Infection dynamics in a traveller with persistent shedding of Zika virus RNA in semen for six months after returning from Haiti to Italy, January 2016
We describe the dynamics of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a man in his early 40s who developed fever and rash after returning from Haiti to Italy, in January 2016. Follow-up laboratory testing demonstrated detectable ZIKV RNA in plasma up to day 9 after symptom onset and in urine and saliva up to days 15 and 47, respectively. Notably, persistent shedding of ZIKV RNA was demonstrated in semen, still detectable at 181 days after onset. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 11, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Authors' correction for Euro Surveill. 2016;21(26)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

ECDC's latest publications
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

In the national epidemiological bulletins - a selection from current issues
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Estimating the economic impact of a possible equine and human epidemic of West Nile virus infection in Belgium
This study aimed at estimating, in a prospective scenario, the potential economic impact of a possible epidemic of WNV infection in Belgium, based on 2012 values for the equine and human health sectors, in order to increase preparedness and help decision-makers. Modelling of risk areas, based on the habitat suitable forCulex pipiens, the main vector of the virus, allowed us to determine equine and human populations at risk. Characteristics of the different clinical forms of the disease based on past epidemics in Europe allowed morbidity among horses and humans to be estimated. The main costs for the equine sector were vacc...
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Strongyloides stercoralis in northern Italy: results of a multicentre case-control study, February 2013 to July 2014
Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted helminth widely diffused in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Autochthonous cases have been also diagnosed sporadically in areas of temperate climate. We aimed at defining the epidemiology of strongyloidiasis in immigrants and Italians living in three northern Italian Regions. Screening forS. stercoralis infection was done with serology, confirmation tests were a second serological method or stool agar culture. A case-control approach was adopted and patients with a peripheral eosinophil count???500/mcL were classified as cases. Of 2,701 individuals enrolled here...
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Brucellosis in a refugee who migrated from Syria to Germany and lessons learnt, 2016
A teenage woman migrating from Syria arrived in May 2015 in Germany. She gave birth to a healthy child in early 2016, but became febrile shortly after delivery. Blood cultures revealedBrucella melitensis. In retrospect, she reported contact with sheep in Syria and recurrent pain in the hip joints over about five months before diagnosis of brucellosis. We discuss consequences for adequate treatment of mother and child as well as for clinical and laboratory management. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Miscarriage following dengue virus 3 infection in the first six weeks of pregnancy of a dengue virus-naive traveller returning from Bali to Italy, April 2016
We report miscarriage following dengue virus (DENV)-3 infection in a pregnant woman returning from Bali to Italy in April 2016. On her arrival, the woman had fever, rash, asthenia and headache. DENV RNA was detected in plasma and urine samples collected the following day. Six days after symptom onset, she had a miscarriage. DENV RNA was detected in fetal material, but in utero fetal infection cannot be demonstrated due to possible contamination by maternal blood. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Job vacancy at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Authors' correction for Euro Surveill. 2016;21(29)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Influenza epidemiology, vaccine coverage and vaccine effectiveness in children admitted to sentinel Australian hospitals in 2014: the Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN)
The Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) is a sentinel hospital-based surveillance programme operating in all states and territories in Australia. We summarise the epidemiology of children hospitalised with laboratory-confirmed influenza in 2014 and reports on the effectiveness of inactivated trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) in children. In this observational study, cases were defined as children admitted with acute respiratory illness (ARI) with influenza confirmed by PCR. Controls were hospitalised children with ARI testing negative for influenza. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated as 1 minus the odds ...
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Emerging aspergillosis by azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus at an intensive care unit in the Netherlands, 2010 to 2013
The prevalence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) at the intensive care unit (ICU) is unknown and difficult to assess since IA also develops in patients lacking specific host factors. In the Netherlands, increasing azole-resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus complicates treatment of patients with IA. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of IA by azole-resistant A. fumigatus at the ICU among patients receiving antifungal treatment and to follow their clinical outcome and prognosis. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a university hospital ICU from January 2010 to December 2013. From all patients who r...
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

High prevalence of anti-hepatitis E virus antibodies among blood donors in central Italy, February to March 2014
Prevalence of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibodies is highly variable in developed countries, which seems partly due to differences in assay sensitivity. Using validated sensitive assays, we tested 313 blood donors attending a hospital transfusion unit in central Italy in January and February 2014 for anti-HEV IgG and IgM and HEV RNA. Data on HEV exposure were collected from all donors. Overall anti-HEV IgG prevalence was 49% (153/313). Eating raw dried pig-liver sausage was the only independent predictor of HEV infection (adjusted prevalence rate ratio?=?2.14; 95% confidence interval: 1.23-3.74). Three donors were posi...
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Detection of Zika virus in Brazilian patients during the first five days of infection - urine versus plasma
Advantages of testing for Zika virus (ZIKV) in urine have been reported, such as the persistence of ZIKV in this type of specimen for up to 20 days after ZIKV disease onset. We investigate 61 patients in the first 5 days post-symptom onset and find more patients testing positive for ZIKV in plasma samples (n=46), than in corresponding urine samples (n=37). For patients respectively testing positive in both plasma and urine (n=28), respective viral loads appeared similar. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes 001 and 176 - the common denominator of C. difficile infection epidemiology in the Czech Republic, 2014
In 2014, 18 hospitals in the Czech Republic participated in a survey of the incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in the country. The mean CDI incidence was 6.1 (standard deviation (SD):7.2) cases per 10,000 patient bed-days and 37.8 cases (SD: 41.4) per 10,000 admissions. The mean CDI testing frequency was 39.5 tests (SD: 25.4) per 10,000 patient bed-days and 255.8 tests (SD: 164.0) per 10,000 admissions. A total of 774 C. difficile isolates were investigated, of which 225 (29%) belonged to PCR ribotype 176, and 184 isolates (24%) belonged to PCR ribotype 001. Multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analy...
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Enhanced surveillance of Clostridium difficile infection occurring outside hospital, England, 2011 to 2013
There are limited national epidemiological data for community-associated (CA)- Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs). Between March 2011 and March 2013, laboratories in England submitted to the Clostridium difficile Ribotyping Network (CDRN)?up to?10 diarrhoeal faecal samples from successive patients with CA-CDI, defined here as C. difficile toxin-positive diarrhoea commencing outside hospital (or?less than?48 hours after hospital admission), including those cases associated with community-based residential care, with no discharge from hospital within the previous 12 weeks. Patient demographics and C. difficile PCR r...
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Diversity of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes in Europe: results from the European, multicentre, prospective, biannual, point-prevalence study of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalised patients with diarrhoea (EUCLID), 2012 and 2013
This study highlights an increased diversity of C. difficile ribotypes across Europe compared with previous studies, with considerable intercountry variation in ribotype distribution. Continuous surveillance programmes are necessary to monitor the changing epidemiology of C. difficile . (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Standardised surveillance of Clostridium difficile infection in European acute care hospitals: a pilot study, 2013
This study showed that standardised multicountry surveillance, with the option of integrating clinical and molecular data, is a feasible strategy for monitoring CDI in Europe. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Survey of diagnostic and typing capacity for Clostridium difficile infection in Europe, 2011 and 2014
Suboptimal laboratory diagnostics for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) impedes its surveillance and control across Europe. We evaluated changes in local laboratory CDI diagnostics and changes in national diagnostic and typing capacity for CDI during the European C. difficile Infection Surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net) project, through cross-sectional surveys in 33 European countries in 2011 and 2014. In 2011, 126 (61%) of a convenience sample of 206 laboratories in 31 countries completed a survey on local diagnostics. In 2014, 84 (67%) of these 126 laboratories in 26 countries completed a follow-up survey. Among labo...
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Survey of Clostridium difficile infection surveillance systems in Europe, 2011
To develop a European surveillance protocol for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), existing national CDI surveillance systems were assessed in 2011. A web-based electronic form was provided for all national coordinators of the European CDI Surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net). Of 35 national coordinators approached, 33 from 31 European countries replied. Surveillance of CDI was in place in 14 of the 31 countries, comprising 18 different nationwide systems. Three of 14 countries with CDI surveillance used public health notification of cases as the route of reporting, and in another three, reporting was limited to public he...
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Difficile indeed
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Authors' correction for Euro Surveill. 2016;21(27)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The epidemiology and transmissibility of Zika virus in Girardot and San Andres island, Colombia, September 2015 to January 2016
Transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) was first detected in Colombia in September 2015. As of April 2016, Colombia had reported over 65,000 cases of Zika virus disease (ZVD). We analysed daily surveillance data of ZVD cases reported to the health authorities of San Andres and Girardot, Colombia, between September 2015 and January 2016. ZVD was laboratory-confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the serum of acute cases within five days of symptom onset. We use daily incidence data to estimate the basic reproductive number (R0) in each population. We identified 928 and 1,936 reported ZVD cases fr...
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Outbreak of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections related to contaminated bronchoscope suction valves, Lyon, France, 2014
In April 2014, pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia co-infections potentially related to bronchoscopic procedures were identified in the intensive care units of a university hospital in Lyon, France. A retrospective cohort of 157 patients exposed to bronchoscopes from 1 December 2013 to 17 June 2014 was analysed. Environmental samples of suspected endoscopes were cultured. Bronchoscope disinfection was reviewed. Ten cases of pulmonary P. aeruginosa/S. maltophilia co-infections were identified, including two patients with secondary pneumonia. Eight cases were linked to bronchoscope A1 and two to...
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Zika emergence in the French Territories of America and description of first confirmed cases of Zika virus infection on Martinique, November 2015 to February 2016
We report here early findings on 203 confirmed cases of Zika virus infection identified by RT-PCR or seroneutralisation on Martinique Island between 24 November 2015 and 20 January 2016. All cases were investigated. Common clinical signs were observed (maculopapular rash, arthralgia, fever, myalgia and conjunctival hyperaemia) among these patients, but the rash, the foundation of our case definition, may be absent in a significant proportion of patients (16%). These results are important for the implementation of a suspected case definition, the main tool for epidemiological surveillance, in territories that may be affecte...
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Réunion Island prepared for possible Zika virus emergence, 2016
Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently spread widely and turned into a major international public health threat. Réunion appears to offer conditions particularly favourable to its emergence and therefore prepared to face possible introduction of the virus. We designed a scaled surveillance and response system with specific objectives, methods and measures for various epidemiological phases including a potential epidemic. Several tools were developed in order to (i) detect individual cases (including a large information campaign on the disease and suspicion criteria), (ii) monitor an outbreak through several complementary sy...
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Note from the editors: Articles on Zika preparedness
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

ECDC's latest publications
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

In the national epidemiological bulletins - a selection from current issues
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Authors' reply: Outbreak of a new measles B3 variant in the Roma/Sinti population with transmission in the nosocomial setting, Italy, November 2015 to April 2016
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: Outbreak of a new measles B3 variant in the Roma/Sinti population with transmission in the nosocomial setting, Italy, November 2015 to April 2016
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Sustained low rotavirus activity and hospitalisation rates in the post-vaccination era in Belgium, 2007 to 2014
In 2006, Belgium was the first country in the European Union to recommend rotavirus vaccination in the routine infant vaccination schedule and rapidly achieved high vaccine uptake (86-89% in 2007). We used regional and national data sources up to 7 years post-vaccination to study the impact of vaccination on laboratory-confirmed rotavirus cases and rotavirus-related hospitalisations and deaths. We showed that (i) from 2007 until 2013, vaccination coverage remained at 79-88% for a complete course, (ii) in children 0-2 years, rotavirus cases decreased by 79% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 68-­89%) in 2008-2014 comp...
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Arboviral and other illnesses in travellers returning from Brazil, June 2013 to May 2016: implications for the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games
We evaluated EuroTravNet (a GeoSentinel subnetwork) data from June 2013 to May 2016 on 508 ill travellers returning from Brazil, to inform a risk analysis for Europeans visiting the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games in Brazil. Few dengue fever cases (n = 3) and no cases of chikungunya were documented during the 2013-15 Brazilian winter months, August and September, the period when the Games will be held. The main diagnoses were dermatological (37%), gastrointestinal (30%), febrile systemic illness (29%) and respiratory (11%). (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Identification of a novel plasmid-mediated colistin-resistance gene, mcr-2, in Escherichia coli, Belgium, June 2016
We identified a novel plasmid-mediated colistin-resistance gene in porcine and bovine colistin-resistant Escherichia coli that did not contain mcr-1. The gene, termed mcr-2, a 1,617 bp phosphoethanolamine transferase harboured on an IncX4 plasmid, has 76.7% nucleotide identity to mcr-1. Prevalence of mcr-2 in porcine colistin-resistant E. coli (11/53) in Belgium was higher than that of mcr-1 (7/53). These data call for an immediate introduction of mcr-2 screening in ongoing molecular epidemiological surveillance of colistin-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

An ongoing measles outbreak linked to a suspected imported case, Ireland, April to June 2016
We report an outbreak of measles which started in April 2016 and which, by 13 June, has resulted in 22 confirmed and five probable measles cases occurring in four regions of Ireland. Genotype B3 was identified. We describe the identification, ongoing investigation and control measures being implemented. This outbreak occurs during a period of very low measles transmission in Ireland, with only one confirmed case (imported) notified in 2016 before this event. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - July 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Authors' reply: Escherichia coli harbouring mcr-1 gene isolated from poultry not exposed to polymyxins in Brazil
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 30, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: Escherichia coli harbouring mcr-1 gene isolated from poultry not exposed to polymyxins in Brazil
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 30, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Antibiotic prescribing and expenditures in outpatient adults in Greece, 2010 to 2013: evidence from real-world practice
We provide a representative analysis of antibiotic prescribing, identify factors associated with broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing and assess the costs associated with antibiotic use in adult outpatients in Greece. Outpatient antibiotic prescriptions for patients?older than?19 years between 2010 and 2013 in Greece were extracted from the IMS Health Xponent database. Prescribing rate and total cost for prescribed antibiotics were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors related to broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing. More than 20 million antibiotics were prescribed during the study per...
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 30, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A major outbreak of conjunctivitis caused by coxsackievirus A24, Réunion, January to April 2015
This report describes the characteristics of the outbreak, which were obtained through several different yet complementary surveillance systems on the island. These included the network of hospital emergency departments (OSCOUR network), the GPs' sentinel network, an Internet-based population cohort ('Koman i lé') participating in a survey on distinct symptoms including 'red eyes' and the monitoring of eye drop sales. Overall the results of the different surveillance approaches were in good agreement regarding the outbreak dynamic. A peak of patients with conjunctivitis was detected in the first 15 days of March (we...
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 30, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Detection of Zika virus RNA in whole blood of imported Zika virus disease cases up to 2 months after symptom onset, Israel, December 2015 to April 2016
Zika virus RNA presence in serum, whole-blood and urine samples from six Israeli travellers symptomatic for Zika virus disease was examined. Whole-blood samples were positive for as late as 2 months (58 days) post-symptom onset, longer than for urine (26 days) and serum (3 days). These findings suggest the utility of whole blood in Zika infection diagnosis. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 30, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

MCR-1 in multidrug-resistant and copper-tolerant clinically relevant Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- and S. Rissen clones in Portugal, 2011 to 2015
The mcr-1 gene was found in 11 isolates from a Portuguese Salmonella collection (n?=?1,010; 58 serotypes; 2002-15) of clinical samples, foodstuff, food-animals and water. Mcr-1 has been located on different plasmids (IncX4/IncHI2) in pig-associated multidrug-resistant, copper-tolerant S.1,4,[5],12:i:-/ST34 and S.Rissen/ST469 clones from human and pork products since at least 2011. Our data highlight dissemination of mcr-1 by successful resistant clones in Europe and raise questions about the efficacy of copper-based interventions to reduce colistin use. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 30, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Meeting report: Pre-exposure Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prophylaxis in the EU/EEA: Challenges and Opportunities, Stockholm April 2016
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 23, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Repeated nationwide point-prevalence surveys of antimicrobial use in Swedish hospitals: data for actions 2003-2010
This study sought to analyse antimicrobial pressure, indications for treatment, and compliance with treatment recommendations and to identify possible problem areas where inappropriate use could be improved through interventions by the network of the local Swedish Strategic Programme Against Antibiotic Resistance (Strama) groups. Five point-prevalence surveys were performed in between 49 and 72 participating hospitals from 2003 to 2010. Treatments were recorded for 19 predefined diagnosis groups and whether they were for community-acquired infection, hospital-acquired infection, or prophylaxis. Approximately one-third of i...
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 23, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Active surveillance scheme in three Romanian hospitals reveals a high prevalence and variety of carbapenamase-producing Gram-negative bacteria: a pilot study, December 2014 to May 2015
We report the findings of an active surveillance scheme for detection of asymptomatic carriers with carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria (CP-GNB) in Romanian hospitals. During a pilot study from December 2014 to May 2015, faecal cultures were screened in three hospitals (two large, one medium-size) for patients newly admitted to selected wards or inpatients transferred from other wards to an intensive-care unit. The study revealed a high prevalence of CP-GNB detected in 22/27 and 28/38 of the carbapenem non-susceptible isolates from Hospitals 1 and 3, respectively. CP-GNB identified through faecal screening inclu...
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 23, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

An outbreak of a possibly new Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar with the antigenic formula 11:z41:e,n,z15, Greece, March to May 2016: preliminary results
Eleven Salmonella spp. isolates with the antigenic type 11:z41:e,n,z15 - not referred to in the 9th edition of the White-Kauffman-Le Minor Scheme - were identified at the National Reference Laboratory for Salmonella in Greece. Their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles were indistinguishable. No apparent epidemiological link has yet been identified; the results of a case-case study are pending. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 23, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Erratum for Euro Surveill. 2016;21(23)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 16, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Job vacancy at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 16, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Preparing to introduce the varicella vaccine into the Italian immunisation programme: varicella-related hospitalisations in Tuscany, 2004-2012
A universal immunisation programme against varicella in the form of the measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine for toddlers aged 13-15 months was introduced in Tuscany in July 2008. An assessment of the impact of this programme on varicella-related hospitalisations 4 years after its introduction could further support its adoption at a national level. The hospitalisation data were analysed in two periods: pre-vaccination (2004-2007) and vaccination period (2009-2012). The high coverage of the vaccines (84% in 2012) resulted in a significant decline in notifications, from 33,114 (2004-2007) to 13,184 cases (2009-2012...
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 16, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics and public health management of invasive meningococcal group W disease in the East Midlands region of England, United Kingdom, 2011 to 2013
In England and Wales, meningococcal disease caused by group W has historically been associated with outbreaks of disease among travellers to high-risk countries. Following a large outbreak associated with travel to the Hajj in 2000, the number of cases declined and, in 2008, only 19 laboratory-confirmed cases were identified nationally. In 2013, in the East Midlands region of England, eight cases of meningococcal disease caused by this serogroup were recorded, compared with six from 2011 to 2012. To explore this further, data for all cases with a date of onset between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2013 were collected. Dat...
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 16, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus exhibiting enhanced cross-resistance to oseltamivir and peramivir due to a dual H275Y/G147R substitution, Japan, March 2016
An influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus carrying a G147R substitution in combination with an H275Y substitution in the neuraminidase protein, which confers cross-resistance to oseltamivir and peramivir, was detected from an immunocompromised inpatient in Japan, March 2016. This dual H275Y/G147R mutant virus exhibited enhanced cross-resistance to both drugs compared with the single H275Y mutant virus and reduced susceptibility to zanamivir, although it showed normal inhibition by laninamivir. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - June 16, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research