In the national epidemiological bulletins - a selection from current issues
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - March 3, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

WHO publishes viral hepatitis surveillance guide
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - March 3, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The measles outbreak in Bulgaria, 2009-2011: An epidemiological assessment and lessons learnt
Measles re-emerged in a nationwide outbreak in Bulgaria from 2009 to 2011 despite reported high vaccination coverage at national level. This followed an eight-year period since the last indigenous cases of measles were detected. The Bulgarian National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases collated measles surveillance data for 2009-2011. We analysed data for age group, sex, ethnicity, diagnosis confirmation, vaccination, hospitalisation, disease complications, and death and describe the outbreak control measures taken. The outbreak started in April 2009 following an importation of measles virus and affected 24,364 pe...
Source: Eurosurveillance - March 3, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Presence of mcr-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae in retail chicken meat but not in humans in the Netherlands since 2009
Recently, the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 was found in Enterobacteriaceae from humans, pigs and retail meat in China. Several reports have documented global presence of the gene in Enterobacteriaceae from humans, food animals and food since. We screened several well-characterised strain collections of Enterobacteriaceae, obtained from retail chicken meat and hospitalised patients in the Netherlands between 2009 and 2015, for presence of colistin resistance and the mcr-1 gene. A total of 2,471 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, from surveys in retail chicken meat (196 isolates), prevalence surveys in hospitali...
Source: Eurosurveillance - March 3, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Zika virus detection in urine from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome on Martinique, January 2016
We report two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome who had concomitant Zika virus viruria. This viruria persisted for longer than 15 days after symptom onset. The cases occurred on Martinique in January 2016, at the beginning of the Zika virus outbreak. Awareness of this possible neurological complication of ZikV infection is needed. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - March 3, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Plasmid-mediated colistin resistance (mcr-1 gene): three months later, the story unfolds
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - March 3, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Erratum for Euro Surveill. 2016;21(7)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 25, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Job vacancy at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 25, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

WHO recommendations on the composition of the 2016/17 influenza virus vaccines in the northern hemisphere
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 25, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Neurological sequelae of healthcare-associated sepsis in very-low-birthweight infants: Umbrella review and evidence-based outcome tree
Sepsis is a frequent cause of death in very-low-birthweight infants and often results in neurological impairment. Its attributable risk of sequelae has not been systematically assessed. To establish an outcome tree for mapping the burden of neonatal sepsis, we performed systematic literature searches to identify systematic reviews addressing sequelae of neonatal sepsis. We included cohort studies and performed meta-analyses of attributable risks. Evidence quality was assessed using GRADE. Two systematic reviews met inclusion criteria. The first included nine cohort studies with 5,620 participants and five outcomes (neurode...
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 25, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Impact of food animal trade on the spread of mcr-1-mediated colistin resistance, Tunisia, July 2015
We report a high prevalence of MCR-1 and CTX-M-1-producing Escherichia coli in three Tunisian chicken farms. Chickens were imported from France or derived from French imported chicks. The same IncHI2-type plasmid reported to carry those genes in cattle in France and in a food sample in Portugal was found in Tunisian chickens of French origin. This suggests a significant impact of food animal trade on the spread of mcr-1-mediated colistin resistance in Europe. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 25, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

An autochthonous case of Zika due to possible sexual transmission, Florence, Italy, 2014
We report a case of Zika virus infection imported in Florence, Italy ex-Thailand, leading to a secondary autochthonous case, probably through sexual transmission. The two cases occurred in May 2014 but were retrospectively diagnosed in 2016 on the basis of serological tests (plaque reduction neutralisation) performed on stored serum samples. Our report provides further evidence that sexual transmission of Zika virus is possible. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 25, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

First European Union Laboratory Capability Monitoring System report published
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 18, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

ECDC public consultation on the use of neuraminidase inhibitors
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 18, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Author's reply: Is there a need for special treatment of refugees at hospital admission?
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 18, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: Is there a need for special treatment of refugees at hospital admission?
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 18, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Vaccine effectiveness in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in primary care patients in a season of co-circulation of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, B and drifted A(H3N2), I-MOVE Multicentre Case-Control Study, Europe 2014/15
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 18, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Hepatitis B vaccination coverage and risk factors associated with incomplete vaccination of children born to hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers, Denmark, 2006 to 2010
In Denmark, universal screening of pregnant women for hepatitis B has been in place since November 2005, with the first two years as a trial period with enhanced surveillance. It is unknown what the change to universal screening without enhanced surveillance has meant for vaccination coverage among children born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive mothers and what risk factors exist for incomplete vaccination. This retrospective cohort study included 699 children of mothers positive for HBsAg. Information on vaccination and risk factors was collected from central registers. In total, 93% (651/699) of the childr...
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 18, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Molecular identification of emergent GII.P17-GII.17 norovirus genotype, Romania, 2015
The novel GII.P17-GII.17 norovirus genotype has been reported as cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in China and Japan since the winter season 2014/15, replacing the pandemic strain GII.4 Sydney 2012. These emergent strains have also been sporadically reported on other continents than Asia. GII.P17-GII.17 isolates, similar to Kawasaki308 2015, were identified in three patients during a large outbreak of acute gastroenteritis affecting 328 people in Romania, in neighbouring localities, in 2015. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 18, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

International Committee of Medical Journal Editors seeks feedback on suggested requirements for sharing clinical trial data
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 11, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

European Commission Horizon 2020 programme call for vaccine development research into malaria and neglected infectious diseases, including Zika virus
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 11, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Early influenza vaccine effectiveness results 2015-16: I-MOVE multicentre case-control study
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 11, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Inverse trends of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Swiss surveillance data, 1988-2013
Clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. are notifiable in Switzerland. In 1995, Campylobacter replaced Salmonella as the most frequently reported food-borne pathogen. We analysed notification data (1988-2013) for these two bacterial, gastrointestinal pathogens of public health importance in Switzerland. Notification rates were calculated using data for the average resident population. Between 1988 and 2013, notified campylobacteriosis cases doubled from 3,127 to 7,499, while Salmonella case notifications decreased, from 4,291 to 1,267. Case notifications for both pathogens peaked during summer months. C...
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 11, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Prevalence of mcr-1 in commensal Escherichia coli from French livestock, 2007 to 2014
Colistin resistance was investigated in 1,696 isolates collected from 2007 to 2014 within the frame of the French livestock antimicrobial resistance surveillance programme. The mcr-1 gene was detected in all commensal Escherichia coli isolates with a minimum inhibitory concentration to colistin above the 2 mg/L cut-off value (n=23). In poultry, mcr-1 prevalence was 5.9% in turkeys and 1.8% in broilers in 2014. In pigs, investigated in 2013, this prevalence did not exceed 0.5%. These findings support that mcr-1 has spread in French livestock. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 11, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Zika virus infections in three travellers returning from South America and the Caribbean respectively, to Montpellier, France, December 2015 to January 2016
We report three unrelated cases of Zika virus infection in patients returning from Martinique, Brazil and Colombia respectively, to Montpellier, France. They developed symptoms compatible with a mosquito-borne disease, and serological and molecular investigations indicated a recent Zika virus infection. Considering the recent warning for the likely teratogenicity of Zika virus and the presence of competent mosquito vectors in southern France, these cases highlight the need for awareness of physicians and laboratories in Europe. Since early 2015 there has been a rapid spread of Zika virus infections in South America with a ...
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 11, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Authors' correction for Euro Surveill. 2016;21(2)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

ECDC's latest publications
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

In the national epidemiological bulletins - a selection from current issues
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Resources and latest news about Zika virus disease available from ECDC
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

European public health policies for managing contacts of invasive meningococcal disease cases better harmonised in 2013 than in 2007
In 2007, a European survey identified variation in country policies on public health management of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). In 2009-10, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) published evidence-based guidance on IMD. We therefore surveyed again European countries to describe policies for managing IMD cases and contacts in 2013. We asked national IMD public health experts from 32 European countries to complete a questionnaire focusing on post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for IMD contacts and meningococcal vaccination. Proportions in 2007 and 2013 were compared using the chi-squared test. Al...
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Evaluation of a temporary vaccination recommendation in response to an outbreak of invasive meningococcal serogroup C disease in men who have sex with men in Berlin, 2013-2014
Meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) vaccination of men who have sex with men (MSM) was temporarily recommended to control an outbreak of invasive MenC disease among MSM in Berlin in 2012-2013. Vaccination was offered to HIV-infected MSM free of charge; others had to request reimbursement or pay out of pocket. We aimed to assess (i) awareness and acceptance of this recommendation through an online survey of MSM, (ii) implementation through a survey of primary care physicians and analysis of vaccine prescriptions, and (iii) impact through analysis of notified cases. Among online survey respondents, 60% were aware of the recomme...
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Emergence of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 genogroup 6B and drug resistant virus, India, January to May 2015
To investigate the aetiology of the 2015 A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza outbreak in India, 1,083 nasopharyngeal swabs from suspect patients were screened for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in the state of Madhya Pradesh. Of 412 positive specimens, six were further characterised by phylogenetic analysis of haemagglutinin (HA) sequences revealing that they belonged to genogroup 6B. A new mutation (E164G) was observed in HA2 of two sequences. Neuraminidase genes in two of 12 isolates from fatal cases on prior oseltamivir treatment harboured the H275Y mutation. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Confirmed inguinal lymphogranuloma venereum genovar L2c in a man who had sex with men, Slovenia, 2015
A laboratory-confirmed lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) case in Slovenia was reported in 2015, in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative man presenting with inguinal lymphadenopathy. He reported unprotected insertive anal intercourse with two male partners in Croatia. Variant L2c of Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in clinical samples. Although the patient was eventually cured, the recommended treatment regimen with doxycycline had to be prolonged. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - February 4, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Addendum for Euro Surveill. 2015;20(44)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Systematic review on tuberculosis transmission on aircraft and update of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control risk assessment guidelines for tuberculosis transmitted on aircraft (RAGIDA-TB)
In this study evidence of TB transmission on aircraft was identified to update the Risk Assessment Guidelines for TB Transmitted on Aircraft (RAGIDA-TB) of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Electronic searches were undertaken from Medline (Pubmed), Embase and Cochrane Library until 19 July 2013. Eligible records were identified by a two-stage screening process and data on flight and index case characteristics as well as contact tracing strategies extracted. The systematic literature review retrieved 21 records. Ten of these records were available only after the previous version of the RAGIDA gu...
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Cluster of atypical adult Guillain-Barré syndrome temporally associated with neurological illness due to EV-D68 in children, South Wales, United Kingdom, October 2015 to January 2016
We report a cluster of atypical Guillain-Barré syndrome in 10 adults temporally related to a cluster of four children with acute flaccid paralysis, over a 3-month period in South Wales, United Kingdom. All adult cases were male, aged between 24 and 77 years. Seven had prominent facial diplegia at onset. Available electrophysiological studies showed axonal involvement in five adults. Seven reported various forms of respiratory disease before onset of neurological symptoms. The ages of children ranged from one to 13 years, three of the four were two years old or younger. Enterovirus testing is available for three chil...
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Insights into epidemiology of human parvovirus B19 and detection of an unusual genotype 2 variant, Bulgaria, 2004 to 2013
The present study aimed to determine the role of human parvovirus ?19 (B19V) as an aetiological agent in measles and rubella negative fever/rash patients from Bulgaria between 2004 and 2013. A total of 1,266 sera from all over the country were tested for B19V IgM antibodies and all positives were further investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Overall, 280 sera (22%) were B19V IgM positive and 227 of these (81%) were also PCR positive. The highest number of IgM positives was found among five to nine year-old children (27%). Eight infected women gave birth to healthy children; one fetus was aborted with hydrops fet...
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Differential age susceptibility to influenza B/Victoria lineage viruses in the 2015 Australian influenza season
Influenza B viruses make up an important part of the burden from seasonal influenza globally. The 2015 season in Australia saw an unusual predominance of influenza B with a distinctive switch during the season from B/Yamagata/16/88 lineage viruses to B/Victoria/2/87 lineage viruses. We also noted significant differences in the age groups infected by the different B lineages, with B/Victoria infecting a younger population than B/Yamagata, that could not be explained by potential prior exposure. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Evaluation of immunochromatographic tests for the rapid detection of the emerging GII.17 norovirus in stool samples, January 2016
A novel GII.17 norovirus emerged in Asia in the winter of 2014/15. A worldwide spread is conceivable and norovirus diagnostic assays need to be evaluated to investigate if they adequately detect this emerging genotype. Seven immunochromatographic kits commercially available in Europe were evaluated on ten stool samples where GII.17 virus had been quantified by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. All the kits detected GII.17 with various sensitivities, partly depending on the virus titre. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A cluster of three cases of botulism due to Clostridium baratii type F, France, August 2015
A cluster of three cases of food-borne botulism due to Clostridium baratii type F occurred in France in August 2015. All cases required respiratory assistance. Consumption of a Bolognese sauce at the same restaurant was the likely source of contamination. Clostridium baratii was isolated both from stool specimens from the three patients and ground meat used to prepare the sauce. This is the second episode reported in France caused by this rare pathogen. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Genotyping and strain distribution of Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis isolated from humans and pigs in Belgium, 2011-2013
Mycobacterium avium represents a health concern for both humans and pigs. The characterisation of its subspecies is an important step improving the understanding of the epidemiology and the control of this pathogen. Ninety-two human M. avium strains were selected for a retrospective study. Subspecies determination by rpoB sequencing and IS1245/IS901 analysis showed that 98.9% of Belgian human M. avium strains belong to the subspecies hominissuis (MAH). Some of these MAH strains present particular IS1245/IS901 profiles (absence of IS1245 and false IS901 detection provoked by the presence of ISMav6). In addition, 54 MAH stra...
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Mutations acquired during cell culture isolation may affect antigenic characterisation of influenza A(H3N2) clade 3C.2a viruses
As elsewhere, few (
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

International linkage of two food-borne hepatitis A clusters through traceback of mussels, the Netherlands, 2012
In conclusion, a small number of patients in a non-endemic area led to geographically dispersed hepatitis A outbreaks with food as vehicle. This link would have gone unnoticed without sequence analyses and international collaboration. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 21, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Three vole species and one (?) novel arvicolid hantavirus pathogen: Tula virus revisited
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

In-season and out-of-season variation of rotavirus genotype distribution and age of infection across 12 European countries before the introduction of routine vaccination, 2007/08 to 2012/13
The EuroRotaNet surveillance network has conducted rotavirus genotype surveillance since 2007 in 16 European countries. Using epidemiological and microbiological data from 39,786 genotyped rotavirus-positive specimens collected between September 2007 and August 2013, we assessed genotype distribution and age distribution of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) cases in and out of peak season in 12 countries which were yet to implement routine rotavirus vaccination. In multinomial multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for year, country and age, the odds of infection caused by genotype-constellation 2 DS-1-like stains (adj...
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Respiratory diphtheria in an asylum seeker from Afghanistan arriving to Finland via Sweden, December 2015
In December 2015, an asylum seeker originating from Afghanistan was diagnosed with respiratory diphtheria in Finland. He arrived in Finland from Sweden where he had already been clinically suspected and tested for diphtheria. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was confirmed in Sweden and shown to be genotypically and phenotypically toxigenic. The event highlights the importance of early case detection, rapid communication within the country and internationally as well as preparedness plans of diphtheria antitoxin availability. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Multidrug-resistant organisms detected in refugee patients admitted to a University Hospital, Germany June?December 2015
Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR GNB) were found to colonise 60.8% (95% confidence interval: 52.3-68.9) of 143 refugee patients mainly from Syria (47), Afghanistan (29), and Somalia (14) admitted to the University Hospital Frankfurt, Germany, between June and December 2015. This percentage exceeds the prevalence of MDR GNB in resident patients four-fold. Healthcare personnel should be aware of this and the need to implement or adapt adequate infection control measures. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Multidrug-resistant bacteria in unaccompanied refugee minors arriving in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, October to November 2015
Many refugees arriving in Germany originate or have travelled through countries with high prevalence of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms. Therefore, all unaccompanied refugee minors (
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Zika virus infection in a traveller returning from the Maldives, June 2015
We report a Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with fever and rash after returning to Finland from Maldives, June 2015. The patient had dengue virus (DENV) IgG and IgM antibodies but pan-flavivirus RT-PCR and subsequent sequencing showed presence of ZIKV RNA in urine. Recent association of ZIKV with microcephaly highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from DENV infection and the circulation of ZIKV in areas outside its currently known distribution range. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

ECDC's latest publications
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research