because researchers and ethics committees are concerned about issues related to capacity, consent, and substitute decision-making. In Australia, participation in research by people with cognitive impairment is governed by a national ethics statement and a patchwork of state and territorial laws that have widely varying rules. We contend that this legislative variation precludes a consistent approach to research gov...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 20, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Political Minimalism and Social Debates: The Case of Human-Enhancement Technologies
AbstractA faulty understanding of the relationship between morality and politics encumbers many contemporary debates on human enhancement. As a result, some ethical reflections on enhancement undervalue its social dimensions, while some social approaches to the topic lack normative import. In this essay, I use my own conception of the relationship between ethics and politics, which I call “political minimalism,” in order to support and strengthen the existing social perspectives on human-enhancement technologies. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 20, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Medical Negligence Determinations, the “Right to Try,” and Expanded Access to Innovative Treatments
This article considers the issue of expanded access to innovative treatments in the context of recent legislative initiatives in the United Kingdom and the United States. In the United Kingdom, the supporters of legislative change argued that the common law principles governing medical negligence are a barrier to innovation. In an attempt to remove this perceived impediment, two bills proposed that innovating doctors sued for negligence should be able to rely in their defence on the fact that their decision to innovate was “responsible.” A decision to innovate would be regarded as responsible if it followed a s...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 20, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Futile Treatment —A Review
AbstractThe main goal of intensive care medicine is helping patients survive acute threats to their lives, while preserving and restoring life quality. Because of medical advancements, it is now possible to sustain life to an extent that would previously have been difficult to imagine. However, the goals of medicine are not to preserve organ function or physiological activity but to treat and improve the health of a person as a whole. When dealing with medical futilities, physicians and other members of the care team should be aware of some ethical principles. Knowing these principles could make decision-making easier, esp...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 20, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

A 450-Year-Old Turkish Poem on Medical Ethics
AbstractThe Ottoman physician-poet Nidai of Ankara (1509 to post-1567) studied medicine in Crimea and served as a court physician in Istanbul during the reign of Sultan Selim II. Nidai marked the classical period of Ottoman medicine particularly with his acclaimed works and translations in Turkish, among whichManafi al-Nas (Benefits of People, 1566) became widely known. The final chapter ofManafi al-Nas also is known independently under the nameVasiyyetname (Last Will), which is a remarkable guide on medical ethics. This didactic, sixty-eight-line poem includes Nidai ’s moral advice to physicians that they should be ...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 20, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Are Wrongful Life Actions Threatening the Value of Human Life?
AbstractMost courts around the world have been refusing wrongful life actions. The main argument invoked is that the supposed compensable injury cannot be classified as such, since life is always a blessing no matter how hard and painful it is.In opposition to mainstream scholars and the dominant case law, this article sustains that life must be distinguished from living conditions, the former being the real injury at stake, since some living conditions are so intolerable that in themselves they justify a compensation within wrongful life actions. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 20, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research