Genomic Variability among Field Isolates and Laboratory-Adapted Strains of Leptospira borgpetersenii Serovar Hardjo.
Authors: Llanes A, Restrepo CM, Riesgo-Ferreiro P, Rajeev S Abstract Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo colonizes cattle kidneys and may occasionally infect humans and other mammals. Strains belonging to two clonal subtypes (types A and B) with marked differences in their pathogenicity in the hamster experimental model have been described for this serovar. Such differences have been attributed to point mutations in individual genes, although those genes have not yet been characterized. In order to better understand genetic variability among L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo isolates, we sequenced and compared ...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - June 30, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Various Contact Lens Solutions to Inhibit the Growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.
According to this study, the solutions named "Biotrue" and "Aquasoft" met the primary stand-alone and reached the 3log reduction and 5log reduction criteria in the manufacturer recommended time, respectively. No conclusion could be drawn for Opti-Free Replenish since the minimum recommended disinfection time was overnight, whereas it was noted for 6 hr only, and it should have been experimented further. The effectiveness of multipurpose solutions varies against different bacterial species. We have observed that the antimicrobial activity of different solutions varies with respect to time of incub...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - June 30, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates, Isolated from a Burn Hospital in Southwest Iran in 2006 and 2014.
Conclusion: The predominance of ST-239 in this region during the last eight years is a major concern. It also has a disturbing impact on the management of staphylococcal infections. Moreover, the SCCmec type IV strain is able to disseminate rapidly in hospital environments, demanding an improvement in infection-control policy. PMID: 29887890 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Microbiology)
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - June 13, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Surfaces and Air Bacteriology of Selected Wards at a Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.
Conclusions: This study showed high degree of bacterial load that is beyond the standard limits on both surfaces and air samples of the hospital. Furthermore, some 75% of the isolates were found multidrug resistant. Therefore, it is important to evaluate and strengthen the infection prevention practice of the hospital. Moreover, stakeholders should also reinforce actions to decrease the pressure of antimicrobial resistance in the studied area. PMID: 29861733 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Microbiology)
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - June 6, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Epidemiological Survey of Rotaviruses Responsible for Infantile Diarrhea by the Immunomolecular Technique in Cotonou (Benin, West Africa).
Authors: Agbla JMM, Capo-Chichi A, Agbankpé AJ, Dougnon TV, Yadouleton AWM, Houngbégnon O, Glele-Kakai C, Armah GE, Bankolé H Abstract Rotavirus remains the main causative agent of gastroenteritis in young children, in countries that have not yet introduced the vaccine. Benin, in order to implement the WHO recommendations, projects to introduce the rotavirus vaccine in 2018 as part of its Expanded Program on Immunization. But before the introduction of this vaccine, epidemiological data on rotavirus infections and rotavirus genotypes circulating in Benin should be available. The aim of this stu...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - June 3, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Production of Biosurfactants by Soil Fungi Isolated from the Amazon Forest.
Authors: Sena HH, Sanches MA, Rocha DFS, Segundo WOPF, de Souza ÉS, de Souza JVB Abstract Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds that have sparked interest in recent years because of their environmental advantages over conventional surfactants. The aim of this study was to investigate the production of biosurfactants by soil fungi isolated from the Amazon forest. Fungi colonies were isolated from soil samples and screened for biosurfactant production in submerged fermentation. In addition, the influences of bioprocess factors (carbon source, nitrogen source, pH, and fermentation time) were investigated....
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - June 3, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Illumina MiSeq Sequencing for Preliminary Analysis of Microbiome Causing Primary Endodontic Infections in Egypt.
Authors: Tawfik SA, Azab MM, Ahmed AAA, Fayyad DM Abstract The use of high throughput next generation technologies has allowed more comprehensive analysis than traditional Sanger sequencing. The specific aim of this study was to investigate the microbial diversity of primary endodontic infections using Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform in Egyptian patients. Samples were collected from 19 patients in Suez Canal University Hospital (Endodontic Department) using sterile # 15K file and paper points. DNA was extracted using Mo Bio power soil DNA isolation extraction kit followed by PCR amplification and agarose gel ele...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - June 2, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori cagA and iceA Genes and Their Association with Gastrointestinal Diseases.
In conclusion, cagA and iceA genes could be used as markers for severe gastrointestinal diseases. iceA gene was strongly related to cagA gene. PMID: 29849647 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Microbiology)
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - June 2, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Brown Rot-Type Fungal Decomposition of Sorghum Bagasse: Variable Success and Mechanistic Implications.
Authors: Presley GN, Ndimba BK, Schilling JS Abstract Sweet sorghum is a promising crop for a warming, drying African climate, and basic information is lacking on conversion pathways for its lignocellulosic residues (bagasse). Brown rot wood-decomposer fungi use carbohydrate-selective pathways that, when assessed on sorghum, a grass substrate, can yield information relevant to both plant biomass conversion and fungal biology. In testing sorghum decomposition by brown rot fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum, Serpula lacrymans), we found that G. trabeum readily degraded sorghum, removing xylan prior to removing glucan. Serpu...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - June 2, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular Typing and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Bovine Milk in Tanzania.
This study was performed to determine the molecular characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of MRSA strains isolated from raw bovine milk sold at local markets in Tanzania. A total of 117 raw milk samples were cultured on Baird-Parker medium to isolate S. aureus and PCR was used for amplification of gltB gene for S. aureus identification and the presence of mecA gene for methicillin-resistant strains. Coagulase-negative (CN) S. aureus were reconfirmed using tube coagulase, DNase, and API Staph tests. MRSA isolates were spa typed whereas antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the disc diffusi...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - May 4, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis and Its Association with Risk Factors among Nonpregnant Women: A Hospital Based Study.
This study was carried out among 160 nonpregnant women registered at the Outpatient Department of Gynaecology/Obstetrics of KIST Medical College Teaching Hospital, Imadol, Lalitpur, Nepal, from November 2014 to May 2015. The aim of the study was to assess the association of the risk factors with BV and analyze the type of bacteria associated with BV. Nugent's scoring method was used for diagnosis of BV in this study. The overall prevalence of BV was 24.4% among symptomatic patients. Douching was statistically related to BV (P = 0.015). Also, BV was significantly associated with consistency (P = 0.0001), odor (P = 0.02), an...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - April 27, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Bacterial Profile, Antibacterial Resistance Pattern, and Associated Factors from Women Attending Postnatal Health Service at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.
Conclusion: The high prevalence of bacterial profile and isolation of multidrug-resistant bacteria pose a big threat to postnatal mothers and their children. Factors such as cesarean section, episiotomy for delivery, and premature rapture of membrane were predictors for bacterial infection. Therefore, there should be done a continuous surveillance as well as rational use of antibiotics and a longitudinal study using phenotypic and genotypic methods will be done. PMID: 29681942 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Microbiology)
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - April 24, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Morphological and Molecular Identification of the Causal Agent of Anthracnose Disease of Avocado in Kenya.
Authors: Kimaru SK, Monda E, Cheruiyot RC, Mbaka J, Alakonya A Abstract Anthracnose disease of avocado contributes to a huge loss of avocado fruits due to postharvest rot in Kenya. The causal agent of this disease has not been clear but presumed to be Colletotrichum gloeosporioides as reported in other regions where avocado is grown. The fungus mainly infects fruits causing symptoms such as small blackish spots, "pepper spots," and black spots with raised margin which coalesce as infection progresses. Due to economic losses associated with the disease and emerging information of other species of fungi as ...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - April 24, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Effects of Bile Acids and Nisin on the Production of Enterotoxin by Clostridium perfringens in a Nutrient-Rich Medium.
Authors: Park M, Rafii F Abstract Clostridium perfringens is the second most common cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the United States, with nearly a million cases each year. C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), produced during sporulation, damages intestinal epithelial cells by pore formation, which results in watery diarrhea. The effects of low concentrations of nisin and bile acids on sporulation and toxin production were investigated in C. perfringens SM101, which carries an enterotoxin gene on the chromosome, in a nutrient-rich medium. Bile acids and nisin increased production of enterotoxin in cultures; b...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - April 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Bacterial Community of the Rice Floodwater Using Cultivation-Independent Approaches.
In this study, bacterial communities in floodwaters of rice fields were monitored during the vegetative and reproductive stages of rice plant development using 16S amplicon sequencing. The study was conducted in the south of Brazil, during the crop years 2011/12 and 2012/13. Comparative analyses showed strong differences between the communities of floodwaters associated with the two developmental stages. During the vegetative stage, 1551 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected, while less than half that number (603) were identified in the reproductive stage. The higher bacterial richness observed in floodwater col...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - April 20, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence and Antibiotics Susceptibility Pattern of Salmonella and Shigella Species among Diarrheal Patients Attending Nekemte Referral Hospital, Oromia, Ethiopia.
This study revealed 9.2% prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella sp. which were resistant to commonly prescribed antibiotics. Thus, intervention measures such as health education, provision of safe drinking water, improvement of waste disposal systems, and surveillance of antibiotics susceptibility of the pathogens should be done regularly. PMID: 29623093 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Microbiology)
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - April 7, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Assessment of Two Years' Sputum Smear Results among Tuberculosis Suspected Patients in Gambella Regional Hospital, Western Ethiopia.
Conclusion: In Gambella region, although the distribution of AFB smear results had no significant yearly variations and the overall burden of SSP cases was decreased, still a lot of work needs to be undertaken on the PTb prevention and control program. PMID: 29552038 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Microbiology)
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - March 21, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Morphological and Genetic Diversity of Rhizobia Nodulating Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) from Agricultural Soils of Lower Eastern Kenya.
This study is a prerequisite to the selection of suitable cowpea rhizobia to develop bioinoculants for sustainable crop production in Kenya. PMID: 29463983 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Microbiology)
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - February 26, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Epidemiological Features of Clostridium difficile Colonizing the Intestine of Jordanian Infants.
This study investigated the most important epidemiological features of C. difficile strains colonizing intestine of Jordanian infants. A total of 287 fecal samples were collected from infants admitted to the Jordan University Hospital (JUH) over the period of 2015. Samples were cultured for C. difficile and their growth was identified using microbiological culture and PCR. The overall C. difficile colonization rate among hospitalized and nonhospitalized infants was 37/287 (12.9%). Neonates were less colonized than other infants (8.7% verses 19.5%). Colonization of the infants with C. difficile toxigenic strains (TcdA and T...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - February 10, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in Curd Cheese Sold in the Northeastern Region of South America.
Authors: Barreto de Deus T, Barros LSS, Mendes da Silva R, Karine da Silva Lima W, Virgens Lima DD, Dos Santos Silva A Abstract The present study evaluated the microbiological and sanitary quality of curd cheese sold on the beaches of the Itaparica Island, Brazil, and verified whether a correlation exists between the commercialization conditions and the microbiological data. The research was performed between December 2015 and March 2017. Sixty samples of rennet-containing cheese were collected to estimate the populations of mesophylls, psychrotrophic microorganisms, mold and yeast, Staphylococcus aureus, total col...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - January 26, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Persistence of Toxic Activity of Fermentation Extracts from Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis after More Than Three Decades of Storage.
This study was carried out to determine the persistence of toxicity of fermentation extracts of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis after more than three decades of storage. For this purpose, a population of Aedes aegypti was established. The mortality rate of 20 spore-crystal extracts purified using the acetone-lactose coprecipitation method was measured and evaluated by bioassays according to a modified WHO protocol. The extracts with the highest mortality rate were determined in triplicate by their LD50 and LD98. All extracts showed toxicity at the highest tested dose (1000 ppm) and some, such as strains 3260...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - January 24, 2018 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Qualitative Analysis of Microbial Dynamics during Anaerobic Digestion of Microalgal Biomass in a UASB Reactor.
The objective of this research was to assess changes in bacterial community composition that coordinates with anaerobic codigestion of microalgal biomass cultivated on municipal wastewater. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was used to achieve high rates of microalgae decomposition and biogas production. Samples of the sludge were collected throughout AD and extracted DNA was subjected to next-generation sequencing using methanogen mcrA gene specific and universal bacterial primers. Analysis of the data revealed that samples taken at different stages of AD had varying bacterial composition. A group consisting of B...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - December 22, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Enteric Fever Caused by Salmonella enterica Serovars with Reduced Susceptibility of Fluoroquinolones at a Community Based Teaching Hospital of Nepal.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the incidence of enteric fever associated with Salmonella enterica and determine its antimicrobial susceptibilities to therapeutic antimicrobials in a community based teaching hospital of Nepal. A total of 2,304 blood samples from suspected enteric fever patients attending Manmohan Memorial Teaching Hospital were processed with standard microbiological methods for the isolation and identification of bacterial pathogens. The Salmonella enterica clinical strains were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method, and the results were interpreted ...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - December 15, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Differential Microbial Diversity in Drosophila melanogaster: Are Fruit Flies Potential Vectors of Opportunistic Pathogens?
In this study wild D. melanogaster were collected from tropical fruits in Puerto Rico to test how the microbiota is distributed and to compare the culturable diversity of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, we investigated whether flies are potential vectors of human and plant pathogens. Eighteen species of fungi and twelve species of bacteria were isolated from wild flies. The most abundant microorganisms identified were the yeast Candida inconspicua and the bacterium Klebsiella sp. The yeast Issatchenkia hanoiensis was significantly more common internally than externally in flies. Species richness was higher in fungi than ...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - December 15, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Survival of Five Strains of Shiga Toxigenic Escherichia coli in a Sausage Fermentation Model and Subsequent Sensitivity to Stress from Gastric Acid and Intestinal Fluid.
Authors: Rode TM, McLeod A, Måge I, Heir E, Axelsson L, Holck AL Abstract The ability of foodborne pathogens to exhibit adaptive responses to stressful conditions in foods may enhance their survival when passing through the gastrointestinal system. We aimed to determine whether Escherichia coli surviving stresses encountered during a model dry-fermented sausage (DFS) production process exhibit enhanced tolerance and survival in an in vitro gastrointestinal model. Salami sausage batters spiked with five E. coli isolates, including enterohaemorrhagic E. coli strains isolated from different DFS outbreaks, were f...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - December 8, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of the Performance of Urinary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigens Cocktail (ESAT6, CFP10, and MPT64) with Culture and Microscopy in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients.
Authors: Turbawaty DK, Sugianli AK, Soeroto AY, Setiabudiawan B, Parwati I Abstract Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem and is one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide. Our study aimed to evaluate the performance of urinary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens cocktail (ESAT6, CFP10, and MPT64) compared with culture and microscopy. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung, from January 2014 to October 2016. A total of 141 pulmonary tuberculosis patients were included. Sputum samples were examined for acid-fast bacilli (ZN st...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - November 30, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Bacteria from Jordanian Hot Springs: Bacillus licheniformis and Thermomonas hydrothermalis Isolates as Potential Producers of Thermostable Enzymes.
Authors: Mohammad BT, Al Daghistani HI, Jaouani A, Abdel-Latif S, Kennes C Abstract The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of thermophilic bacteria from hot springs in Jordan. Ten isolates were characterized by morphological, microscopic, biochemical, molecular, and physiological characteristics. Sequencing of the 16S rDNA of the isolates followed by BLAST search revealed that nine strains could be identified as Bacillus licheniformis and one isolate as Thermomonas hydrothermalis. This is the first report on the isolation of Thermomonas species from Jordanian hot springs. The isolates showed a...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - November 24, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Antibiotic Resistant Bacterial Isolates from Captive Green Turtles and In Vitro Sensitivity to Bacteriophages.
This study aimed to test multidrug resistant isolates from hospitalised green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and their environment in North Queensland, Australia, for in vitro susceptibility to bacteriophages. Seventy-one Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from green turtle eye swabs and water samples. Broth microdilution tests were used to determine antibiotic susceptibility. All isolates were resistant to at least two antibiotics, with 24% being resistant to seven of the eight antibiotics. Highest resistance rates were detected to enrofloxacin (77%) and ampicillin (69.2%). More than 50% resistance was also found to amoxicill...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - November 18, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Preinoculation of Soybean Seeds Treated with Agrichemicals up to 30 Days before Sowing: Technological Innovation for Large-Scale Agriculture.
Authors: Araujo RS, da Cruz SP, Souchie EL, Martin TN, Nakatani AS, Nogueira MA, Hungria M Abstract The cultivation of soybean in Brazil experienced an expressive growth in the last decades. Soybean is highly demanding on nitrogen (N) that must come from fertilizers or from biological fixation. The N supply to the soybean crop in Brazil relies on the inoculation with elite strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, B. elkanii, and B. diazoefficiens, which are able to fulfill the crop's N requirements and enrich the soil for the following crop. The effectiveness of the association between N2-fixing bacteria and soybean pl...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - November 15, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Isolation and Physiomorphological Characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7-Infecting Bacteriophages Recovered from Beef Cattle Operations.
Authors: Litt PK, Jaroni D Abstract Bacteriophages, recovered from beef cattle environment and specifically targeting Escherichia coli O157:H7, were examined for their physiological and morphological characteristics. Degree of bacterial lysis and host range of isolated bacteriophages was determined against 55 isolates of E. coli O157:H7. Morphology of phages was examined under transmission electron microscope. Phage growth parameters, particularly rate of adsorption, rise period, latent period, and burst size were also determined. The stability of isolated phages was tested at acidic and alkaline pH, at high temper...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - November 11, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Predicted Cold Shock Proteins from the Extremophilic Bacterium Deinococcus maricopensis and Related Deinococcus Species.
Authors: LaGier MJ Abstract While many studies have examined the mechanisms by which extremophilic Deinococci survive exposure to ionizing radiation, very few publications have characterized the cold shock adaptations of this group, despite many species being found in persistent cold environments and environments prone to significant daily temperature fluctuations. Bacterial cold shock proteins (Csps) are a family of conserved, RNA chaperone proteins that commonly play a role in cold temperature adaptation, including a downward shift in temperature (i.e., cold shock). The primary aim of this study was to test wheth...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - November 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Spread of TEM, VIM, SHV, and CTX-M β-Lactamases in Imipenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli Isolated from Egyptian Hospitals".
Corrigendum to "Spread of TEM, VIM, SHV, and CTX-M β-Lactamases in Imipenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli Isolated from Egyptian Hospitals". Int J Microbiol. 2017;2017:5959128 Authors: Hamdy Mohammed ES, Fakhr AE, Mohammed El Sayed H, Al Johery SAE, Abdel Ghani Hassanein W, Alzohairy AM Abstract [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2016/8382605.]. PMID: 29090007 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Journal of Microbiology)
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - November 2, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Automated Flow Cytometry: An Alternative to Urine Culture in a Routine Clinical Microbiology Laboratory?
Authors: Mejuto P, Luengo M, Díaz-Gigante J Abstract The urine culture is the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTI) but constitutes a significant workload in the routine clinical laboratory. Due to the high percentage of negative results, there is a need for an efficient screening method, with a high negative predictive value (NPV) that could reduce the number of unnecessary culture tests. With the purpose of improving the efficiency of laboratory work, several methods for screening out the culture-negative samples have been developed, but none of them has shown adequa...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - November 2, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Environmentally Friendly Production of D(-) Lactic Acid by Sporolactobacillus nakayamae: Investigation of Fermentation Parameters and Fed-Batch Strategies.
Authors: Michelz Beitel S, Fontes Coelho L, Sass DC, Contiero J Abstract The interest in the production of lactic acid has increased due to its wide range of applications. In the present study, the variables that affect fermentative D(-) lactic acid production were investigated: neutralizing agents, pH, temperature, inoculum percentage, agitation, and concentration of the medium components. An experimental design was applied to determine the optimal concentrations of the medium components and fermentation was studied using different feeding strategies. High production (122.41 g/L) and productivity (3.65&thin...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - November 1, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Baseline Antibody Titre against Salmonella enterica in Healthy Population of Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
CONCLUSION: Thus, it was noted that the diagnostically significant cutoff of antibody titre from acute phase sample was ≥ 1 : 80 for S. Typhi O antigen and titre of ≥ 1 : 160 for both S. Typhi H antigen and S. Paratyphi BH antigen. Antibody titre of ≥ 1 : 80 can be considered significant for S. Paratyphi AH antigen. PMID: 29081804 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Microbiology)
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - November 1, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Clinical Characteristics and Laboratory Identification of Aerococcus Infections: An Australian Tertiary Centre Perspective.
Authors: Narayanasamy S, King K, Dennison A, Spelman DW, Aung AK Abstract Aerococci uncommonly cause urinary tract (UTI) and bloodstream infections (BSI). The clinical characteristics and laboratory identification rates of Aerococcus in the Australian context are unknown. A retrospective observational cohort study of patients with positive Aerococcus cultures between 2010 and 2015 was performed. Patients were analysed according to predefined "asymptomatic bacteriuria," "UTI," and "BSI" groups. Forty-seven [40 (85%) for urine and 7 (15%) for blood] isolates were identified [38% male, me...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - October 25, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Multidrug Resistant Enteric Bacterial Pathogens in a Psychiatric Hospital in Ghana: Implications for Control of Nosocomial Infections.
Authors: Duedu KO, Offei G, Codjoe FS, Donkor ES Abstract Enteric bacteria are commonly implicated in hospital-acquired or nosocomial infections. In Ghana, these infections constitute an important public health problem but little is known about their contribution to antibiotic resistance. The aim of the study was to determine the extent and pattern of antibiotic resistance of enteric bacteria isolated from patients and environmental sources at the Accra Psychiatric Hospital. A total of 265 samples were collected from the study site including 142 stool and 82 urine samples from patients, 7 swab samples of door handl...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - October 19, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Feasibility of Metatranscriptome Analysis from Infant Gut Microbiota: Adaptation to Solid Foods Results in Increased Activity of Firmicutes at Six Months.
In this study, we describe the feasibility of isolating mRNA from rapidly processed faecal samples and applying deep RNA-Seq analysis to provide insight into the active contributors of the microbial community in early life. Specific attention is given to the impact of removing rRNA from the mRNA on the phylogenetic and transcriptional profiling and its analysis depth. A breastfed baby was followed in the first six months of life during adaptation to solid food, dairy products, and formula. It was found that, in the weaning period, the total transcriptional activity of Actinobacteria, mainly represented by Bifidobacterium, ...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - September 16, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis and Associated Risk Factors among Women Complaining of Genital Tract Infection.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was high and was affected by individual hygiene. Routine culture of vaginal samples should be performed on patients with vaginitis and the drug susceptibility pattern of each isolate should be determined. PMID: 28831285 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Microbiology)
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - August 25, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Characterization of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Strains Isolated from Hospitalized Patients in Palestine.
In this study, 69 single patient multidrug resistant isolates collected from all over Palestine, except Gaza, were studied. All the isolates were resistant to all the β-lactam antibiotics including the carbapenems. Of the 69 isolates, 82.6% were positive for blaOXA-23, 14.5% were positive for blaOXA-24, and 3% were positive for blaOXA-58. None were positive for blaOXA-143 and blaOXA-235. In addition, 5.8% and 0% were positive for blaNDM and blaKPC, respectively. Of the 69 isolates, none were positive for the aminoglycoside aphA6 gene while 93% were positive for the aphA1 gene. The acetyltransferases aacC1 and aacA4 ge...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - August 19, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Production, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Mycocin Produced by Debaryomyces hansenii DSMZ70238.
In this study, the effects of NaCl, pH, and temperature, killer toxin production, and antimicrobial activity were studied. The results showed that the optimum inhibitory effect of killer toxin was at 8% NaCl, and the diameters of clear zones were 20, 22, 22, 21, 14, and 13 mm for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Candida albicans, and Candida neoformans, respectively. The largest inhibition zones were observed at pH 4.5 with inhibition zone of 16, 18, 17, 18, 11, and 12 mm for the same microorganisms. The results also showed that 25°C is the optimal te...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - August 2, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Gene Expression and Molecular Characterization of a Xylanase from Chicken Cecum Metagenome.
Authors: Al-Darkazali H, Meevootisom V, Isarangkul D, Wiyakrutta S Abstract A xylanase gene xynAMG1 with a 1,116-bp open reading frame, encoding an endo-β-1,4-xylanase, was cloned from a chicken cecum metagenome. The translated XynAMG1 protein consisted of 372 amino acids including a putative signal peptide of 23 amino acids. The calculated molecular mass of the mature XynAMG1 was 40,013 Da, with a theoretical pI value of 5.76. The amino acid sequence of XynAMG1 showed 59% identity to endo-β-1,4-xylanase from Prevotella bryantii and Prevotella ruminicola and 58% identity to that from Prevotella cop...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - July 30, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Isolation and Characterization of Yeasts Able to Assimilate Sugarcane Bagasse Hemicellulosic Hydrolysate and Produce Xylitol Associated with Veturius transversus (Passalidae, Coleoptera, and Insecta).
Authors: Matos ITSR, Assunção EN, do Carmo EJ, Soares VM, Astolfi-Filho S Abstract Yeasts are an important component of insect gut microbial content, playing roles such as degradation of polymers and toxic compounds, biological control, and hormone, vitamin, and digestive enzyme production. The xylophagous beetle gut is a hyperdiverse habitat and a potential source of new species with industrial abilities such as enzyme production, pentose fermentation, and biodetoxification. In this work, samples of Veturius transversus (Passalidae, Coleoptera, and Insecta) were collected from the Central Amazon Rain...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - July 7, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence of Virulence Genes Associated with Diarrheagenic Pathotypes of Escherichia coli Isolates from Water, Sediment, Fish, and Crab in Aby Lagoon, C ôte d'Ivoire.
This study was conducted to characterize virulence genes of Escherichia coli isolates from water, sediment, fish, and crab in Aby Lagoon. Serogrouping was performed by EPEC antisera in 113 E. coli strains. The presence of diarrhea-associated genes (eae, stx, AggR, elt, and est) was assessed by multiplex PCR using specific primers. Based on the multiplex PCR, sixty-two isolates (42 from water, 19 from sediment, and 1 from crab) were positive for virulence genes, including 34 positive for elt (ETEC), 46 positive for est (ETEC), 24 positive for both elt and est, 6 positive for stx (EHEC), 1 positive for both stx + est, and 1 ...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - July 7, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular Identification of Aminoglycoside-Modifying Enzymes and Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes among Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Isolates Recovered from Egyptian Patients.
Authors: El-Badawy MF, Tawakol WM, El-Far SW, Maghrabi IA, Al-Ghamdi SA, Mansy MS, Ashour MS, Shohayeb MM Abstract Inappropriate use of antibiotics in clinical settings is thought to have led to the global emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of genes encoding aminoglycoside resistance and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance among clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae. All K. pneumoniae isolates were phenotypically identified using API 20E and then confirmed genotypically through amplification of the specific K. pneumoniae phoE gene. ...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - June 24, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Staphylococcus saprophyticus Recovered from Humans, Food, and Recreational Waters in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Authors: de Sousa VS, da-Silva APS, Sorenson L, Paschoal RP, Rabello RF, Campana EH, Pinheiro MS, Dos Santos LOF, Martins N, Botelho ACN, Picão RC, Fracalanzza SEL, Riley LW, Sensabaugh G, Moreira BM Abstract Staphylococcus saprophyticus is an important agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) in young women, but information about this pathogen in human microbiota and in common environment is lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize S. saprophyticus isolates from genitoanal microbiota of 621 pregnant women, 10 minas cheese packs, and five beaches in Rio de Janeiro city and compare PFGE profiles of th...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - June 23, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

High Doses of Halotolerant Gut-Indigenous Lactobacillus plantarum Reduce Cultivable Lactobacilli in Newborn Calves without Increasing Its Species Abundance.
Authors: Rodriguez-Palacios A, Staempfli HR, Weese JS Abstract To elucidate the ecological effect of high oral doses of halotolerant (resistant to table salt) indigenous-gut bacteria on other commensals early in life, we conducted a culture-based study to quantify the effect of intestinal Lactobacillus plantarum strain of bovine origin (with remarkable aerobic growth capabilities and inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and F5) on clinical health and gut lactobacilli/coliforms in newborn calves. In a double-blind placebo-randomized trial twelve colostrum-fed calves, consecutively born at a farm, wer...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - June 11, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Pigeon Pea and Cowpea-Based Cropping Systems Improve Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Colonisation of Subsequent Maize on the Alfisols in Central Malawi.
Authors: Njira KOW, Semu E, Mrema JP, Nalivata PC Abstract Mycorrhizal associations contribute to the sustainability of crop production systems through their roles in nutrient cycling and other benefits in the soil-plant ecosystems. A two-year study was conducted on the Alfisols of Lilongwe and Dowa districts, Central Malawi, to assess the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungal colonisation levels in pigeon pea, cowpea, and maize grown in sole cropping, legume-cereal, and legume-legume intercropping systems and in the maize grown in short rotation (year 2) as influenced by the previous cropping systems and N...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - June 7, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular Study of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates for Metallo- β-Lactamases and Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamases Genes in Intensive Care Unit, Mansoura University Hospital, Egypt.
Molecular Study of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates for Metallo-β-Lactamases and Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamases Genes in Intensive Care Unit, Mansoura University Hospital, Egypt. Int J Microbiol. 2017;2017:3925868 Authors: Alkasaby NM, El Sayed Zaki M Abstract Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) has been known as a causative pathogen of hospital acquired infections. The aim of this study is to examine the presence of A. baumannii among clinical isolates from intensive care unit (ICU) in Mansoura University Hospital (MUH), its antibiotic resistance pattern, and prevalence of antibiotic resi...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - June 3, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Activity of a Cationic Guanidine Compound against Two Pathogenic Oral Bacteria.
This study evaluated the potential antimicrobial properties of a polyguanidine (CatDex) on two oral bacteria. Chlorhexidine gluconate 1340 μmoL L(-1) (CHX 0.12%) was used as control. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) were grown in BHI media. Bacterial sensitivity and antimicrobial activity were determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Kirby-Bauer methods. To study side effects, that is, toxicity, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were used. Fluorometric cytotoxicity and confocal microscopy assays were used in order to test cell viability. CatDex ...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - May 28, 2017 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research