Culture, Truth, and Science After Lacan
Abstract Truth and knowledge are conceptually related and there is a way of construing both that implies that they cannot be solely derived from a description that restricts itself to a set of scientific facts. In the first section of this essay, I analyse truth as a relation between a praxis, ways of knowing, and the world. In the second section, I invoke the third thing—the objective reality on which we triangulate as knowing subjects for the purpose of complex scientific endeavours like medical science and clinical care. Such praxes develop robust methods of “keeping in touch” with disease and...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - November 28, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

“Personal Knowledge” in Medicine and the Epistemic Shortcomings of Scientism
Abstract In this paper, we outline a framework for understanding the different kinds of knowledge required for medical practice and use this framework to show how scientism undermines aspects of this knowledge. The framework is based on Michael Polanyi’s claim that knowledge is primarily the product of the contemplations and convictions of persons and yet at the same time carries a sense of universality because it grasps at reality. Building on Polanyi’s ideas, we propose that knowledge can be described along two intersecting “dimensions”: the tacit–explicit and the particular–g...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - November 28, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Race Idea in Reproductive Technologies: Beyond Epistemic Scientism and Technological Mastery
Abstract This paper explores the limitations of epistemic scientism for understanding the role the concept of race plays in assisted reproductive technology (ART) practices. Two major limitations centre around the desire to use scientific knowledge to bring about social improvement. In the first case, undue focus is placed on debunking the scientific reality of racial categories and characteristics. The alternative to this approach is to focus instead on the way the race idea functions in ART practices. Doing so reveals how the race idea (1) helps to define the reproductive “problems” different groups ...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - November 28, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Scientism as a Social Response to the Problem of Suicide
Abstract As one component of a broader social and normative response to the problem of suicide, scientism served to minimize sociopolitical and religious conflict around the issue. As such, it embodied, and continues to embody, a number of interests and values, as well as serving important social functions. It is thus comparable with other normative frameworks and can be appraised, from an ethical perspective, in light of these values, interests, and functions. This work examines the key values, interests, and functions of scientism in suicidology and argues that although scientism has had some social benefit, it ...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - November 28, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Scientism and Pseudoscience: A Philosophical Commentary
Abstract The term “scientism” is used in a variety of ways with both negative and positive connotations. I suggest that some of these uses are inappropriate, as they aim simply at dismissing without argument an approach that a particular author does not like. However, there are legitimate negative uses of the term, which I explore by way of an analogy with the term “pseudoscience.” I discuss these issues by way of a recent specific example provided by a controversy in the field of bioethics concerning the value, or lack thereof, of homeopathy. I then frame the debate about scientism within ...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - November 28, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Thirty Years Yet Miles of the Medium-Metaphor to Go: Jon Stewart, Neil Postman, and “Understanding the Politics and Epistemology of Media”
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - September 4, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Rethinking “Commercial” Surrogacy in Australia
This article proposes reconsideration of laws prohibiting paid surrogacy in Australia in light of increasing transnational commercial surrogacy. The social science evidence base concerning domestic surrogacy in developed economies demonstrates that payment alone cannot be used to differentiate “good” surrogacy arrangements from “bad” ones. Compensated domestic surrogacy and the introduction of professional intermediaries and mechanisms such as advertising are proposed as a feasible harm-minimisation approach. I contend that Australia can learn from commercial surrogacy practices elsewhere, without r...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - September 1, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Planning for Pandemics: Lessons From the Past Decade
Abstract It is now 10 years since the disease we now know as SARS—severe acute respiratory syndrome—caused more than 700 deaths around the world and made more than 8,000 people ill. More recently, in 2009 the global community experienced the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century—the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. This paper analyses the major developments in international public health law relating to infectious diseases in the period since SARS and considers their implications for pandemic planning. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - September 1, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Open-Identity Sperm Donation: How Does Offering Donor-Identifying Information Relate to Donor-Conceived Offspring’s Wishes and Needs?
This study has two goals: First, we aim to provide a systematic review of the reasons why donor-conceived (DC) offspring want to know the identity of their sperm donor. Second, we examine to what extent the provision of donor-identifying information can satisfy the reasons mentioned. The most important motivations appear to be: (1) to avoid medical risks and consanguineous relationships; (2) to satisfy curiosity; (3) to learn more about the self or to complete one’s identity; (4) to learn more about what kind of person the donor is (biographical information, why he donated, etc.); (5) to form a relationship with the ...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - September 1, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Devotion, Diversity, and Reasoning: Religion and Medical Ethics
Abstract Most modern ethicists and ethics textbooks assert that religion holds little or no place in ethics, including fields of professional ethics like medical ethics. This assertion, of course, implicitly refers to ethical reasoning, but there is much more to the ethical life and the practice of ethics—especially professional ethics—than reasoning. It is no surprise that teachers of practical ethics, myself included, often focus on reasoning to the exclusion of other aspects of the ethical life. Especially for those with a philosophical background, reasoning is the most patent and pedagogically cont...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - September 1, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Restorative Role of Apology in Resolving Medical Disputes: Lessons From Chinese Legal Culture
This article is the first exploration of the Chinese notion of apology from a comparative legal perspective. By reviewing the significance of apology in the context of Chinese culture, the article presents a three-dimensional structure of apology that, in contrast to the understanding the research community now has, defines acknowledgement of fault, admission of responsibility, and offer of reparation as three essential elements of an apology. It is the combination of these three elements that enables apology to serve as a form of reparation. The article further places the three-dimensional apology in the context of the Ch...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - August 20, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Roma Women’s Perspectives on End-of-Life Decisions
The objective of this study was to explore the perspective of Roma women on end-of-life decision-making. It was a qualitative study involving thirty-three Roma women belonging to groups for training and social development in two municipalities. We brought together five focus groups between February and December 2012. Six mediators each recruited five to six participants. We considered age and care role to be the variables that can have the most influence on opinion regarding end-of-life decision-making. We considered the discussion saturated when the ideas expressed were repeated. Data analysis was carried out according to...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - August 18, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Big Eyes
Abstract This is a review of the film Big Eyes. Adapted from a true story about artist Margaret Keane, the overarching theme of the movie is plagiarism. While most people think of written works such as books and articles being plagiarized, Big Eyes gives viewers insight into the world of stolen works of visual art, namely paintings. The victim finds moral courage through religion, while the thief (Keane’s husband, Walter) lives in denial until death. Anyone with an interest in art, law, or psychiatry will enjoy what Big Eyes has to offer. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - July 31, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Our Curse
Abstract This is a review of the narrative medicine documentary, Our Curse. The writer and director of this Oscar-nominated Polish movie is a film student and a young father to a baby born with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS). Using simple cinematography, the film is an autobiographical exploration of the fearful, tearful, and sometimes joyful days and nights in the lives of the child and his parents. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - July 24, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Imperialism in Bioethics: How Policies of Profit Negate Engagement of Developing World Bioethicists and Undermine Global Bioethics
We examined these policies focusing on the way they influence the ability of researchers in resource-poor countries to participate in the development of the field of bioethics. Eight of the fourteen leading bioethics journals are published by three transnational publishing houses, all of which are based in wealthy nations. None of these eight journals participates in the Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative (HINARI) of the World Health Organization, a program that provides free or very low-cost online access to the major journals by researchers in developing countries. Lack of access to these essential resourc...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - July 22, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Addressing the Concerns Surrounding Continuous Deep Sedation in Singapore and Southeast Asia: A Palliative Care Approach
Abstract The application of continuous deep sedation (CDS) in the treatment of intractable suffering at the end of life continues to be tied to a number of concerns that have negated its use in palliative care. Part of the resistance towards use of this treatment option of last resort has been the continued association of CDS with physician-associated suicide and/or euthanasia (PAS/E), which is compounded by a lack clinical guidelines and a failure to cite this treatment under the aegis of a palliative care approach. I argue that reinstituting a palliative care-inspired approach that includes a holistic review of ...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - July 15, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Paedophilia, Invasive Brain Surgery, and Punishment
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - July 15, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Correcting Error in Academic Publishing: An Ethical Responsibility
This article describes unsuccessful attempts to correct factual errors in one publication criticizing the inquiry. These attempts at correction raise ethical issues about the dissemination of the products of medical research—in particular, about the place of research subjects in post-publication ethical deliberations and the responsibility of universities and publishers in decision-making, especially in relation to the correction of error in academic publications. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - July 15, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Respect for Human Vulnerability: The Emergence of a New Principle in Bioethics
Abstract Vulnerability has become a popular though controversial topic in bioethics, notably since 2000. As a result, a common body of knowledge has emerged (1) distinguishing between different types of vulnerability, (2) criticizing the categorization of populations as vulnerable, and (3) questioning the practical implications. It is argued that two perspectives on vulnerability, i.e., the philosophical and political, pose challenges to contemporary bioethics discourse: they re-examine the significance of human agency, the primacy of the individual person, and the negativity of vulnerability. As a phenomenon of g...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - July 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Parental Virtue and Prenatal Genetic Alteration Research
Abstract Although the philosophical literature on the ethics of human prenatal genetic alteration (PGA) purports to inform us about how to act, it rarely explicitly recognizes the perspective of those who will be making the PGA decision in practice. Here I approach the ethics of PGA from a distinctly virtue-based perspective, taking seriously what it means to be a good parent making this decision for one’s child. From this perspective, I generate a sound verdict on the moral standing of human PGA (research): given the current state of the art, good parents have compelling reason not to consent to PGA (resear...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - July 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Decision-Making: At the End of Life and the Provision of Pretreatment Advice
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - July 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

AIDS Panic in the Twenty-First Century: The Tenuous Legal Status of HIV-Positive Persons in America
Abstract Thirty-four states criminalize HIV in some way, whether by mandating disclosure of one’s HIV status to all sexual partners or by deeming the saliva of HIV-positive persons a “deadly weapon.” In this paper, we argue that HIV-specific criminal laws are rooted in historical prejudice against HIV-positive persons as a class. While purporting to promote public health goals, these laws instead legally sanction discrimination against a class of persons. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - July 10, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Reproductive Ethics in Commercial Surrogacy: Decision-Making in IVF Clinics in New Delhi, India
Abstract As a neo-liberal economy, India has become one of the new health tourism destinations, with commercial gestational surrogacy as an expanding market. Yet the Indian Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Bill has been pending for five years, and the guidelines issued by the Indian Council of Medical Research are somewhat vague and contradictory, resulting in self-regulated practices of fertility clinics. This paper broadly looks at clinical ethics in reproduction in the practice of surrogacy and decision-making in various procedures. Through empirical research in New Delhi, the capital of India, from ...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - July 1, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Teaching Conflict: Professionalism and Medical Education
Abstract Resistance by physicians, medical researchers, medical educators, and medical students to pharmaceutical industry influence in medicine is often based on the notion that physicians (guided by the ethics of their profession) and the industry (guided by profit) are in conflict. This criticism has taken the form of a professional movement opposing conflict of interest (COI) in medicine and medical education and has resulted in policies and guidelines that frame COI as the problem and outline measures to address this problem. In this paper, I offer a critique of this focus on COI that is grounded in a broader...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - July 1, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Tortoise Transformation as a Prospect for Life Extension
Abstract The value of extending the human lifespan remains a key philosophical debate in bioethics. In building a case against the extension of the species-typical human life, Nicolas Agar considers the prospect of transforming human beings near the end of their lives into Galapagos tortoises, which would then live on decades longer. A central question at stake in this transformation is the persistence of human consciousness as a condition of the value of the transformation. Agar entertains the idea that consciousness could persist in some measure, but he thinks little is to be gained from the transformation becau...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - July 1, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Surrogacy, Compensation, and Legal Parentage: Against the Adoption Model
Abstract Surrogate motherhood is treated as a form of adoption in many countries: the birth mother and her partner are presumed to be the parents of the child, while the intended parents have to adopt the baby once it is born. Other than compensation for expenses related to the pregnancy, payment to surrogates is not permitted. We believe that the failure to compensate surrogate mothers for their labour as well as the significant risks they undertake is both unfair and exploitative. We accept that introducing payment for surrogates would create a significant tension in the adoption model. However, we recommend rej...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - July 1, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Conflicts Between Parents and Health Professionals About a Child’s Medical Treatment: Using Clinical Ethics Records to Find Gaps in the Bioethics Literature
Abstract Clinical ethics records offer bioethics researchers a rich source of cases that clinicians have identified as ethically complex. In this paper, we suggest that clinical ethics records can be used to point to types of cases that lack attention in the current bioethics literature, identifying new areas in need of more detailed bioethical work. We conducted an analysis of the clinical ethics records of one paediatric hospital in Australia, focusing specifically on conflicts between parents and health professionals about a child’s medical treatment. We identified, analysed, and compared cases of this ty...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - July 1, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Erratum to: Ethical Considerations of Physician Career Involvement in Global Health Work: A Framework
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - July 1, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Queering Know-How: Clinical Skill Acquisition as Ethical Practice
Abstract Our study of queer women patients and their primary health care providers (HCPs) in Halifax, Nova Scotia, reveals a gap between providers’ theoretical knowledge of “cultural competency” and patients’ experience. Drawing on Patricia Benner’s Dreyfusian model of skill acquisition in nursing, we suggest that the dissonance between the anti-heteronormative principles expressed in interviews and the relative absence of skilled anti-heteronormative clinical practice can be understood as a failure to grasp the field of practice as a whole. Moving from “knowing-that” to ...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 1, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

East–West Differences in Perception of Brain Death
Abstract The concept of brain death as equivalent to cardiopulmonary death was initially conceived following developments in neuroscience, critical care, and transplant technology. It is now a routine part of medicine in Western countries, including the United States. In contrast, Eastern countries have been reluctant to incorporate brain death into legislation and medical practice. Several countries, most notably China, still lack laws recognizing brain death and national medical standards for making the diagnosis. The perception is that Asians are less likely to approve of brain death or organ transplant from b...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 1, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

It’s Time: The Case for PrEP as an Active Comparator in HIV Biomedical Prevention Trials
Abstract In July 2012, based on evidence from two major trials, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved the use of combined oral tenofovir/emtricitabine as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for people at high risk of HIV acquisition. PrEP effectiveness is marred by poor adherence, however, even in trial populations, thus it is not a magic bullet for HIV prevention. It is, however, the most effective biomedical HIV prevention intervention available for people at high risk of HIV, particularly those who have receptive sex and lack the power to negotiate condom use. Accordingly, there are compelling re...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 1, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

A Gentle Ethical Defence of Homeopathy
Abstract Recent discourses about the legitimacy of homeopathy have focused on its scientific plausibility, mechanism of action, and evidence base. These, frequently, conclude not only that homeopathy is scientifically baseless, but that it is “unethical.” They have also diminished patients’ perspectives, values, and preferences. We contend that these critics confuse epistemic questions with questions of ethics, misconstrue the moral status of homeopaths, and have an impoverished idea of ethics—one that fails to account either for the moral worth of care and of relationships or for the pers...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 1, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Off-Label Drug Use as a Consent and Health Regulation Issue in New Zealand
Abstract The term “off-label drug use” refers to drugs that have not yet acquired “approved” status or drugs that have acquired “approved” status but are used with a different dosage, route, or administration method other than that for which the drug has been approved. In New Zealand, the Medicines Act 1981 specifically allows for off-label drug use. However, this authority is limited by the Health and Disability Commissioner (Code of Health and Disability Services Consumers’ Rights) Regulations 1996 and the common law, which require that off-label drug use is of an accep...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 1, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Diagnosis and Treatment for Vulvar Cancer for Indigenous Women From East Arnhem Land, Northern Territory: Bioethical Reflections
Abstract This paper explores the bioethical issues associated with the diagnosis and treatment of vulvar cancer for Indigenous women in East Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia. Based on a qualitative study of a vulvar cancer cluster of Indigenous women, the article highlights four main topics of bioethical concern drawn from the findings: informed consent, removal of body parts, pain management, and issues at the interface of Indigenous and Western health care. The article seeks to make a contribution towards Indigenous health and bioethics and bring to light areas of further research. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - June 1, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

“Can a Company be Bitchy?” Corporate (and Political and Scientific) Social Responsibility
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - May 28, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Culturally Competent Bioethics: Analysis of a Case Study
Abstract This paper discusses the Saudi Arabian case by Abdallah Adlan and Henk ten Have, published in a 2012 issue of the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, regarding a congenitally disabled child enrolled in a research project examining the genetics of her condition. During the course of the study, her father was found not to be genetically related, and the case discussed the dilemma between disclosing to the family all findings as promised in consent documents or withholding paternity information because of the likely severe social repercussions. Using Adlan and ten Have’s example, this paper proposes a frame...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - May 28, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Words and Pictures
Abstract This is a review of the 2013 film Words and Pictures. Surprisingly, the film is not about justifying a role for the humanities in education but, rather, a battle to determine which is more valuable—literature or art?. At a time when many schools question if these have any value at all, this film uses passionate and afflicted teachers to explore which is most important and finds valuable intersections between the two. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - May 28, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Supporting Innovation in the UK: Care Act 2014
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - May 13, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Drug Familiarization and Therapeutic Misconception Via Direct-to-Consumer Information
Abstract Promotion of prescription drugs may appear to be severely limited in some jurisdictions due to restrictions on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA). However, in most jurisdictions, strategies exist to raise consumer awareness about prescription drugs, notably through the deployment of direct-to-consumer information (DTCI) campaigns that encourage patients to seek help for particular medical conditions. In Canada, DTCI is presented by industry and regulated by Health Canada as being purely informational activities, but their design and integration in broader promotional campaigns raise very similar ethica...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - May 11, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Bioethical Challenges of the Ebola Outbreak
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - May 8, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

In That Case: Necessary Limitation of Medical Treatment, Ageism, or Worse? A Policy Proposal for Limiting Kidney Dialysis Availability Over 75
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - May 8, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Between Palliative Care and Euthanasia
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - April 22, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Remembering Stephanie
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 26, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Like Father, Like Son
Abstract This is a review of the Japanese film, Like Father, Like Son. The movie tells the story of two families attempting to resolve the dilemma of learning that their 6-year old sons are actually not their biological children, but rather children swapped at birth by a nurse with malicious intent. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 24, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Defining “Global Health Ethics”
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 21, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Editorial Note: “Remembering Stephanie” by Charlee Brodsky
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 21, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Essay: A Lesson in Living
Abstract This 2013 Consortium of Universities for Global Health essay examines the ethical dilemmas encountered by a public health worker engaged in HIV/AIDS prevention and health promotion in a rural Tanzanian community. Is the professional objective of improving the health and well-being of the population so simple? (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 13, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

Facebook Study: A Little Bit Unethical But Worth It?
Abstract Human research involving the use social media raises many of the same issues as medical research. The publication of a paper in June 2014 investigating “emotional contagion” received extensive publicity recently because of the methods used. The approach involved manipulating the “News Feeds” of Facebook users, but the participants were not informed of their involvement in the research and had no opportunity to consent or opt out. Some commentators have argued that although it would have been preferable to obtain informed consent, it was not strictly required because the research wa...
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 5, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

The Ethics of the New Eugenics
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - March 5, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

In-House Plagiarism and Editorial Unaccountability
(Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - February 25, 2015 Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research