Letter to the editor: Regarding the editorial by Penttinen and Friede
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - October 6, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Tuberculosis contact investigations associated with air travel in Ireland, September 2011 to November 2014
This study identified challenges in obtaining complete timely airline manifests, leading to inadequate passenger information for follow-up. Receipt of TB screening results from international colleagues was also problematic. The challenge of interpreting the tuberculin skin test results in determining recent vs earlier infection was encountered. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - October 6, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis linked to the consumption of frozen beefburgers received from a food bank and originating from Poland: northern France, December 2014 to April 2015
A prolonged outbreak ofSalmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis occurred in northern France between December 2014 and April 2015. Epidemiological investigations following the initial notification on 30 December 2014 of five cases of salmonellosis (two confirmedS. Enteritidis) in young children residing in the Somme department revealed that all cases frequented the same food bank A. Further epidemiological, microbiological and food trace-back investigations indicated frozen beefburgers as the source of the outbreak and the suspected lot originating from Poland was recalled on 22 January 2015. On 2 March 2015 a second notifi...
Source: Eurosurveillance - October 6, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Authors' correction for Euro Surveill. 2016;21(38)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

'European Antibiotics Awareness Day' wins 'European Health Award 2016' accolade
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Expert committee declares WHO Region of the Americas measles-free
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Author's reply: The first tick-borne encephalitis case in the Netherlands: reflections and a note of caution
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: The first tick-borne encephalitis case in the Netherlands: reflections and a note of caution
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

VIRO-TypeNed, systematic molecular surveillance of enteroviruses in the Netherlands between 2010 and 2014
VIRO-TypeNed is a collaborative molecular surveillance platform facilitated through a web-based database. Genetic data in combination with epidemiological, clinical and patient data are shared between clinical and public health laboratories, as part of the surveillance underpinning poliovirus eradication. We analysed the combination of data submitted from 2010 to 2014 to understand circulation patterns of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV) of public health relevance. Two epidemiological patterns were observed based on VIRO-TypeNed data and classical surveillance data dating back to 1996: (i) endemic cyclic, characterised by pr...
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

French Aedes albopictus are able to transmit yellow fever virus
We assessed the ability of a French population ofAedes albopictus to transmit yellow fever virus (YFV). Batches of 30 to 40 female mosquitoes were analysed at 7, 14 and 21 days post-exposure (dpe). Bodies, heads and saliva were screened for YFV. Infectious viral particles were detected in bodies and heads at 7, 14 and 21 dpe whereas the virus was found in saliva only from 14 dpe. Our results showed thatAe. albopictus can potentially transmit YFV. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A norovirus intervariant GII.4 recombinant in Victoria, Australia, June 2016: the next epidemic variant?
A norovirus recombinant GII.P4_NewOrleans_2009/GII.4_Sydney_2012 was first detected in Victoria, Australia, in August 2015 at low frequency, and then re-emerged in June 2016, having undergone genetic changes. Analysis of 14 years' surveillance data from Victoria suggests a typical delay of two to seven months between first detection of a new variant and occurrence of a subsequent epidemic linked to that variant. We consider that the current recombinant strain has the potential to become a pandemic variant. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Increase in ECHOvirus 6 infections associated with neurological symptoms in the Netherlands, June to August 2016
This report is to alert medical and public health professionals of the circulation of E-6 associated with neurological symptoms. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 29, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Erratum for Euro Surveill. 2015;20(45)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Job vacancies at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Lack of virological and serological evidence for continued circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 virus in wild birds in the Netherlands, 14 November 2014 to 31 January 2016
In 2014, H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 lineage emerged in poultry and wild birds in Asia, Europe and North America. Here, wild birds were extensively investigated in the Netherlands for HPAI H5N8 virus (real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting the matrix and H5 gene) and antibody detection (haemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralisation assays) before, during and after the first virus detection in Europe in late 2014. Between 21 February 2015 and 31 January 2016, 7,337 bird samples were tested for the virus. One HPAI H5N8 virus-infected Euras...
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Epidemiological and molecular investigation of a rubella outbreak, Romania, 2011 to 2012
We describe a rubella outbreak that occurred in Romania between September 2011 and December 2012. During this period 24,627 rubella cases, 41.1% (n=10,134) of which female, were notified based on clinical criteria, and a total of 6,182 individualswere found serologically positive for IgM-specific rubella antibody. The median age of notified cases was 18 years (range:
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Community-wide outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome associated with Shiga toxin 2-producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 in southern Italy, summer 2013
In summer 2013, an excess of paediatric cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) in a southern region of Italy prompted the investigation of a community-wide outbreak of Shiga toxin 2-producingEscherichia coli (STEC) O26:H11 infections. Case finding was based on testing patients with HUS or bloody diarrhoea for STEC infection by microbiological and serological methods. A case-control study was conducted to identify the source of the outbreak. STEC O26 infection was identified in 20 children (median age 17 months) with HUS, two of whom reported severe neurological sequelae. No cases in adults were detected. Molecular typi...
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine for adults and children in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in primary care in the United Kingdom: 2015/16 end-of-season results
The United Kingdom (UK) is in the third season of introducing universal paediatric influenza vaccination with a quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). The 2015/16 season in the UK was initially dominated by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and then influenza of B/Victoria lineage, not contained in that season's adult trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV). Overall adjusted end-of-season vaccine effectiveness (VE) was 52.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 41.0-61.6) against influenza-confirmed primary care consultation, 54.5% (95% CI: 41.6-64.5) against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 54.2% (95% CI: 33.1-68.6) agains...
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Effectiveness of the live attenuated and the inactivated influenza vaccine in two-year-olds - a nationwide cohort study Finland, influenza season 2015/16
Although widely recommended, influenza vaccination of children is part of the national vaccination programme only in few countries. In addition to Canada and the United States (US), in Europe Finland and the United Kingdom have introduced live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) for healthy children in their programmes. On 22 June 2016, the US Advisory Committee on Immunizations Practices, voted against further use of LAIV due to no observed vaccine effectiveness (VE) over three consecutive influenza seasons (2013/14 to 2015/16). We summarise the results of a nationwide, register-based cohort study (N=55,258 of whom 8,086 ...
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

South-east Asian Zika virus strain linked to cluster of cases in Singapore, August 2016
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an ongoing global public health emergency with 70 countries and territories reporting evidence of ZIKV transmission since 2015. On 27 August 2016, Singapore reported its first case of local ZIKV transmission and identified an ongoing cluster. Here, we report the genome sequences of ZIKV strains from two cases and find through phylogenetic analysis that these strains form an earlier branch distinct from the recent large outbreak in the Americas. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Decreased effectiveness of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strain in live attenuated influenza vaccines: an observational bias or a technical challenge?
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Towards a consensus on genotyping schemes for surveillance and outbreak investigations of Cryptosporidium, Berlin, June 2016
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 15, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

National survey of colistin resistance among carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and outbreak caused by colistin-resistant OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, France, 2014
From January 2014 to December 2014, 972 consecutive non-replicate carbapenemase-producingEnterobacteriaceae isolates from colonised or infected patients were collected at the Associated French National Reference Centre as part of the French national survey on antimicrobial resistance. It included 577Klebsiella spp. (59%), 236Escherichia coli (24%), 108Enterobacter spp. (11%), 50Citrobacter spp. (5%), and a singleSalmonella spp. isolate (0.1%). Of 561K. pneumoniae isolates, 35 were found to be resistant to colistin (6.2%). PFGE analysis revealed a clonal outbreak involving 15K. pneumoniae isolates belonging to sequence type...
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 15, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015
In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of aff...
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 15, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Outbreak of trichinellosis related to eating imported wild boar meat, Belgium, 2014
Trichinellosis is a rare parasitic zoonosis caused byTrichinella following ingestion of raw or undercooked meat containingTrichinella larvae. In the past five years, there has been a sharp decrease in human trichinellosis incidence rates in the European Union due to better practices in rearing domestic animals and control measures in slaughterhouses. In November 2014, a large outbreak of trichinellosis occurred in Belgium, related to the consumption of imported wild boar meat. After a swift local public health response, 16 cases were identified and diagnosed with trichinellosis. Of the 16 cases, six were female. The diagno...
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 15, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The European Commission Consumers, Health, Agriculture and Food Executive Agency (CHAFEA) call for tender concerning studies on vaccination closes on 13 September
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 8, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in south-west Germany, 2004 to 2015: increasing minimal inhibitory concentrations of tetracycline but no resistance to third-generation cephalosporins
We examined the susceptibility (determined by Etest and evaluated using the breakpoints of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) of 434N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected from 107 female and 327 male patients in Stuttgart, south-west Germany, between 2004 and 2015. During the study period, high proportions of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (70.3%), tetracycline (48.4%; increasing from 27.5% in 2004/2005 to 57.7% in 2014/2015; p?=?0.0002) and penicillin (25.6%). The proportion of isolates resistant to azithromycin was low (5.5%) but tended to increase (p?=?0.08). No resistance and stable mi...
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 8, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Epidemiology of pertussis in Denmark, 1995 to 2013
We describe incidence and age distribution of laboratory-confirmed pertussis in Denmark from 1995 to 2013. Notification has been mandatory since 2007. Since 1997, an acellular monocomponent vaccine has been used. The latest epidemic occurred in 2002 with an incidence of 36 per 100,000; since 1995, only six infant deaths have been recorded. The inter-epidemic incidence lies below 10 per 100,000. In 1995, the mean age of confirmed cases was 9.2 years (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.9-10.5; median: 5.1), this gradually increased to 23.9 years in 2013 (95% CI: 22.0-25.8; median: 15.7). In 1995, 14% of laboratory-confirmed cas...
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 8, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Chikungunya virus infections among travellers returning to Spain, 2008 to 2014
This report highlights the need for integrated active case and vector surveillance in Spain and other parts of Europe where chikungunya virus may be introduced by returning travellers. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 8, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

ECDC's latest publications
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

In the national epidemiological bulletins - a selection from current issues
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Hepatitis E in blood donors: investigation of the natural course of asymptomatic infection, Germany, 2011
Asymptomatic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been found in blood donors from various European countries, but the natural course is rarely specified. Here, we compared the progression of HEV viraemia, serostatus and liver-specific enzymes in 10 blood donors with clinically asymptomatic genotype 3 HEV infection, measuring HEV RNA concentrations, plasma concentrations of alanine/aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase and bilirubin and anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies. RNA concentrations ranged from 77.2 to 2.19 ×105 IU/mL, with viraemia lasting from?less than?10 to 52 days. Donors showed a typic...
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Isolation of H5N6, H7N9 and H9N2 avian influenza A viruses from air sampled at live poultry markets in China, 2014 and 2015
Zoonotic infections by avian influenza viruses occur at the human-poultry interface, but the modes of transmission have not been fully investigated. We assessed the potential for airborne and fomite transmission at live poultry markets in Guangzhou city and in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), China, during 2014 and 2015. Viral genome and infectious avian influenza A viruses of H5N6, H7N9, and H9N2 subtypes were detected predominantly from particles larger or equal to 1 ?m in diameter in the air sampled with cyclone-based bioaerosol samplers at the live poultry markets in Guangzhou. Influenza A(H9N2) viruses w...
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Descriptive epidemiology of Escherichia coli bacteraemia in England, April 2012 to March 2014
We determined the incidence, risk factors and antimicrobial susceptibility associated withEscherichia coli bacteraemia in England over a 24 month period.Case data were obtained from the national mandatory surveillance database, with susceptibility data linked from LabBase2, a voluntary national microbiology database. Between April 2012 and March 2014, 66,512E. coli bacteraemia cases were reported. Disease incidence increased by 6% from 60.4 per 100,000 population in 2012-13 to 63.5 per 100,000 population in 2013-14 (p?
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Experimental investigation of the susceptibility of Italian Culex pipiens mosquitoes to Zika virus infection
We investigated the susceptibility of an Italian population ofCulex pipiens mosquitoes to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, tested in parallel withAedes aegypti, as a positive control. We analysed mosquitoes at 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 20 and 24 days after an infectious blood meal. Viral RNA was detected in the body ofCx. pipiens up to three days post-infection, but not at later time points. Our results indicate thatCx. pipiens is not susceptible to ZIKV infection. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Culex mosquitoes are experimentally unable to transmit Zika virus
We report that two laboratory colonies ofCulex quinquefasciatus andCulex pipiens mosquitoes were experimentally unable to transmit ZIKV either up to 21 days post an infectious blood meal or up to 14 days post intrathoracic inoculation. Infectious viral particles were detected in bodies, heads or saliva by a plaque forming unit assay on Vero cells. We therefore consider it unlikely thatCulex mosquitoes are involved in the rapid spread of ZIKV. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 1, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Erratum for Euro Surveill. 2016;21(33)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 25, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

ESCAIDE 'late-breaker' abstract call opens 1 September 2016
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 25, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Identifying components for programmatic latent tuberculosis infection control in the European Union
Individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are the reservoir ofMycobacterium tuberculosis in a population and as long as this reservoir exists, elimination of tuberculosis (TB) will not be feasible. In 2013, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) started an assessment of benefits and risks of introducing programmatic LTBI control, with the aim of providing guidance on how to incorporate LTBI control into national TB strategies in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) Member States and candidate countries. In a first step, experts from the Member States, candidate countries, and in...
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 25, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

National outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica infections in military and civilian populations associated with consumption of mixed salad, Norway, 2014
In May 2014, a cluster ofYersinia enterocolitica (YE) O9 infections was reported from a military base in northern Norway. Concurrently, an increase in YE infections in civilians was observed in the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases. We investigated to ascertain the extent of the outbreak and identify the source in order to implement control measures. A case was defined as a person with laboratory-confirmed YE O9 infection with the outbreak multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA)-profile (5-6-9-8-9-9). We conducted a case-control study in the military setting and calculated odds ratios...
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 25, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Increase in reptile-associated human salmonellosis and shift toward adulthood in the age groups at risk, the Netherlands, 1985 to 2014
While the contribution of the main food-related sources to human salmonellosis is well documented, knowledge on the contribution of reptiles is limited. We quantified and examined trends in reptile-associated salmonellosis in the Netherlands during a 30-year period, from 1985 to 2014. Using source attribution analysis, we estimated that 2% (95% confidence interval: 1.3-2.8) of all sporadic/domestic human salmonellosis cases reported in the Netherlands during the study period (n?=?63,718) originated from reptiles. The estimated annual fraction of reptile-associated salmonellosis cases ranged from a minimum of 0.3% (correspo...
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 25, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Cluster of human parechovirus infections as the predominant cause of sepsis in neonates and infants, Leicester, United Kingdom, 8 May to 2 August 2016
We report an unusually high number of cases (n = 26) of parechovirus infections in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of neonates and infants admitted with sepsis in the United Kingdom during 8 May to 2 August 2016. Although such infections in neonates and infants are well-documented, parechovirus has not been routinely included in many in-house and commercial PCR assays for CSF testing. Clinicians should consider routine parechovirus testing in young children presenting with sepsis. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 25, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Estimating true hospital morbidity of complications associated with mumps outbreak, England, 2004/05
Mumps outbreaks in highly vaccinated populations continue to be reported globally. Therefore, quantifying the burden of mumps morbidity accurately will be necessary to better assess the impact of mumps vaccination programmes. We aim to estimate the true morbidity resulting from mumps complications in terms of hospitalised orchitis, meningitis, oophoritis and pancreatitis in England during the outbreak in 2004/05. This outbreak in England led to a clear increase in hospitalisations coded to mumps for complications of orchitis in those born in the 1970s and 1980s and possibly for meningitis in those born in the 1980s. A simp...
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 18, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis: a retrospective analysis of mother-child examinations, Styria, Austria, 1995 to 2012
In Austria, mandatory screening for the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis stipulates a serological test for antibodies againstToxoplasma gondii as early as possible in pregnancy. In the case of a seronegative result, subsequent tests at intervals of 8 weeks are requested. We analysed serological data from Styria, an Austrian federal state, to determine the seroprevalence and incidence ofToxoplasma infections. The study included 353,599 tests from 103,316 women during 158,571 pregnancies from 1995 to 2012. The age-adjusted seroprevalence decreased from 43.3% in 1995 to 31.5% in 2012, with a yearly decline of 0.84% (95%...
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 18, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The health and economic burden of bloodstream infections caused by antimicrobial-susceptible and non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus in European hospitals, 2010 and 2011: a multicentre retrospective cohort study
We performed a multicentre retrospective cohort study including 606,649 acute inpatient episodes at 10 European hospitals in 2010 and 2011 to estimate the impact of antimicrobial resistance on hospital mortality, excess length of stay (LOS) and cost. Bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (3GCRE), meticillin-susceptible (MSSA) and -resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) increased the daily risk of hospital death (adjusted hazard ratio (HR)?=?1.80; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34-2.42, HR?=?1.81; 95% CI: 1.49-2.20 and HR?=?2.42; 95% CI: 1.66-3.51, respective...
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 18, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

First human case of tick-borne encephalitis virus infection acquired in the Netherlands, July 2016
In July 2016, the first autochthonous case of tick-borne encephalitis was diagnosed in the Netherlands, five days after a report that tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) had been found in Dutch ticks. A person in their 60s without recent travel history suffered from neurological symptoms after a tick bite. TBEV serology was positive and the tick was positive in TBEV qRT-PCR. TBEV infection should be considered in patients with compatible symptoms in the Netherlands. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 18, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Risk-adjusted antibiotic consumption in 34 public acute hospitals in Ireland, 2006 to 2014
In conclusion, patient-based administrative data variables are useful for adjusting hospital antibiotic consumption rates, although additional variables should also be employed. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 11, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Different measles outbreaks in Belgium, January to June 2016 - a challenge for public health
During the first half of 2016, several outbreaks of measles were reported in the three regions of Belgium. Main challenges for public health were severe complications occurring in adults, nosocomial transmission and infection in healthcare workers. Here, we describe those outbreaks and lessons learnt for public health. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 11, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Travel-associated and autochthonous Zika virus infection in mainland France, 1 January to 15 July 2016
We describe the surveillance system in place and control measures implemented to reduce the risk of infection. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 11, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Persistent detection of Zika virus RNA in semen for six months after symptom onset in a traveller returning from Haiti to Italy, February 2016
A man in his early 30s reported in January 2016 a history of fever, asthenia and erythematous rash during a stay in Haiti. On his return to Italy, ZIKV RNA was detected in his urine and saliva 91 days after symptom onset, and in his semen on day 188, six months after symptom onset. Our findings support the possibility of sexual transmission of ZIKV and highlight the importance of continuing to investigate non-vector-borne ZIKV infection. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 11, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research