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Power to the People?
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - November 15, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Dangers of Direct-to-Consumer Genetic  Testing for Alzheimer’s Disease
AbstractThe overarching issue with this case study is poor regulation and quality control over direct-to-consumer genetic testing, delivered in the absence of any medical oversight. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - November 13, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Personal Genomic Testing, Genetic Inheritance, and Uncertainty
AbstractThe case outlined below is the basis for theIn That Case section of the “Ethics and Epistemology of Big Data” symposium. Jordan receives reports from two separate personal genomic tests that provide intriguing data about ancestry and worrying but ambiguous data about the potential risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. What began as a personal curiosity about gen etic inheritance turns into an alarming situation of medical uncertainty. Questions about Jordan’s family tree are overshadowed by even more questions about Alzheimer’s disease and healthy ageing. As a parent, Jordan is unsur...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - November 8, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Future Emerges from the Past
AbstractThe case of Jordan (Mason2017) highlights the gamble of connecting with the past through genomic testing. Unfortunately for Jordan, his genomic testing identified two variant genes which account for up to 75 per cent of early-onset Alzheimer ’s disease cases. Furthermore, his children were identified as having a 50 per cent risk of inheriting the gene which corresponds to the majority of early-onset Alzheimer’s disease cases. Now Jordan is not only burdened with the foreknowledge that he will most likely develop Alzheimer’s diseas e at a relatively young age but also burdened with the knowledge th...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - November 8, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Ethics and Epistemology of Big Data
AbstractIn this Symposium on theEthics and Epistemology of Big Data, we present four perspectives on the ways in which the rapid growth in size of research databanks —i.e. their shift into the realm of “big data”—has changed their moral, socio-political, and epistemic status. While there is clearly something different about “big data” databanks, we encourage readers to place the arguments presented in this Symposium in the context of longstanding deb ates about the ethics, politics, and epistemology of biobank, database, genetic, and epidemiological research. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - November 8, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

When Doctors and Parents Don ’t Agree: The story of Charlie Gard
AbstractThis discussion  follows a series of high profile cases involving a terminally ill child, Charlie Gard. These cases are significant as they trace the complexities that arise when parents and medical teams do not agree as well as addressing the question of whether there is a right to access experimental treatment. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - November 6, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Parents ’ and Physicians’ Perceptions of Children’s Participation in Decision-making in Paediatric Oncology: A Quantitative Study
AbstractThe goal is to present how shared decision-making in paediatric oncology occurs from the viewpoints of parents and physicians. Eight Swiss Pediatric Oncology Group centres participated in this prospective study. The sample comprised a parent and physician of the minor patient (
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - October 11, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The President ’s Physician: An African Play
AbstractThis review examines issues relating to biomedical ethics and literature in the African dramaThe President ’s Physician by Emmanuel Babatunde Omobowale. The play investigates the psychological dilemma of Doctor Bituki Warunga, a personal physician to General Kalunga Ntibantunganyah who brutally and inhumanely rules Wavaria, a fictional African country. The doctor is faced with deciding to uphold the ethics of his profession versus terminating the tyrant ’s life to set the nation free. The play aims to help budding medical doctors rightly inculcate the principles of medical ethics—autonomy, benefic...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - October 11, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Ethics of Biomedical Big Data
AbstractThe availability of diverse sources of data related to health and illness from various types of modern communication technology presents the possibility of augmenting medical knowledge, clinical care, and the patient experience. New forms of data collection and analysis will undoubtedly transform epidemiology, public health, and clinical practice, but what ethical considerations come in to play? With a view to analysing the ethical and regulatory dimensions of burgeoning forms of biomedical big data, Brent Daniel Mittelstadt and Luciano Floridi have brought together thirty scholars in an edited volume that forms pa...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - October 7, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Digital Humanitarians: How Big Data Is Changing the Face of Humanitarian Response
AbstractThis is a review of Patrick Meier ’s 2015 book,Digital Humanitarians: How Big Data Is Changing the Face of Humanitarian Response. The book explores the role of technologies such as high-resolution satellite imagery, online social media, drones, and artificial intelligence in humanitarian responses during disasters such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake. In this analysis, the book is examined using a humanitarian health ethics perspective. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - October 5, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Issues of Freedom and Happiness in Moral Bioenhancement: Continuing the Debate With a Reply to Harris Wiseman
AbstractDuring the previous years, Harris Wiseman has devoted substantial attention to my stance on voluntary moral bioenhancement. He argued that he has been influenced by that position, but nonetheless criticized it. I haven ’t replied to his criticisms yet and wish to do so now. One of the reasons is to avoid my position being misrepresented. By replying to Wiseman’s criticisms, I also wish to clarify those issues in my standpoint that might have given rise to some of the misinterpretations. With the same purpose i n mind, I will demarcate my concept of voluntary moral bioenhancement from related standpoints...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - October 5, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Morally-Relevant Similarities and Differences Between Assisted Dying Practices in Paradigm and Non-Paradigm Circumstances: Could They Inform Regulatory Decisions?
AbstractThere has been contentious debate over the years about whether there are morally relevant similarities and differences between the three practices of continuous deep sedation until death, physician-assisted suicide, and voluntary euthanasia. Surprisingly little academic attention has been paid to a comparison of the uses of these practices in the two types of circumstances in which they are typically performed. Acomparative domains of ethics analysis methodological approach is used in the paper to compare 1) the use of the three practices in paradigm circumstances, and 2) the use of the practices in paradigm circum...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - October 5, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Biomedical Big Data: New Models of Control Over Access, Use and Governance
AbstractEmpirical evidence suggests that while people hold the capacity to control their data in high regard, they increasingly experience a loss of control over their data in the online world. The capacity to exert control over the generation and flow of personal information is a fundamental premise to important values such as autonomy, privacy, and trust. In healthcare and clinical research this capacity is generally achieved indirectly, by agreeing to specific conditions of informational exposure. Such conditions can be openly stated in informed consent documents or be implicit in the norms of confidentiality that gover...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - October 5, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Big Data and Health Research —The Governance Challenges in a Mixed Data Economy
AbstractDenmark is a society that has already moved towards Big Data and a Learning Health Care System. Data from routine healthcare has been registered centrally for years, there is a nationwide tissue bank, and there are numerous other available registries about education, employment, housing, pollution, etcetera. This has allowed Danish researchers to study the link between exposures, genetics and diseases in a large population. This use of public registries for scientific research has been relatively uncontroversial and has been supported by facilitative regulation that allows data to be used without the consent of dat...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - October 4, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Criminal Prohibition of Wrongful Re ‑identification: Legal Solution or Minefield for Big Data?
AbstractThe collapse of confidence in anonymization (sometimes also known as de-identification) as a robust approach for preserving the privacy of personal data has incited an outpouring of new approaches that aim to fill the resulting trifecta of technical, organizational, and regulatory privacy gaps left in its wake. In the latter category, and in large part due to the growth of Big Data –driven biomedical research, falls a growing chorus of calls for criminal and penal offences to sanction wrongful re-identification of “anonymized” data. This chorus cuts across the fault lines of polarized privacy law ...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - September 14, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Health Professionals “Make Their Choice”: Pharmaceutical Industry Leaders’ Understandings of Conflict of Interest
AbstractConflicts of interest, stemming from relationships between health professionals and the pharmaceutical industry, remain a highly divisive and inflammatory issue in healthcare. Given that most jurisdictions rely on industry to self-regulate with respect to its interactions with health professionals, it is surprising that little research has explored industry leaders ’ understandings of conflicts of interest. Drawing from in-depth interviews with ten pharmaceutical industry leaders based in Australia, we explore the normalized and structural management of conflicts of interest within pharmaceutical companies. W...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - September 14, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Measles Vaccination is Best for Children: The Argument for Relying on Herd Immunity Fails
This article examines an argument which may negatively influence measles vaccination uptake. According to the argument, an individual child in a highly vaccinated society may be better off by being non-vaccinated; the child does not risk vaccine adverse effects and is protected against measles through herd immunity. Firstly, the conclusion of the argument is challenged by showing that herd immunity ’s protection is unreliable and inferior to vaccination. Secondly, the logic of the argument is challenged by showing that the argument is inherently self-defeating and therefore logically inconsistent. In practice the arg...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - August 16, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Exploring Vaccine Hesitancy Through an Artist –Scientist Collaboration
AbstractThis project explores vaccine hesitancy through an artist –scientist collaboration. It aims to create better understanding of vaccine hesitant parents’ health beliefs and how these influence their vaccine-critical decisions. The project interviews vaccine-hesitant parents in the Netherlands and Finland and develops experimental visual-narrative means t o analyse the interview data. Vaccine-hesitant parents’ health beliefs are, in this study, expressed through stories, and they are paralleled with so-called illness narratives. The study explores the following four main health beliefs originating fr...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - August 16, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

A Feminist Critique of Justifications for Sex Selection
AbstractThis paper examines dominant arguments advocating for the procreative right to undergo sex selection for social reasons, based on gender preference. I present four of the most recognized and common justifications for sex selection: the argument from natural sex selection, the argument from procreative autonomy, the argument from family balancing, and the argument from children ’s well-being. Together these represent the various means by which scholars aim to defend access to sex selection for social reasons as a legitimate procreative choice. In response, I contend that these justifications are flawed and oft...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - August 16, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

A 450 Year Old Turkish Poem, Art as a Qualitative Investigation Tool, Buddhist Deathways, Karma and Eudaimonia in Death and Organ Donation: The Wonders of Truly Diverse Bioethical Inquiry!
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - August 16, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Stretching the Boundaries of Parental Responsibility and New Legal Guidelines for Determination of Brain Death
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - August 16, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

A Virtuous Death: Organ Donation and Eudaimonia
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - August 16, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Access to High Cost Cancer Medicines Through the Lens of an Australian Senate Inquiry —Defining the “Goods” at Stake
AbstractCancer is a major burden on populations and health systems internationally. The development of innovative cancer medicines is seen as a significant part of the solution. These new cancer medicines are, however, expensive, leading to limited or delayed access and disagreements among stakeholders about which medicines to fund. There is no obvious resolution to these disagreements, with stakeholders holding firmly to divergent positions. Access to cancer medicines was recently explored in Australia in a Senate Inquiry into theAvailability of New, Innovative, and Specialist Cancer Drugs in Australia. We analysed the re...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - July 18, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Erratum to: Bioethics and Biopolitics: Presents and Futures of Reproduction
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - July 3, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Including People with Dementia in Research: An Analysis of Australian Ethical and Legal Rules and Recommendations for Reform
AbstractResearch is crucial to advancing knowledge about dementia, yet the burden of the disease currently outpaces research activity. Research often excludes people with dementia and other cognitive impairments because researchers and ethics committees are concerned about issues related to capacity, consent, and substitute decision-making. In Australia, participation in research by people with cognitive impairment is governed by a national ethics statement and a patchwork of state and territorial laws that have widely varying rules. We contend that this legislative variation precludes a consistent approach to research gov...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 20, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Political Minimalism and Social Debates: The Case of Human-Enhancement Technologies
AbstractA faulty understanding of the relationship between morality and politics encumbers many contemporary debates on human enhancement. As a result, some ethical reflections on enhancement undervalue its social dimensions, while some social approaches to the topic lack normative import. In this essay, I use my own conception of the relationship between ethics and politics, which I call “political minimalism,” in order to support and strengthen the existing social perspectives on human-enhancement technologies. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 20, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Medical Negligence Determinations, the “Right to Try,” and Expanded Access to Innovative Treatments
This article considers the issue of expanded access to innovative treatments in the context of recent legislative initiatives in the United Kingdom and the United States. In the United Kingdom, the supporters of legislative change argued that the common law principles governing medical negligence are a barrier to innovation. In an attempt to remove this perceived impediment, two bills proposed that innovating doctors sued for negligence should be able to rely in their defence on the fact that their decision to innovate was “responsible.” A decision to innovate would be regarded as responsible if it followed a s...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 20, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Futile Treatment —A Review
AbstractThe main goal of intensive care medicine is helping patients survive acute threats to their lives, while preserving and restoring life quality. Because of medical advancements, it is now possible to sustain life to an extent that would previously have been difficult to imagine. However, the goals of medicine are not to preserve organ function or physiological activity but to treat and improve the health of a person as a whole. When dealing with medical futilities, physicians and other members of the care team should be aware of some ethical principles. Knowing these principles could make decision-making easier, esp...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 20, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

A 450-Year-Old Turkish Poem on Medical Ethics
AbstractThe Ottoman physician-poet Nidai of Ankara (1509 to post-1567) studied medicine in Crimea and served as a court physician in Istanbul during the reign of Sultan Selim II. Nidai marked the classical period of Ottoman medicine particularly with his acclaimed works and translations in Turkish, among whichManafi al-Nas (Benefits of People, 1566) became widely known. The final chapter ofManafi al-Nas also is known independently under the nameVasiyyetname (Last Will), which is a remarkable guide on medical ethics. This didactic, sixty-eight-line poem includes Nidai ’s moral advice to physicians that they should be ...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 20, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Are Wrongful Life Actions Threatening the Value of Human Life?
AbstractMost courts around the world have been refusing wrongful life actions. The main argument invoked is that the supposed compensable injury cannot be classified as such, since life is always a blessing no matter how hard and painful it is.In opposition to mainstream scholars and the dominant case law, this article sustains that life must be distinguished from living conditions, the former being the real injury at stake, since some living conditions are so intolerable that in themselves they justify a compensation within wrongful life actions. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 20, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Decision-Making Capacity and Unusual Beliefs: Two Contentious Cases
AbstractDecision-making capacity is a vital concept in law, ethics, and clinical practice. Two legal cases where capacity literally had life and death significance areNHS Trust v Ms T [2004] andKings College Hospital v C [2015]. These cases share another feature: unusual beliefs. This essay will critically assess the concept of capacity, particularly in relation to the unusual beliefs in these cases. Firstly, the interface between capacity and unusual beliefs will be examined. This will show that the “using and weighing of information” is the pivotal element in assessment. Next, this essay will explore the rela...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 20, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Bioethics and Biopolitics: Presents and Futures of Reproduction
AbstractThisBioethics and Biopolitics: Presents and Futures of Reproduction symposium draws together a series of articles that were each submitted independently by their authors to theJBI and which explore the biopower axis in the externalization of reproduction in four contexts: artificial gestation (ectogenesis), PGD for sex selection, women ’s (reproductive) rights, and testicular cryopreservation (TCCP). While one contribution explores a “future” of reproduction, the other three explore a “present,” or better, explore different “presents.” What may counts as “present,&rdq...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 12, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Sex, Drugs, and a Few Other Things
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 12, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Never Die Alone: Death and Birth in Pure Land Buddhism
AbstractThis is a review of a collection of six essays. These essays, with the exception of one, are written by the followers of Shin Buddhism (Pure Land Buddhism). The last essay in this collection is written from the perspective of Theravada Buddhism rather than Mahayana Buddhism. This collection is a result of the initiative by Rev. Yoshiharu Tomatsu who, as a Buddhist priest, has acquired hands-on experience in dealing with grieving Temple members and became acutely aware of the discrepancy between a medical system and a ritualistic Buddhist system. While a medical system overlooks the spiritual needs of the dying, a B...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - May 29, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Stigma and Self-Stigma in Addiction
AbstractAddictions are commonly accompanied by a sense of shame or self-stigmatization. Self-stigmatization results from public stigmatization in a process leading to the internalization of the social opprobrium attaching to the negative stereotypes associated with addiction. We offer an account of how this process works in terms of a range of looping effects, and this leads to our main claim that for a significant range of cases public stigma figures in the social construction of addiction. This rests on a social constructivist account in which those affected by public stigmatization internalize its norms. Stigma figures ...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - May 3, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Regulating the New: A Consideration of CRISPR and Approaches to Professional Standards of Practitioners of Chinese Medicine in Australia and Accessing the NDIS
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - April 20, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Testicular Tissue Cryopreservation and Ethical Considerations: A Scoping Review
AbstractTesticular tissue cryopreservation (TTCP) aims to preserve the future option of genetic reproduction for prepubescent cancer patients who are at risk of infertility as a result of their cancer therapies. This technology is experimental and currently only offered in the research context. As TTCP moves towards becoming more widely available, it is imperative that healthcare providers recognize the complex ethical issues surrounding this technology. This scoping review study identifies and assesses the range and depth of ethical concerns related to this testicular tissue cryopreservation technology. At present, no suc...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 28, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Levels of Intervention: How Are They Used in Quebec Hospitals?
This study highlights the importance of the LOI in Quebec and the role it is playing in respect for end-of-life preferences as well as in the involvement of patients and families in the decision-making process. Training specific to end-of-life decision-making co nversations would help support the LOI form’s use, as would developing provincial or national guidelines on the use of LOI to standardize organizational policies and practice around end-of-life care. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 21, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Ethics and Epistemology in Big Data Research
AbstractBiomedical innovation and translation are increasingly emphasizing research using “big data.” The hope is that big data methods will both speed up research and make its results more applicable to “real-world” patients and health services. While big data research has been embraced by scientists, politicians, industry, and the public, numerous ethical, organizational, and t echnical/methodological concerns have also been raised. With respect to technical and methodological concerns, there is a view that these will be resolved through sophisticated information technologies, predictive algorithm...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 19, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Race Research and the Ethics of Belief
AbstractOn most accounts, beliefs are supposed tofit the world rather thanchange it. But believing can have social consequences, since the beliefs we form underwrite our actions and impact our character. Because our beliefs affect how we live our lives and how we treat other people, it is surprising how little attention is usually given to themoral status of believing apart from itsepistemic justification. In what follows, I develop a version of the harm principle that applies to beliefs as well as actions. In doing so, I challenge the often exaggerated distinction between forming beliefs and acting on them.1 After develop...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 14, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

How Sex Selection Undermines Reproductive Autonomy
AbstractNon-medical sex selection is premised on the notion that the sexes are not interchangeable. Studies of individuals who undergo sex selection for non-medical reasons, or who have a preference for a son or daughter, show that they assume their child will conform to the stereotypical roles and norms associated with their sex. However, the evidence currently available has not succeeded in showing that the gender traits and inclinations sought are caused by a “male brain” or a “female brain”. Therefore, as far as we know, there is no biological reason why parents cannot have the kind of parenting...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 14, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Against Cursory Treatments in Ethics of Medical Migration from Underserved Countries
AbstractIn a recent paper, Mpofu, Sen Gupta, and Hays (2016) attempt to outline the obligations of recruiting high-income countries (HICs) and would-be emigrant health workers (HWs) to tackle the effects of mass exodus of health workers from underserved regions. They reconstruct (i) Rawlsian and Kantian global justice approaches to argue for moral obligations of HICs and (ii) an individual justice approach to point to non-enforceable social responsibilities of HWs to assist their compatriots. This critical commentary demonstrates that the argumentation within their individual justice approach is problematic on the basis of...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 8, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Role of a Hospital Ethics Consultation Service in Decision-Making for Unrepresented Patients
AbstractDespite increased calls for hospital ethics committees to serve as default decision-makers about life-sustaining treatment (LST) for unrepresented patients who lack decision-making capacity or a surrogate decision-maker and whose wishes regarding medical care are not known, little is known about how committees currently function in these cases. This was a retrospective cohort study of all ethics committee consultations involving decision-making about LST for unrepresented patients at a large academic hospital from 2007 to 2013. There were 310 ethics committee consultations, twenty-five (8.1 per cent) of which invol...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 5, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Ethical and Regulatory Challenges with Autologous Adult Stem Cells: A Comparative Review of International Regulations
AbstractCell and tissue-based products, such as autologous adult stem cells, are being prescribed by physicians across the world for diseases and illnesses that they have neither been approved for or been demonstrated as safe and effective in formal clinical trials. These doctors often form part of informal transnational networks that exploit differences and similarities in the regulatory systems across geographical contexts. In this paper, we examine the regulatory infrastructure of five geographically diverse but socio-economically comparable countries with the aim of identifying similarities and differences in how these...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - February 27, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Discovering the Neural Nature of Moral Cognition? Empirical, Theoretical, and Practical Challenges in Bioethical Research with Electroencephalography (EEG)
AbstractIn this article we critically review the neural mechanisms of moral cognition that have recently been studied via electroencephalography (EEG). Such studies promise to shed new light on traditional moral questions by helping us to understand how effective moral cognition is embodied in the brain. It has been argued that conflicting normative ethical theories require different cognitive features and can, accordingly, in a broadly conceived naturalistic attempt, be associated with different brain processes that are rooted in different brain networks and regions. This potentially morally relevant brain activity has be...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - February 27, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Autonomy and Reproductive Rights of Married Ikwerre Women in Rivers State, Nigeria
This study demonstrates ho w Ikwerre women understand the terms autonomy and reproductive rights and what affects the exercise of these rights. An exploratory research design was employed for this study. A semi-structured interview schedule was used to conduct thirty-four in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions wi th purposively sampled educated, semi-educated, and uneducated Ikwerre women in monogamous or polygynous marriages. The collected data was analysed qualitatively with MAXQDA 11 using open and axial coding. The interviews and focus group responses reveal a low level of awareness of autonomy and repro d...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - February 27, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Ninth Circle: Who and What Do We Trust In Today ’s World?
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - February 23, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Perfect Womb: Promoting Equality of (Fetal) Opportunity
AbstractThis paper aims to address how artificial gestation might affect equality of opportunity for the unborn and any resultant generation of “ectogenetic” babies. It will first explore the current legal obstacles preventing the development of ectogenesis, before looking at the benefits of allowing this technology to control fetal growth and development. This will open up a discussion of the treatment/enhancement divide regarding the use of reproductive technologies, a topic featured in various bioethical debates on the subject. Using current maternity practices in Western society as a comparator, this paper ...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - February 20, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Dutch Protocols for Deliberately Ending the Life of Newborns: A Defence
AbstractThe Groningen Protocol, introduced in the Netherlands in 2005 and accompanied by revised guidelines published in a report commissioned by the Royal Dutch Medical Association in 2014, specifies conditions under which the lives of severely ill newborns may be deliberately ended. Its publication came four years after the Netherlands became the first nation to legalize the voluntary active euthanasia of adults, and the Netherlands remains the only country to offer a pathway to protecting physicians who might engage in deliberately ending the life of a newborn (DELN). In this paper, I offer two lines of argument. The fi...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - February 19, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Prestidigitation vs. Public Trust: Or How We Can Learn to Change the Conversation and Prevent Powers  From “Organizing the Discontent”
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - February 14, 2017 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research