Using the Maq āṣid al-Sharīʿah to Furnish an Islamic Bioethics: Conceptual and Practical Issues
AbstractThe field of Islamic bioethics is currently in development as thinkers delineate its normative content, ethical scope and research methods. Some scholars have offered Islamic bioethical frameworks based on themaq āṣid al-Sharīʿah, the higher objectives of Islamic law, to help advance the field. Accordingly, a recent JBI paper by Ibrahim and colleagues describes a method for using themaq āṣid al-Sharīʿah to provide moral end-goals and deliberative mechanisms for an Islamic bioethics. Herein I highlight critical conceptual and practical gaps in the model with the hopes of fostering greater discussion about ...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - October 2, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

A Journey Through Global Bioethics
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - September 6, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

US Hospice Structure and its Implications for the “Right to Die” Debate
This article is an analysis of the relationship between US hospice structure and the feeling of being a burden to others (FBO). A goal of US hospice care is to reduce the FBO. But in America, hospice is limited in its ability to do so because of the high caregiver burden it places on family members of dying people. Through a historical study, I show that this burden was excessive when the hospice system was created and has worsened over time. Through three ethnographic vignettes, I demonstrate how this burden inculcates in dying people the FBO. I then examine the bioethical implications of this finding for the existing US ...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - September 3, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Landscape of the “Spirit of Sport”
AbstractThe World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) sets out a detailed description of what its own conception of the “spirit of sport” as employed in the World Anti-Doping Code (WADC) entails. However, controversies as to the significance and meaning to be ascribed to the term abound in the literature. In order to unravel the core of the debates and to move discussions forward, the authors aimed at reviewing u nderstandings of the spirit of sport in the conceptual literature. The main databases were searched using relevant keywords. After the inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, eighteen publications were in...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - August 23, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Right to Try: In response
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - August 23, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

A Response to Meyerson ’s Defence of the American Right to Try
AbstractThis comment responds to a defence of the right to try, a law adopted by the United States and many state governments that seeks to expand access to experimental drugs. In defending the right to try, Meyerson argues that it is part of a broader rights-based approach for patient access to innovation. But a drug that is still part of the experimental process may not be an innovation —indeed, it may be a failure and even harmful or dangerous. Further, this approach does not weigh other rights that may be at stake such as the property rights of the drug maker or the rights of future patients seeking access to cur...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - August 23, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

What Is Enough? Sufficiency, Justice, and Health
AbstractCarina Fourie and Annette Rid ’s edited volumeWhat Is Enough? Sufficiency, Justice, and Health comprises fifteen original contributions which explore the possibility of a sufficientarian approach to healthcare priority setting and resource allocation. Sufficientarianism is a well-established theory of distributive justice, which tells us that justice requires that each person has “enough,” and assigns particular importance to a threshold level of goods under which no person must fall. Sufficiency is under-explored as a distributive principle in the healthcare context, and this book makes a strong ...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - August 21, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Moral Equality, Bioethics, and the Child
AbstractOur world is a world in which biotechnological tools are used by parents and healthcare providers to engineer future babies' bodies according to their wishes, a world in which there is no clear distinction between children as parents'"property" and children as autonomous beings, where children are exploited economically, politically, physically, and emotionally by adults, and where, in democratic countries, immigrants' children are taken prisoner and separated from their families because they dare to cross state borders. In such a world, Claudia Wiesemann's book,Moral Equality, Bioethics, and the Child (2...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - August 19, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Subsidizing PGD: The Moral Case for Funding Genetic Selection
AbstractPreimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) allows the detection of genetic abnormalities in embryos produced through in vitro fertilization (IVF). Current funding models in Australia provide governmental subsidies for couples undergoing IVF, but do not extend to PGD. There are strong reasons for publicly funding PGD that follow from the moral principles of autonomy, beneficence and justice for both parents and children. We examine the objections to our proposal, specifically concerns regarding designer babies and the harm of disabled individuals, and show why these are substantially outweighed by arguments for subsidi...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - August 15, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Women ’s Control Over Decision to Participate in Surrogacy
We examined the use of singular and plural pronouns like “I,” “me,” and “mine” versus “we,” “ us,” and “our,” along with the use of active and passive voice to determine whether women assumed responsibility for the decision to participate in surrogacy or they attributed the decision to others. Findings unravelled the complexities of the decision-making process and indicated that eighty -five percent of the women played an active role in the decision-making to participate in surrogacy, albeit with new avenues of exploitation in the commercial market spa...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - August 9, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Design and Validation of an Instrument To Measure a Minor's Maturity When Faced with Health Decisions
AbstractDecision-making capacity in children and adolescents in healthcare requires thorough assessment: the minor's maturity, understanding of the decision, risk of the situation and contextual factors needs to be explored. The intention was to design and validate a test —the Maturtest—to assess the maturity of minors in decision-making processes in healthcare. A reasoning test on moral conflicts for adolescents was designed to infer the degree of maturity of minors applied to decision-making regarding their own health. The test was completed by a sample of 441 adolescents aged from twelve to sixteen, with a c...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - August 1, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Epistemic Virtue, Prospective Parents and Disability Abortion
AbstractResearch shows that a high majority of parents receiving prenatal diagnosis of intellectual disability terminate pregnancy. They have reasons for rejecting a child with intellectual disabilities —these reasons are, most commonly, beliefs about quality of life for it or them. Without a negative evaluation of intellectual disability, their choice makes no sense. Disability-based abortion has been critiqued through virtue ethics for being inconsistent with admirable moral character. Parental selectivity conflicts with the virtue of acceptingness (the commitment to welcome whatever child comes naturally) and exhi...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - August 1, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Competing Ethical Interests Regarding Privacy and Accountability in Psychotherapy
This article focuses on how three different parts of Jane’s multidisciplinary care (i.e. clinicians, policy professionals and medico-legal professionals) exhibit diff erent competing ethical priorities. Psychotherapeutic clinicians private use of audio recordings of the therapy enhances patient care and their own professional development but with the risk of concealing possible unethical behaviour by either party. Medico-legal access to the therapy recordings pre serves potentially relevant evidence in the pursuit of justice but risks the interpretation of the psychotherapeutic information outside of the therapeutic ...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - July 29, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The struggle for clinical ethics in Jordanian Hospitals
AbstractThe Arab and Islamic world is in cultural, political and ethical flux. Pressures of globalisation contend with ancient ideas and concepts that permeate cultural frameworks. Health professionals are among the many groups battling to accommodate the rapidly changing conditions. In many predominantly Muslim countries intense debates are underway among clinicians about the impact of the forces of change on their practices. To help understand these forces we conducted a study of the experiences of clinicians in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, a Middle Eastern nation state where the overwhelming majority of the populati...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - July 11, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Planning Ahead for Dementia Research Participation: Insights from a Survey of Older Australians and Implications for Ethics, Law and Practice
AbstractPeople with dementia have commonly been excluded from research. The adverse impacts of this exclusion are now being recognized and research literature, position statements, and ethics guidelines increasingly call for inclusion of people with dementia in research. However, few published studies investigate the views of potential participants on taking part in research should they experience dementia-related cognitive impairment. This cross-sectional survey examined the views of people aged sixty and older (n=174) attending hospital outpatient clinics about clinical research participation if they had dementia and imp...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - July 11, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Enhanced Interrogation, Consequential Evaluation, and Human Rights to Health
AbstractBalfe argues against enhanced interrogation. He particularly focuses on the involvement of U.S. healthcare professionals in enhanced interrogation. He identifies several empirical and normative factors and argues that they are not good reasons to morally justify enhanced interrogation. I argue that his argument can be improved by making two points. First, Balfe considers the reasoning of those healthcare professionals as utilitarian. However, careful consideration of their ideas reveals that their reasoning is consequential rather than utilitarian evaluation. Second, torture is a serious human rights abuse. When he...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - July 5, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Identity and the Ethics of Eating Interventions
AbstractAlthough “you are what you eat” is a well-worn cliché, personal identity does not figure prominently in many debates about the ethics of eating interventions. This paper contributes to a growing philosophical literature theorizing the connection between eating and identity and exploring its implications for eating interventions. I explore how “identity-policing,” a key mechanism for the social constitution and maintenance of identity, applies to eating and trace its ethical implications for eating interventions. I argue that identity policing can be harmful and that eating interventio...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - July 4, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Pride Before a Fall: Shame, Diagnostic Crossover, and Eating Disorders
This study found that, in the minds of participants, the different diagnostic labels were associated with various good or bad character traits. This contributed to the belief in a diagnos tic hierarchy, whereby individuals diagnosed with anorexia nervosa were viewed as morally better than those diagnosed with bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder. Consequently, diagnostic crossover from a “better” to a “worse” eating disorder was often experienced as shameful moral failing , and a new diagnosis impacted the individual’s sense of self-identity. These findings are of significance for both eth...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - July 1, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Not Sick: Liberal, Trans, and Crip Feminist Critiques of Medicalization
This article will focus on three feminist critiques of medicalization, which offer an alternative narrative of sickness and health. I will first briefly describe the philosophical origins of medicalization. Then, I will present three feminist critiques of medicalization. Liberal feminism, trans feminism, and crip feminism tend to regard Western medicine with a hermeneutics of suspic ion and draw out potential harms of medicalization of reproductive sexuality, gender, and disability, respectively. While neither these branches of feminism—nor their critiques—are homogenous, they provide much-needed commentaries o...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 29, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Co-payment for Unfunded Additional Care in Publicly Funded Healthcare Systems: Ethical Issues
This article provides an overview of the main ethical issues associated with co-payment, and ethical arguments both in suppor t of and against it will be presented and analyzed. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 24, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Dementia: Unwelcome change has arrived and we are not ready!
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 24, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

A Return Journey: Hope and Strength in the Aftermath of Alzheimer ’s
AbstractSue Petrovski ’s short book,A Return Journey: Hope and Strength in the Aftermath of Alzheimer ’s, is a collection of personal stories as she and her husband cared for her mother during the course of the disease as well as the shared stories of others.A Return Journey provides an insider ’s view of the challenges of caring for those with Alzheimer’s and is useful for current and future caregivers as well as those who are studying and working in the health professions. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 12, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Learning From the Cultural Challenge of Dementia
AbstractLearning from the profound challenge of dementia is an urgent priority. Success will require a critical deconstruction of current cultural and linguistic representations of this condition, and a kindling of novel and courageous approaches to re-conceptualise dementia's meaning and experience. This symposium collects provocative ideas arising from various discourses, theoretical perspectives, and methodolgical approaches to explore new ways to understand dementia. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 4, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

A response to “Fragile objects: a visual essay”
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 4, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Realigning the Neural Paradigm for Death
AbstractWhole brain failure constitutes the diagnostic criterion for death determination in most clinical settings across the globe. Yet the conceptual foundation for its adoption was slow to emerge, has evoked extensive scientific debate since inception, underwent policy revision, and remains contentious in praxis even today. Complications result from the need to relate a unitary construal of the death event with an adequate account of organismal integration and that of the human organism in particular. Advances in the neuroscience of higher human faculties, such as the self, personal identity, and consciousness, and dyna...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 3, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The liminal world of dementia
We report the patterns repeated by a sufferer from Alzheimer's disease, artistic arrangements that take time to make, and appeal to observers. To the sufferer, these arrangements seem to have no value beyond the fact of their creation. We wonder how far we can go as observers in imposing interpretations on these patterns of activity, which seem beautiful and poignant to us, but are evanescent and unremarked by their creator. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 3, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Dementia and the Paradigm of the Camp: Thinking Beyond Giorgio Agamben ’s Concept of “Bare Life”
AbstractThis essay discusses the use of analogies drawn from the Holocaust in cultural representations and critical scholarship on dementia. The paper starts with a discussion of references to the death camp in cultural narratives about dementia, specifically Annie Ernaux ’s account of her mother’s dementia inI Remain in Darkness. It goes on to develop a critique of Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben ’s work on biopolitics and “bare life,” focusing specifically on the linguistic foundations of his thinking. This underpins a consideration of the limitations of his philosophy and ontologically ...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - May 27, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Considering the boundaries of decision-making authority: An NHS Trust v Y [2018] UKSC 46
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - May 27, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Editors Should Declare Conflicts of Interest
AbstractEditors have increasing pressure as scholarly publishing tries to shore up trust and reassure academics and the public that traditional peer review is robust, fail-safe, and corrective. Hidden conflicts of interest (COIs) may skew the fairness of the publishing process because they could allow the status of personal or professional relationships to positively influence the outcome of peer review or reduce the processing period of this process. Not all authors have such privileged relationships. In academic journals, editors usually have very specialized skills and are selected as agents of trust, entrusted with the...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - April 23, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

To Your Good Health! Going to the Pub With Friends, Nursing Dying Patients, And ‘ER’ Receptionists: the Ubiquitous Rise of Risk Management and Maybe A ‘Prudential’ Bioethics?
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - April 9, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Towards an Ecology of Dementia: A Manifesto
AbstractDementia is more than a disease. What dementia is, how it is understood, and how it is experienced is influenced by multiple factors including our societal preoccupation with individual identity. This essay introduces empirical and theoretical evidence of alternative ways of understanding dementia that act as a challenge to common assumptions. It proposes that dementia be understood as an experience of systems, particularly networks of people affected by the diagnosis. Taking this step reveals much about the dementia experience, and about what can be learned from persons with dementia and their networks of family, ...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - April 5, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Fragile objects: A visual essay
AbstractRecognizing the potential hidden artistic contributions of persons with dementia opens new opportunities for interpretation and potential communication. This visual essay explores the authors ’ responses to the fragile objects of art produced by a person with severe dementia and examines what may be learned from them. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - April 5, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Catastrophic Consequences of Negligent Misinformation — Darnley v Croydon Health Services NHS Trust [2018] UKSC 50
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 30, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Misconceiving “Neutrality” in Bioethics: Rejoinder to “Bioethics and the Myth of Neutrality”
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 18, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Gene Editing, the Mystic Threat to Human Dignity
AbstractMany arguments have been made against gene editing. This paper addresses the commonly invoked argument that gene editing violates human dignity and is ultimately a subversion of human nature. There are several drawbacks to this argument. Above all, the concept of what human dignity means is unclear. It is not possible to condemn a practice that violates human dignity if we do not know exactly what is being violated. The argument ’s entire reasoning is thus undermined. Analyses of the arguments involved in this discussion have often led to the conclusion that gene editing contravenes the principle of genetic i...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 18, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Correction to: A Morally Permissible Moral Mistake? Reinterpreting a Thought Experiment as Proof of Concept
There was a spelling error in the second author ’s last name in the original publication. The name is correct in this erratum. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 18, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Stakeholders ’ Views on Early Diagnosis for Alzheimer’s Disease, Clinical Trial Participation and Amyloid PET Disclosure: A Focus Group Study
AbstractDetection of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) in an early stage is receiving increasing attention for a number of reasons, such as the failure of drug trials in more advanced disease stages, the demographic evolution, the financial impact of AD, and the approval of amyloid tracers for clinical use. Five focus group interviews with stakeholders (healthy elderly, informal caregivers, nursing staff, researchers, and clinicians) were conducted.. The verbatim transcripts were analysed via the Nvivo 11 software. Most stakeholder groups wanted to know their own amyloid PET scan result. However, differences occurred between...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 13, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Withholding Treatment From the Dying Patient: The Influence of Medical School on Students ’ Attitudes
Discussion: Preclinical students had a greater willingness to treat compared to clinical students in all cases and with most medical treatments offered. This is attributed mainly to changes along the medical curriculum. Changes in reasons for supplying LSTs were also documented. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 8, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Mapping Bioethics in Latin America: History, Theoretical Models, and Scientific Output
Conclusion: Although bioethics is a growing interdisciplinary field in Latin America, its academic impact is still very low, and programmes are highly concentrated in large urban centres in a few countries. Challenges inclu des the regional and international impact of local scientific output. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - February 18, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Right to Accessible and Acceptable Healthcare Services. Negotiating Rules and Solutions With Members of Ethnocultural Minorities
AbstractThe right to health implies, among other things, that individuals and communities must be allowed to have a voice in decisions concerning the definition of their well-being. The article argues for a more active participation of ethnocultural minorities in healthcare decisions and highlights the relevance of strategies aimed at creating a bottom-up engagement of people and groups, as well as of measures aimed at a broader organizational flexibility, in order to meet migrants ’ and minorities’ needs. Finally, the article clarifies that these strategies are not simply the outcome of a welcoming attitude of...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - February 14, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Exploring Ethical Issues Related to Patient Engagement in Healthcare: Patient, Clinician and Researcher ’s Perspectives
AbstractPatient engagement in healthcare is increasingly discussed in the literature, and initiatives engaging patients in quality improvement activities, organizational design, governance, and research are becoming more and more common and have even become mandatory for certain health institutions. Here we discuss a number of ethical challenges raised by this engagement from patients from the perspectives of research, organizational/quality improvement practices, and patient experiences, while offering preliminary recommendations as to how to address them. We identified three broad categories of ethical issues that inters...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - February 11, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Dementia Beyond Pathology: What People Diagnosed Can Teach Us About Our Shared Humanity
AbstractIn this article, I explore how methods of investigation can allow us either to appreciate the intact cognitive and social abilities of people with Alzheimer ’s disease or unwittingly obscure those same abilities. Specifically, I shall assert that (1) the biomedical- quantitative approach, while being generally appropriate for drug efficacy studies, does not allow us to appreciate the many significant strengths possessed by people diagnosed with dement ia, (2) qualitative/narrative approaches do so admirably, and (3) understanding the cognitive and social strengths of people diagnosed is of paramount importanc...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - February 11, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The “Violent Resident”: A Critical Exploration of the Ethics of Resident-to-Resident Aggression
AbstractResident-to-resident aggression is quite prevalent in long-term care settings. Within popular and empirical accounts, this form of aggression is most commonly attributed to the actions of an aberrant individual living with dementia characterized as the “violent resident.” It is often a medical diagnosis of dementia that is highlighted as the ultimate cause of aggression. This neglects the fact that acts of aggression are influenced by broader structural conditions. This has ethical implications in that the emphasis on individual aberration inf orms public policy strategies for prevention with a focus on...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - February 11, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Maqasid al-Shariah Based Islamic Bioethics: A Comprehensive Approach
AbstractMaqasid al-Shariah based Islamic bioethics is an Islamic bioethics concept which uses the objectives of the Shariah (maqasid al-Shariah) as its approach in analysing and assessing bioethical issues. Analysis based on maqasid al-Shariah based Islamic bioethics will examine any bioethical issues from three main aspects namely intention, method, and output or final goal of the studied issues. Then, the evaluation will be analysed from human interest hierarchy, inclusivity, and degree of certainty. The Islamic bioethics concept is a manifestation of dynamic Islamic jurisprudence which can overcome new complex and compl...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - February 4, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Pub Philosophy
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 24, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Two-Hourly Repositioning for Prevention of Pressure Ulcers in the Elderly: Patient Safety or Elder Abuse?
AbstractFor decades, aged care facility residents at risk of pressure ulcers (PUs) have been repositioned at two-hour intervals, twenty-four-hours-a-day, seven-days-a-week (24/7). Yet, PUs still develop. We used a cross-sectional survey of eighty randomly selected medical records of residents aged ≥ 65 years from eight Australian Residential Aged Care Facilities (RACFs) to determine the number of residents at risk of PUs, the use of two-hourly repositioning, and the presence of PUs in the last week of life. Despite 91 per cent (73/80) of residents identified as being at risk of PUs and repo sitioned two-hourly 24/7, 34 ...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 22, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Boundaries of Embryo Research: Extending the Fourteen-Day Rule
AbstractThe disciplines of ethics, science, and the law often conflict when it comes to determining the limits and boundaries of embryo research. Under current Australian law and regulations, and in various other jurisdictions, research conducted on the embryo in vitro is permitted up until day fourteen, after which, the embryo must be destroyed. Reproductive technology and associated research is rapidly advancing at a rate that contests current societal and ethical limits surrounding the treatment of the embryo. This has brought about the question of the adequacy of the fourteen-day rule and whether it is necessary for it...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 11, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

New Zealand District Health Boards ’ Open Disclosure Policies: A Qualitative Review
Conclusion: This review has identified significant unwarranted heterogeneity and important gaps in open disclosure documents in New Zealand which urgently needs to be addressed. Open disclosure policies which are both flexible and specific should enhance the likelihood that injured patients ’ needs will be met. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - January 7, 2019 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Accounting for the Moral Significance of Technology: Revisiting the Case of Non-Medical Sex Selection
This article explores the moral significance of technology, reviewing a microfluidic chip for sperm sorting and its use for non-medical sex selection. I explore how a specific material setting of this new iteration of pre-pregnancy sex selection technology —with a promised low cost, non-invasive nature and possibility to use at home—fosters new and exacerbates existing ethical concerns. I compare this new technology with the existing sex selection methods of sperm sorting and Prenatal Genetic Diagnosis. Current ethical and political debates on eme rging technologies predominantly focus on the quantifiable risk-...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - December 27, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Medicine is Patriarchal, But Alternative Medicine is Not the Answer
AbstractWomen are over-represented within alternative medicine, both as consumers and as service providers. In this paper, I show that the appeal of alternative medicine to women relates to the neglect of women ’s health needs within scientific medicine. This is concerning because alternative medicine is severely limited in its therapeutic effects; therefore, those who choose alternative therapies are liable to experience inadequate healthcare. I argue that while many patients seek greater autonomy in al ternative medicine, the absence of an evidence base and plausible mechanisms of action leaves patients unable to r...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - December 20, 2018 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research