Escherichia coli as a Tool for Disease Risk Assessment of Drinking Water Sources.
In conclusion, observations from the study implied that most water sources in the study district are highly polluted with bacteria pathogens beyond recommended safety guidelines. The main causes of faecal contamination in these water sources were purported to be anthropogenic. Therefore, there is a need to formulate a policy aimed at managing and improving rural water sources. PMID: 32612658 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Microbiology)
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - July 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Molecular Detection of Carbapenemase-Encoding Genes in Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolates in South Africa.
Conclusions: Results showed a high level of oxacillinases producing A. baumannii circulating in our study setting, highlighting the need for local molecular surveillance to inform appropriate management and prevention strategies. PMID: 32612659 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Microbiology)
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - July 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

The Human Microbiome and Its Impacts on Health.
Authors: Ogunrinola GA, Oyewale JO, Oshamika OO, Olasehinde GI Abstract The human microbiome comprises bacteria, archaea, viruses, and eukaryotes which reside within and outside our bodies. These organisms impact human physiology, both in health and in disease, contributing to the enhancement or impairment of metabolic and immune functions. Micro-organisms colonise various sites on and in the human body, where they adapt to specific features of each niche. Facultative anaerobes are more dominant in the gastrointestinal tract, whereas strict aerobes inhabit the respiratory tract, nasal cavity, and skin surface. The ...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - July 3, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Microbial Contamination, an Increasing Threat to the Consumption of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables in Today's World.
Authors: Balali GI, Yar DD, Afua Dela VG, Adjei-Kusi P Abstract Microbes are found all over the globe with some few exceptions, including sterilized surfaces. They include normal flora that is nonpathogenic, which contribute to the larger percentage, and pathogenic species which are few. Hence, the activities of humans cannot be completely separated from microbes. Thus, many pathogenic microbes have found their way into fresh fruits and vegetables which are a great source of a healthy diet for humans. The growing demand for fresh fruits and vegetables has necessitated larger production. The larger production of veg...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - June 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Salmonella, Shigella, and Intestinal Parasites and Associated Factor among Food Handlers in Dilla University Student Cafeteria, Dilla, Ethiopia.
Conclusion: The presence of a high prevalence of intestinal parasites, Salmonella, and Shigella species that were resistant to the commonly prescribed drugs is a treat to the children and the community at large. Therefore, measures including health education, improvement of safe water supply, sanitation facilities, and continuous monitoring of microbiological and antimicrobial surveillance are crucial. PMID: 32565814 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Microbiology)
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - June 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Chemical, Microbiological, and Functional Characterization of Kefir Produced from Cow's Milk and Soy Milk.
Authors: Gamba RR, Yamamoto S, Abdel-Hamid M, Sasaki T, Michihata T, Koyanagi T, Enomoto T Abstract Kefir is a functional beverage that contains lactic and acetic acid bacteria (LAB, AAB) and yeasts. This work's aim was to study the chemical, microbial, and functional characteristics of kefir produced from cow's milk and soy milk. After fermentation, free amino acids were 20.92 mg 100 mL-1 and 36.20 mg 100 mL-1 for cow's milk and soy milk kefir, respectively. Glutamic acid was majority in both, suggesting that microbial proteolysis leads to an increase in free amino acids including gluta...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - June 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Clinical Trials of Probiotic Strains in Selected Disease Entities.
Authors: Dudek-Wicher R, Junka A, Paleczny J, Bartoszewicz M Abstract Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Although their mechanism of action is not clearly explained, it is known that they positively modulate the immune system, which leads to immunity potentiation. A number of studies prove that probiotics strengthen cognitive functions, reduce anxiety, and regulate the lipid metabolism in the human body. Probiotics used in humans are most often of the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species. However, as more research is conducted, ne...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - June 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence Gene Characteristics of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Isolated from Healthy Edible Marine Fish.
Authors: Fri J, Njom HA, Ateba CN, Ndip RN Abstract Thirty-three (33) isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from healthy edible marine fish harvested from two aquaculture settings and the Kariega estuary, South Africa, were characterised in this study. The phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility profiles to 13 antibiotics were determined, and their antibiotic resistance determinants were assessed. A multiplex PCR was used to determine the epidemiological groups based on the type of SCCmec carriage followed by the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin-encoding genes sea-sed and the Panton ...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - June 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Retrospective Descriptive Analysis of West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease (WNND) in Northwest Louisiana.
Conclusions: Identifying WNV infection early in its clinical course would help in decreasing inappropriate antibiotic use when patients presented with fever and meningeal symptoms. Performing WNV serology in CSF studies is critical in making the diagnosis. PMID: 32454831 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Microbiology)
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - May 27, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

In Vitro and In Vivo Antifungal Activity of Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) and Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Essential Oils and Functional Extracts Against Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus niger in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).
In this study, hydrodistillation was used to obtain essential oils (EOs) from pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) and co-hydrodistillation (addition of fatty acid ethyl esters as extraction co-solvents) was used to obtain functional extracts (FEs). Antifungal activity of EOs and FEs was evaluated by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus niger. The results showed that pepper (Piper nigrum) and clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) essential oils and their functional extracts are effective in vitro at concentrations from 400 to 500 ppm after 1...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - May 14, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Growth and Decay of a Planktonic Microbial Culture.
Authors: Schiraldi A Abstract The paper shows that the phenomenological trends of both growth and decay of a microbial population in a given medium are easily reproducible with simple equations that allow gathering the experimental data (plate counts) related to different microbial species, in different mediums and even at different temperatures, in a single master plot. The guideline of the proposed approach is that microbes and surrounding medium form a system where they affect each other and that the so-called "growth curve" is just the phenomenological appearance of such interaction. The whole system ...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - May 14, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Bacterial Isolates among Cancer Patients and Healthy Blood Donors at the University of Gondar Specialized Hospital.
Authors: Tigabu A, Ferede W, Belay G, Gelaw B Abstract Background: Urinary tract infections are the common types of infections in the community and health care settings. Despite the widespread availability of antibiotics, urinary tract infection remains a worldwide therapeutic problem. It is a continuous and significant problem in cancer patients. Methods: A hospital-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on 240 study participants from January to June 2019. Sociodemographic data were collected by a predesigned questionnaire and midstream urine samples collected using simple random sampling techni...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - May 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Supershed Escherichia coli O157:H7 Has Potential for Increased Persistence on the Rectoanal Junction Squamous Epithelial Cells and Antibiotic Resistance.
Authors: Mir RA, Brunelle BW, Alt DP, Arthur TM, Kudva IT Abstract Supershedding cattle shed Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) at ≥ 104 colony-forming units/g feces. We recently demonstrated that a supershed O157 (SS-O157) strain, SS-17, hyperadheres to the rectoanal junction (RAJ) squamous epithelial (RSE) cells which may contribute to SS-O157 persistence at this site in greater numbers, thereby increasing the fecal O157 load characterizing the supershedding phenomenon. In order to verify if this would be the signature adherence profile of any SS-O157, we tested additional SS-O157 isolates (n = 101;...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - May 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Bacteriological Contamination of Drinking Water Supply from Protected Water Sources to Point of Use and Water Handling Practices among Beneficiary Households of Boloso Sore Woreda, Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia.
The objective of this study was to assess the level of bacteriological contamination of drinking water supply from protected water sources to point of use and water handling practices among beneficiary households of Boloso Sore woreda, Wolaita zone, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey and bacteriological analysis of water were conducted in January 2019. The study included 545 households for water handling practices, and 75 samples from stored water from households and eighteen water sources were included for faecal coliform test. Data were analyzed using SPSS v21.0. Descriptive and logistic regression statistical models wer...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - May 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Protective Effect of Potential Probiotic Strains from Fermented Ethiopian Food against Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in Mice.
Authors: Mulaw G, Muleta D, Tesfaye A, Sisay T Abstract Salmonella is one of the most harmful pathogens responsible for foodborne outbreaks, illnesses and deaths. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of potentially probiotic strains against Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in mice. The compatibility test among the selected potential probiotic strains (Lactobacillus plantarum K132, Lactobacillus paracasei K114 and Lactococcus lactis E124) using the cross-streaking method showed the absence of antagonism. The anti-Salmonella activities of coculture of the isolated potential probiotics in the form of mixed or ...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - May 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Nisin Z Production by Wild Strains of Lactococcus lactis Isolated from Brazilian (Italian Type) Fermented Sausage.
In this study, five bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis strains were identified from different naturally fermented Brazilian sausages. Ion exchange and reversed-phase chromatographies were used to purify the bacteriocins from culture supernatant of the five strains. Mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF) showed that the molecular masses of the bactericoins from L. lactis ID1.5, ID3.1, ID8.5, PD4.7, and PR3.1 were 3330.567 Da, 3330.514 Da, 3329.985 Da, 3329.561 Da, and 3329.591 Da, respectively. PCR product sequence analysis confirmed that the structural genes of bacteriocins produced by t...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - May 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

In Vitro Biofilm Formation and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Bacteria from Suspected External Eye Infected Patients Attending Ophthalmology Clinic, Southwest Ethiopia.
Conclusion: The prevalence rate of bacterial isolates was high. Almost all bacterial isolates were resistant to at least one or more drugs. MDR pathogens were observed increasingly among biofilm formers or vice versa. PMID: 32318110 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Microbiology)
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - April 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Antibacterial Activity of Rationally Designed Antimicrobial Peptides.
In this study, peptides which were initially identified for their HIV inhibitory activity were further screened for antibacterial activity through determination of their kinetics as well as their cytotoxicity. From the results obtained, the MICs of two AMPs (Molecule 3 and Molecule 7) were 12.5 μg/ml for K. pneumoniae (ATCC 700603) and 6.25 μg/ml for P. aeruginosa (ATCC 22108). The two AMPs killed these bacteria rapidly in vitro, preventing bacterial growth within few hours of treatment. Furthermore, the cytotoxic activity of these two peptides was significantly low, even at an AMP concentration of 100&...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - April 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates with Discordant Results for Drug-Susceptibility Testing in Peru.
Authors: Solari L, Santos-Lazaro D, Puyen ZM Abstract Evaluation of resistance to antituberculosis drugs is routinely performed with genotypic or phenotypic methods; however, discordance can be seen between these different methodologies. Our objective was to identify mutations that could explain discordant results in the evaluation of susceptibility to rifampicin and isoniazid between molecular and phenotypic methods, using whole genome sequencing (WGS). Peruvian strains showing sensitive results in the GenoType MTBDRplus v2.0 test and resistant results in the proportions in the agar-plaque test for isoniazid or ri...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - April 24, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Isolation, Characterization, and Screening of Antimicrobial-Producing Actinomycetes from Soil Samples.
The objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and screen the potential antimicrobial-producing actinomycetes from soils covering different altitude range of Nepal. Forty-one isolates of actinomycetes were isolated from 11 soil samples collected from different locations in Nepal with altitude ranging from 1500 to 4380 meters. The isolates were identified on the basis of morphological study, different sugar utilization, protein utilization, and hydrolysis tests. They were also characterized on the basis of temperature and pH. Primary screening for antimicrobial activity was carried out against several test organisms:...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - April 19, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Differentiation of Candida albicans Species Complex by Tobacco Agar Obtained from Different Cigarette Brands Available in Colombia.
Conclusions: Tobacco agar is a low-cost tool used for the differentiation of Candida dubliniensis; however, incubation temperature and cigarette brand affect the performance of the media. No relationship was found between the microbiological results and the chemical similarity of the extracts of the cigarettes by chromatography. PMID: 32280345 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Microbiology)
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - April 14, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

An Overview of the Molecular Methods in the Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Infectious Diseases.
Authors: Amjad M Abstract Gastrointestinal infectious diseases are very common worldwide and an important cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in infants in developing countries. Diarrhea and other intestinal infections are caused by a wide range of bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and parasites. Conventional diagnosis of these infections is performed by culture, microscopy, and antigen detection immunoassays. The traditional culture and microscopy procedures are time-consuming, lack sensitivity, and require special laboratory setup and well-trained staff. However, based on the advancement in the molecular di...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - April 14, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

The Novel Role of Healing from Bacterial Infections of Lower Limb Open Fractures by X-Ray Exposure.
Conclusions: The study concluded that X-ray exposure showed high effectiveness in treating infected open fractures. PMID: 32256601 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Microbiology)
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - April 9, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Shrines.
This study focuses on estimating the prevalence of MRSA in shrines, a place where human and animal interaction is frequent, sharing antibiotic-resistant bacteria, antibiotic-resistant genes, and diseases. A total of 120 environmental swabs were collected from targeted areas during the study period, March 2018 to May 2018. Staphylococcus aureus was identified by growth on mannitol salt agar (MSA), and MRSA by growth on mannitol salt agar containing 4 μg Oxacillin, Gram staining, and conventional biochemical test. Isolates of S. aureus were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility testing using the disc diffusion...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - March 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Autochthonous Acid-Producing Bacteria from Catfish (Clarias sp.) with Antibacterial Activity against Selected Fish Pathogens: A Preliminary Study.
This study aimed to obtain probiotic candidates from the digestive tract (intestinal and gastric) of catfish. A total of nine isolates were successfully isolated from the catfish. Almost all bacterial colonies were morphologically round, had flat edges, were yellow, and produced clear zones as a sign of producing acid during culture. The analysis showed that the three isolates had the best activity in inhibiting fish pathogen isolates. Furthermore, molecular analysis revealed that those three isolates were Bacillus velezensis UB-C1, Bacillus amyloliquifaciens UB-C5, and Bacillus cereus UB-C8. Interestingly, those three bac...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - March 21, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of a Bacterial Endophyte, Methylobacterium radiotolerans MAMP 4754, Isolated from Combretum erythrophyllum Seeds.
This study reports on the isolation and identification of Methylobacterium radiotolerans MAMP 4754 from the seeds of the medicinal plant, Combretum erythrophyllum, for the purposes of investigating antimicrobial and antioxidant activities from this endophyte. The strain identity was confirmed by 16S rRNA-based phylogeny and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Ethyl acetate and chloroform (1 : 1 v/v) extracts from the endophyte were tested for antimicrobial and antioxidant activity on a total of 7 bacterial species (3 Gram-positive and 4 Gram-negative) using the standard Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) ...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - March 20, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Microbiology of Ethiopian Traditionally Fermented Beverages and Condiments.
In conclusion, the review discusses the nature of the beverage and condiment preparation, poor traditional household processing, and the extent and limitation of scientific work done so far and suggests some recommendations to limit the problem in Ethiopia. PMID: 32148508 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Microbiology)
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - March 11, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Piper retrofractum Fruit Extracts against Microbial Pathogens Causing Infections in Human and Animals.
Authors: Panphut W, Budsabun T, Sangsuriya P Abstract Long pepper (Piper retrofractum Vahl) is a Thai medicinal herb which has been used as one of the common ingredients in variety of Thai foods. Here, we investigated antimicrobial activities of crude bioactive metabolites extracted from fruits of P. retrofractum against 10 pathogenic organisms (bacteria and yeast) causing opportunistic infections in human or animals including Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC2921, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Klebsiella pneumonia TISTR1843, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC741, Salmon...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - March 11, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Effects of Antimalarial Herbal Mixtures.
Authors: Dadzie I, Avorgbedo SA, Appiah-Opong R, Cudjoe O Abstract Many developing countries depend on herbal mixtures as the first line and cost-effective therapy for malaria. These mixtures with such curative tendencies may also be a source of toxicity to host cells. On the other hand, these mixtures may have anticancer potential activity characterized by cytotoxicity to cancer cells. The aim of the study was to determine the cytotoxic and antioxidant effects of five different antimalarial herbal mixtures. Five antimalarial herbal mixtures commonly used in Ghana (coded as STF, SMH, SMM, SGM, and STT) were purchas...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - February 29, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Assessment of Pathogenic Potential, Virulent Genes Profile, and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Proteus mirabilis from Urinary Tract Infection.
Authors: Hussein EI, Al-Batayneh K, Masadeh MM, Dahadhah FW, Al Zoubi MS, Aljabali AA, Alzoubi KH Abstract Proteus mirabilis is the third most common bacterium that can cause complicated UTI, especially in catheterized patients. Urovirulence genes of P. mirabilis strains are poorly identified among UTI patients. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of the uropathogenic P. mirabilis strains isolated from UTI patients by the detection of several P. mirabilis virulence genes and to characterize the antibiotic susceptibility profile of P. mirabilis isolates. P. mirabilis isolates were collecte...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - February 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Antibacterial Activity Test of Extracts and Fractions of Cassava Leaves (Manihot esculenta Crantz) against Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes Causing Acne.
This study is aimed at determining antibacterial activity from ethanol extracts and the most active fraction of cassava leaves against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes. Research carried out by the experimental method involved determination of plants, extraction with maceration method, fractionation with liquid-liquid extraction, antibacterial activity testing of extracts and fractions by agar diffusion method, determination of most active fraction from the extract, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) testing of most active fracti...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - February 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Postharvest Storage Practices of Maize in Rift Valley and Lower Eastern Regions of Kenya: A Cross-Sectional Study.
Authors: Koskei P, Bii CC, Musotsi P, Muturi Karanja S Abstract An assessment of local farmers' knowledge, attitude, and practices on postharvest maize storage and management was carried out with a view of understanding its role in maize contamination with mycotoxins and postharvest losses in Rift Valley and Lower Eastern Regions of Kenya among 165 and 149 farmers, respectively. Differences between the two regions were analyzed using the Chi-square test, Fisher exact test, and two-sample t-test. The median quantity of maize harvested by farmers in the two regions after shelling was 585 kg. A median of 20&thi...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - February 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Transcriptomic Response in Pseudomonas aeruginosa towards Treatment with a Kaempferol Isolated from Melastoma malabathricum Linn Leaves.
Authors: Alwash MS, Aqma WS, Ahmad WY, Ibrahim N Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the main causes of nosocomial infections and is frequently associated with opportunistic infections among hospitalized patients. Kaempferol-3-O-(2',6'-di-O-trans-p-coumaroyl)-β-D glucopyranoside (K F) is an antipseudomonal compound isolated from the leaves of the native medicinal plant Melastoma malabathricum. Herein, an RNA-seq transcriptomic approach was employed to study the effect of K F treatment on P. aeruginosa and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the response to K F at two time points (6 h ...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - February 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Moraxella catarrhalis: A Cause of Concern with Emerging Resistance and Presence of BRO Beta-Lactamase Gene-Report from a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India.
Conclusion: The increase in antibiotic resistance and beta-lactamase production in M. catarrhalis is a cause of concern. The emerging resistance pattern emphasises the need for an appropriate antibiotic stewardship program in clinical practice. Importance should be given to the monitoring of the trends of antibiotic susceptibility and their usage to prevent the emergence of outbreaks with resistant strains and treatment failures.M. catarrhalis was noted in 1977 in Sweden. This has gradually spread worldwide over the years to more than 95% of the strains showing resistance to penicillin now. Penicillin resistance is mediate...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - February 26, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Salmonella Isolated from Caecal Contents of Exotic Chicken in Debre Zeit and Modjo, Ethiopia.
Authors: Asfaw Ali D, Tadesse B, Ebabu A Abstract A cross-sectional study was conducted between December, 2013, and May, 2014, to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance feature of Salmonella isolated from broilers slaughtered in Debre Zeit and Modjo towns, Ethiopia. A total of 384 caecal content samples were collected for microbiological examination following the standard techniques and procedures outlined by the International Organization for Standardization to isolate Salmonella. The sensitivity of the isolates subjected to nine antimicrobials was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The o...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - February 13, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Thermophilic Campylobacter Species in Humans and Animals in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review.
Authors: Gahamanyi N, Mboera LEG, Matee MI, Mutangana D, Komba EVG Abstract Thermophilic Campylobacter species are clinically important aetiologies of gastroenteritis in humans throughout the world. The colonization of different animal reservoirs by Campylobacter poses an important risk for humans through shedding of the pathogen in livestock waste and contamination of water sources, environment, and food. A review of published articles was conducted to obtain information on the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles of thermophilic Campylobacter species in humans and animals in sub-Saharan Africa (...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparison of Bacterial Community Structure and Diversity in Traditional Gold Mining Waste Disposal Site and Rice Field by Using a Metabarcoding Approach.
This study concluded that the high level of mercury in the soil reduced the richness and diversity of bacterial phyla and lower taxa. There was also a shift in the dominance of phyla and lower taxa in both locations. This study provides an understanding of the microbial community structure in the area that is highly contaminated with mercury to open insight into the potential of these bacteria for mercury bioremediation. PMID: 31998378 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Microbiology)
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - January 31, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Aflatoxins in Uganda: An Encyclopedic Review of the Etiology, Epidemiology, Detection, Quantification, Exposure Assessment, Reduction, and Control.
Authors: Omara T, Nassazi W, Omute T, Awath A, Laker F, Kalukusu R, Musau B, Nakabuye BV, Kagoya S, Otim G, Adupa E Abstract Uganda is an agrarian country where farming employs more than 60% of the population. Aflatoxins remain a scourge in the country, unprecedentedly reducing the nutritional and economic value of agricultural foods. This review was sought to synthetize the country's major findings in relation to the mycotoxins' etiology, epidemiology, detection, quantification, exposure assessment, control, and reduction in different matrices. Electronic results indicate that aflatoxins in Uganda are produced by ...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - January 31, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Starters against Acid Tolerant, Antibiotic Resistant, and Potentially Virulent E. coli Isolated from a Fermented Sorghum-Millet Beverage.
This study characterized presumptive E. coli isolated from Obushera, a traditional fermented cereal beverage from Uganda. Thereafter, the antimicrobial effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) previously isolated from Obushera, against the E. coli, was examined. The presumptive E. coli was incubated in brain heart infusion broth (pH = 3.6) at 25°C for 48 h. The most acid-stable strains were clustered using (GTG)5 rep-PCR fingerprinting and identified using 16S rRNA sequencing. E. coli was screened for Shiga toxins (Stx 1 and Stx 2) and Intimin (eae) virulence genes as well as antibiotic resistance. The...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - January 15, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

A Comparative Study on Phenotypic versus ITS-Based Molecular Identification of Dermatophytes Isolated in Dakar, Senegal.
The objective of this study was to compare the phenotypic method with DNA sequencing of the ITS regions for identification of dermatophyte species isolated in Dakar, Senegal. A collection of thirty-two strains of dermatophytes were isolated from patients suffering from dermatophytosis. Mycological identification revealed Trichophyton soudanense (n = 13), T. interdigitale (n = 10), Microsporum audouinii (n = 5), and one strain for each of the following species: T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, and M. canis and one unidentified strain. For comparison, ITS-based PCR and DNA sequencing we...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - January 15, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

The Role of Pathogenic E. coli in Fresh Vegetables: Behavior, Contamination Factors, and Preventive Measures.
Authors: Luna-Guevara JJ, Arenas-Hernandez MMP, Martínez de la Peña C, Silva JL, Luna-Guevara ML Abstract Many raw vegetables, such as tomato, chili, onion, lettuce, arugula, spinach, and cilantro, are incorporated into fresh dishes including ready-to-eat salads and sauces. The consumption of these foods confers a high nutritional value to the human diet. However, the number of foodborne outbreaks associated with fresh produce has been increasing, with Escherichia coli being the most common pathogen associated with them. In humans, pathogenic E. coli strains cause diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, hemoly...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - January 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Coexistence of β-Lactamases in Community-Acquired Infections in a Tertiary Care Hospital in India.
Conclusions: Coexistence of ESBLs, AmpC producers, and carbapenemases has been described. Continuous monitoring and surveillance and proper infection control and prevention practices will limit the further spread of these superbugs within the hospital and beyond. PMID: 31885596 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Microbiology)
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - January 1, 2020 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Contamination of the Surfaces of a Health Care Environment by Multidrug-Resistant (MDR) Bacteria.
Authors: Chaoui L, Mhand R, Mellouki F, Rhallabi N Abstract Nosocomial infections (NIs) are known worldwide and remain a major problem despite scientific and technical advances in the field of health. The severity of the infection depends on the characteristics of the microorganisms involved and the high frequency of resistant pathogens in the hospital environment. The aim of this study is to determine the distribution of pathogenic bacteria (and their resistance to antibiotics) that spread on hospital surfaces, more specifically, on those of various departments in the Provincial Hospital Center (PHC) of Mohammedia...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - December 25, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Occurrence of Fungi and Mycotoxins in Fish Feeds and Their Impact on Fish Health.
Authors: Marijani E, Kigadye E, Okoth S Abstract The rapid population growth in developing countries has led to strong pressure on capture fisheries. However, capture fisheries have reached their maximal limits of fish production and are supplemented by farmed fish. The growth in aquaculture has led to high demand for fish feeds, which play a very important role in fish nutrition and health. Use of animal protein in fish feeds is expensive; hence, a majority of farmers from developing countries use local feed ingredients from plant origin as a source of dietary protein. However, these ingredients of plant origin pr...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - December 14, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Antistaphylococcal Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Crude Extracts of Five Medicinal Plants Used in the Center of Morocco against Dermatitis.
In this study, methanolic and aqueous extracts of Berberis hispanica, Crataegus oxyacantha, Cistus salviifolius, Ephedra altissima, and Lavandula dentata selected from an ethnopharmacological study to treat skin infections in Sefrou city (Center of Morocco) were tested for their antistaphylococcal activity against strains often involved in cutaneous disorders: two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains and one strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis using the well-diffusion assay, while the agar macrodilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations. The total phenolic compounds and flav...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - December 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Comparative Biotypic and Phylogenetic Profiles of Escherichia coli Isolated from Resident Stool and Lagoon in Fresco (C ôte d'Ivoire).
The objective of this study was to determine the level of pollution in Fresco lagoon related to fecal contaminations. Two hundred and seventy (270) samples including 216 water and 54 human stools samples from local residents were collected. Escherichia coli was isolated and identified according to classical bacteriology procedure. Strains were characterized by biotyping on API 20E gallery and phylogenetic typing by PCR triplex of Clermont. A set of 392 strains of E. coli was distributed into 18 biotypic profiles. Five biotypes were common to water and human. Classification of all biotypes revealed close relationship betwee...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - December 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Mutant Prevention Concentration of Ciprofloxacin against Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Isolates: An Ideal Prognosticator in Treating Multidrug-Resistant Strains.
Conclusion: From our study, we infer that ESBL producers and qnr gene-possessing strains are frequently resistant to ciprofloxacin. Estimation of the MPC in the case of multidrug-resistant isolates in the clinical setup may help in treating these drug-resistant strains. PMID: 31772582 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Microbiology)
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - November 28, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Antibacterial Effect of Luma apiculata (DC.) Burret Extracts in Clinically Important Bacteria.
Conclusion. The hexane extract of L. apiculata leaves showed the lower MIC against S. aureus when compared with extracts obtained from other parts of the plant. The growth curve and the colonies count suggest a bacteriostatic activity of the L. apiculata leaves extract against Staphylococcus aureus. PMID: 31737073 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Microbiology)
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - November 19, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Saksenaea dorisiae sp. nov., a New Opportunistic Pathogenic Fungus from Europe.
Authors: Labuda R, Bernreiter A, Hochenauer D, Schüller C, Kubátová A, Strauss J, Wagner M Abstract A new species, Saksenaea dorisiae (Mucoromycotina, Mucorales), isolated from a water sample originating from a private well in Manastirica, Petrovac, in the Republic of Serbia (Europe), is described and illustrated. The new taxon is well supported by multilocus phylogenetic analysis that included the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, domains D1 and D2 of the 28S rRNA gene (LSU), and translation elongation factor-1α gene (tef-1α), and it is resolved in a clade with S. oblongispor...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - November 1, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research

Occurrence of β-Lactamase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacterial Isolates in Water Sources in Cali City, Colombia.
Conclusion: These results indicate that β-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacteria are widespread in the environment in the aquatic ecosystem of Cali city. The artificial and natural waters that cross the city are finally discharged into the Rio Cauca; this river can then be considered as a medium for the spread of bacterial antibiotic resistance genes. PMID: 31582981 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Microbiology)
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - October 6, 2019 Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research