In the national epidemiological bulletins - a selection from current issues
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Eurosurveillance reviewers in 2015
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine in preventing influenza primary care visits and hospitalisation in Auckland, New Zealand in 2015: interim estimates
Preliminary results for influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against acute respiratory illness with circulating laboratory-confirmed influenza viruses in New Zealand from 27 April to 26 September 2015, using a case test-negative design were 36% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11-54) for general practice encounters and 50% (95% CI: 20-68) for hospitalisations. VE against hospitalised influenza A(H3N2) illnesses was moderate at 53% (95% CI: 6-76) but improved compared with previous seasons. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Evidence for a permanent presence of schistosomiasis in Corsica, France, 2015
We present a case of acute schistosomiasis acquired in Corsica after bathing in the Cavu River during the summer of 2015. The diagnosis was made following epidemiological, laboratory and serological assessments. After a previous outbreak of urogenital schistosomiasis during the summer of 2013, when more than 120 infections were diagnosed, this further case indicates transmission was still effective in 2015, thus suggesting a permanent presence of schistosomiasis in Corsica. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Imported cholera with acute renal failure after a short business-trip to the Philippines, Germany, October 2015
A German businessman developed acute watery diarrhoea after a three-day trip to the Philippines. He was admitted with severe hypotension and acute renal failure, but recovered with rapid rehydration. Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa was isolated. Physicians need to be aware of endemic cholera in Asia including the Philippines and consider this in their pre-travel advice. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The year past and the year ahead - some facts and figures about Eurosurveillance
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 7, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Tula hantavirus infection in a hospitalised patient, France, June 2015
We report an infection with Tula virus in June 2015, leading to hospitalisation, in a patient living approximately 60 km east of Paris with no previous remarkable medical history. Clinical symptoms were limited to a fever syndrome with severe headache. The main laboratory findings included thrombocytopenia and elevated transaminase levels. Based on S (small) gene sequence analysis, the strain affecting the patient was closely related to strains detected in Central Europe, especially to a south-east German strain. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - December 17, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Ongoing outbreak of invasive listeriosis, Germany, 2012 to 2015
Listeriosis patient isolates in Germany have shown a new identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern since 2012 (n?=?66). Almost all isolates (Listeria monocytogenes serotype 1/2a) belonged to cases living in southern Germany, indicating an outbreak with a so far unknown source. Case numbers in 2015 are high (n?=?28). No outbreak cases outside Germany have been reported. Next generation sequencing revealed the unique cluster type CT1248 and confirmed the outbreak. Investigations into the source are ongoing. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - December 17, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Authors' correction for Euro Surveill. 2015;20(47)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - December 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Authors' correction for Euro Surveill. 2015;20(45)
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - December 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Meningococcal vaccine antigen diversity in global databases
The lack of an anti-capsular vaccine against serogroup B meningococcal disease has necessitated the exploration of alternative vaccine candidates, mostly proteins exhibiting varying degrees of antigenic variation. Analysis of variants of antigen-encoding genes is facilitated by publicly accessible online sequence repositories, such as the Neisseria PubMLST database and the associated Meningitis Research Foundation Meningococcus Genome Library (MRF-MGL). We investigated six proposed meningococcal vaccine formulations by deducing the prevalence of their components in the isolates represented in these repositories. Despite hi...
Source: Eurosurveillance - December 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Tuberculosis treatment outcome in the European Union and European Economic Area: an analysis of surveillance data from 2002?2011
Monitoring the treatment outcome (TO) of tuberculosis (TB) is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention and to identify potential barriers for TB control. The global target is to reach a treatment success rate (TSR) of at least 85%. We aimed to assess the TB TO in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) between 2002 and 2011, and to identify factors associated with unsuccessful treatment. Only 18 countries reported information on TO for the whole observation period accounting for 250,854 new culture-confirmed pulmonary TB cases. The 85% target of TSR was not reached in any year between 2002...
Source: Eurosurveillance - December 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in dromedary camels in Nigeria, 2015
Evidence of current and past Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in dromedary camels slaughtered at an abattoir in Kano, Nigeria in January 2015, was sought by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and serology. MERS-CoV RNA was detected in 14 (11%) of 132 nasal swabs and antibody in 126 (96%) of 131 serum samples. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that the viruses in Nigeria are genetically distinct from those reported in the Arabian peninsula. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - December 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Colonisation with toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae in a Scottish burns patient, June 2015
On 12 June 2015, Corynebacterium diphtheriae was identified in a skin swab from a burns patient in Scotland. The isolate was confirmed to be genotypically and phenotypically toxigenic. Multilocus sequence typing of three patient isolates yielded sequence type ST 125. The patient was clinically well. We summarise findings of this case, and results of close contact identification and screening: 12 family and close contacts and 32 hospital staff have been found negative for C. diphtheriae. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - December 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Detection of mcr-1 encoding plasmid-mediated colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from human bloodstream infection and imported chicken meat, Denmark 2015
This report follows a recent detection of mcr-1 in E. coli from animals, food and humans in China. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - December 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Rapid increase in lymphogranuloma venereum in men who have sex with men, United Kingdom, 2003 to September 2015
United Kingdom (UK) national data show a sharp increase in diagnoses of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) since 2012. Most cases are in men who have sex with men (MSM) living in London, with high rates of co-infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. In light of these data, and the recent finding that one quarter of LGV infections may be asymptomatic, clinicians should be vigilant in testing for LGV, including in asymptomatic HIV-positive MSM. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - December 3, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Detection of macrolide resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae in England, September 2014 to September 2015
This study aims to impact by highlighting the presence of macrolide resistance in M. pneumoniae positive patients, promoting increased clinical vigilance. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - December 3, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Shigellosis in refugees, Austria, July to November 2015
We report on a cluster of shigellosis including 21 cases in refugees and two in local residents who worked in refugee transit centres, detected in Austria in 2015, between calendar weeks 29 and 47. The species isolated from the cluster cases, including one mixed infection, were S. sonnei (n?=?13), S. flexneri (n?=?10) and S. boydii (n?=?1). Eleven of 18 tested isolates were extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive, including five of six ciprofloxacin-resistant and three azithromycin-resistant isolates. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - December 3, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The utility of multiple molecular methods including whole genome sequencing as tools to differentiate Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks
A standardised method for determining Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain relatedness using whole genome sequencing or virulence gene profiling is not yet established. We sought to assess the capacity of either high-throughput polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of 49 virulence genes, core-genome single nt variants (SNVs) or k-mer clustering to discriminate between outbreak-associated and sporadic E. coli O157:H7 isolates. Three outbreaks and multiple sporadic isolates from the province of Alberta, Canada were included in the study. Two of the outbreaks occurred concurrently in 2014 and one occurred in 2012. Pulsed-field gel elect...
Source: Eurosurveillance - November 26, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Late presentation for HIV care across Europe: update from the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE) study, 2010 to 2013
Late presentation (LP) for HIV care across Europe remains a significant issue. We provide a cross-European update from 34 countries on the prevalence and risk factors of LP for 2010-2013. People aged???16 presenting for HIV care (earliest of HIV-diagnosis, first clinic visit or cohort enrolment) after 1 January 2010 with available CD4 count within six months of presentation were included. LP was defined as presentation with a CD4 count?
Source: Eurosurveillance - November 26, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Trends in HIV surveillance data in the EU/EEA, 2005 to 2014: new HIV diagnoses still increasing in men who have sex with men
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission remains significant in Europe. Rates of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have declined, but not in all countries. New HIV diagnoses have increased among native and foreign-born men who have sex with men. Median CD4+ T-cell count at diagnosis has increased, but not in all groups, and late diagnosis remains common. HIV infection and AIDS can be eliminated in Europe with resolute prevention measures, early diagnosis and access to effective treatment. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - November 26, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Zanamivir-resistant influenza viruses with Q136K or Q136R neuraminidase residue mutations can arise during MDCK cell culture creating challenges for antiviral susceptibility monitoring
This study highlights the challenges that cell culture derived mutations can pose to the NAI susceptibility analysis and interpretation and reaffirms the need to sequence viruses from respective clinical specimens to avoid misdiagnosis. However, we also demonstrate that NA mutations at residue Q136 can confer reduced zanamivir, peramivir or laninamivir susceptibility, and therefore close monitoring of viruses for mutations at this site from patients being treated with these antivirals is important. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - November 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Europe: assessment by national experts from 38 countries, May 2015
In 2012, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) launched the 'European survey of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (EuSCAPE)' project to gain insights into the occurrence and epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), to increase the awareness of the spread of CPE, and to build and enhance the laboratory capacity for diagnosis and surveillance of CPE in Europe. Data collected through a post-EuSCAPE feedback questionnaire in May 2015 documented improvement compared with 2013 in capacity and ability to detect CPE and identify the different carbapenemases genes in the 38 ...
Source: Eurosurveillance - November 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Persistent occurrence of serogroup Y/sequence type (ST)-23 complex invasive meningococcal disease among patients aged five to 14 years, Italy, 2007 to 2013
In this study we report IMD cases from 2007 to 2013 in Italy and investigate the clinical and epidemiological features of cases affected by serogroup Y. Molecular characteristics of serogroup Y strains are also described. During the study period, the proportion of IMD cases due to serogroup Y increased, ranging from 2% in 2007 to 17% in 2013 (odds ratio (OR): 8.8), whereby the five to 14 years age group was mostly affected (p?
Source: Eurosurveillance - November 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Investigation of a staphylococcal food poisoning outbreak combining case-control, traditional typing and whole genome sequencing methods, Luxembourg, June 2014
In June 2014, a staphylococcal food poisoning outbreak occurred at an international equine sports event in Luxembourg requiring the hospitalisation of 31 persons. We conducted a microbiological investigation of patients and buffet items, a case-control study and a carriage study of catering staff. Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from patients, food and catering staff were characterised and compared using traditional typing methods and whole genome sequencing. Genotypically identical strains (sequence type ST8, spa-type t024, MLVA-type 4698, enterotoxin A FRI100) were isolated in 10 patients, shiitake mushrooms, cured ham...
Source: Eurosurveillance - November 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Refugee crisis demands European Union-wide surveillance!
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - November 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Public health challenges and legacies of Japan's response to the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa 2014 to 2015
The largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease occurred in West Africa in 2014 and resulted in unprecedented transmission even in distant countries. In Japan, only nine individuals were screened for Ebola and there was no confirmed case. However, the government promoted the reinforcement of response measures and interagency collaboration, with training and simulation exercises conducted country-wide. The legacies included: publication of a communication policy on case disclosure, a protocol for collaboration between public health and other agencies, and establishing an expert committee to assemble the limited available expert...
Source: Eurosurveillance - November 5, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Preparing for imported Ebola cases in Israel, 2014 to 2015
This article describes the EVD preparedness plan of the Israeli Ministry of Health. Key elements were a sensitive case definition, designation of a single treatment centre for suspected and confirmed cases, construction of a mobile unit using customised negative-pressure tents and a vigorous national training programme. There were no patients with EVD in Israel, but a few suspected cases were assessed. The Israeli plan may provide a template for emergency infectious disease response in other geographically small countries. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - November 5, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Development and deployment of a rapid recombinase polymerase amplification Ebola virus detection assay in Guinea in 2015
In the absence of a vaccine or specific treatments for Ebola virus disease (EVD), early identification of cases is crucial for the control of EVD epidemics. We evaluated a new extraction kit (SpeedXtract (SE), Qiagen) on sera and swabs in combination with an improved diagnostic reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the detection of Ebola virus (EBOV-RT-RPA). The performance of combined extraction and detection was best for swabs. Sensitivity and specificity of the combined SE and EBOV-RT-RPA were tested in a mobile laboratory consisting of a mobile glovebox and a Diagnostics-in-a-Suitcase pow...
Source: Eurosurveillance - November 5, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Dealing with Ebola virus disease in Spain: epidemiological inquiries received by the Department of Public Health Alerts, April to December 2014
We describe the inquiries regarding Ebola virus disease (EVD) received by the Department of Public Health Alerts of the Community of Madrid between April and December 2014. A total of 242 inquiries were received. Consultations were initiated most frequently by hospital clinicians (59 inquiries, 24%), private citizens (57 inquiries, 24%) and primary care physicians (53 inquiries, 22%). The most frequent topic of inquiry was possible EVD in a patient (215 inquiries, 89%). Among these, 31 persons (14%) presented both EVD-compatible symptoms and epidemiological risk factors, and 11 persons (5%) fulfilled the criteria for a per...
Source: Eurosurveillance - November 5, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Job vacancy at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - October 29, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

ESCAIDE registration open until 1 November
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - October 29, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Systematic community- and hospital-based surveillance for enterovirus-D68 in three Canadian provinces, August to December 2014
Respiratory specimens collected from outpatients with influenza-like illness in three Canadian provinces (British Columbia (BC), Alberta and Quebec) participating in a community-based sentinel surveillance network were prospectively screened for enterovirus-D68 (EV-D68) from 1 August to 31 December 2014 and compared to specimens collected from 1 October 2013 to 31 July 2014. Eighteen (1%) of 1,894 specimens were EV-D68-positive: 1/348 (0.3%) collected from October to December 2013 and 11/460 (2.4%) from October to December 2014, an eight-fold increase in detection rates (p=0.01), consistent with epidemic circulation in aut...
Source: Eurosurveillance - October 29, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Real-time safety surveillance of seasonal influenza vaccines in children, Australia, 2015
Increased febrile reactions in Australian children from one influenza vaccine brand in 2010 diminished confidence in influenza immunisation, highlighting the need for improved vaccine safety surveillance. AusVaxSafety, a national vaccine safety surveillance system collected adverse events in young children for 2015 influenza vaccine brands in real time through parent/carer reports via SMS/email. Weekly cumulative data on 3,340 children demonstrated low rates of fever (4.4%) and medical attendance (1.1%). Fever was more frequent with concomitant vaccination. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - October 29, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Cyclospora infection linked to travel to Mexico, June to September 2015
Cyclospora cayetanensis was identified in 176 returned travellers from the Riviera Maya region of Mexico between 1 June and 22 September 2015; 79 in the United Kingdom (UK) and 97 in Canada. UK cases completed a food exposure questionnaire. This increase in reported Cyclospora cases highlights risks of gastrointestinal infections through travelling, limitations in Cyclospora surveillance and the need for improved hygiene in the production of food consumed in holiday resorts. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - October 29, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

IMI launches new call for proposals
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - October 22, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Change in incidence of clinic visits for all-cause and rotavirus gastroenteritis in young children following the introduction of universal rotavirus vaccination in Israel
Both rotavirus vaccines RotaTeq and Rotarix were efficacious against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in clinical trials; yet real-world data on the effect of rotavirus vaccines on mild to moderate disease are limited. We used a large computerised database of Maccabi Health Services Health Maintenance Organisation (HMO), the second largest HMO in Israel covering 25% of the Israeli population, to compare the incidence of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) clinic visits in community settings (n?=?302,445) before (2005-10) and after (2011-13) the introduction of universal rotavirus immunisation in Israel. We retrieved laboratory res...
Source: Eurosurveillance - October 22, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Louse-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis) diagnosed in 15 refugees from northeast Africa: epidemiology and preventive control measures, Bavaria, Germany, July to October 2015
We report 15 imported louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) cases in refugees in Bavaria, Germany. One patient died. Epidemiological findings confirmed that all were young males from the Horn of Africa (12 from Somalia), who had similar migration routes converging in Sudan continuing through Libya and Italy. The majority likely acquired their infection during migration. Healthcare workers should be aware of LBRF in refugees passing through north Africa to ensure correct treatment and preventive measures. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - October 22, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

An autochthonous case of cystic echinococcosis in Finland, 2015
We report a case of pulmonary cystic echinococcosis in a child from eastern Finland with no history of travelling abroad. The cyst was surgically removed and the organism molecularly identified as Echinococcus canadensis genotype G10. This parasite is maintained in eastern Finland in a sylvatic life cycle involving wolves and moose; in the present case, the infection was presumably transmitted by hunting dogs. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - October 22, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

ESCAIDE participants are invited to the fourth Eurosurveillance scientific seminar
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - October 15, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Comparison of serological assays in human Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-coronavirus infection
Plaque reduction neutralisation tests (PRNT), microneutralisation (MN), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-spike pseudoparticle neutralisation (ppNT) and MERS S1-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibody titres were compared using 95 sera from 17 patients with MERS, collected two to 46 days after symptom onset. Neutralisation tests correlated well with each other and moderately well with S1 ELISA. Moreover to compare antigenic similarity of genetically diverse MERS-CoV clades, the response of four sera from two patients sampled at two time periods during the course of illness were tested by 90% PRNT. Genetica...
Source: Eurosurveillance - October 15, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Was the increase in culture-confirmed Campylobacter infections in Denmark during the 1990s a surveillance artefact?
In 1991, 1999 and 2006, randomly selected individuals from the Danish Central Personal Register provided a serum sample. From individuals aged 30 years and above, 500 samples from each year were analysed for Campylobacter IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies using a direct ELISA method. We applied a seroincidence calculator available from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control to perform a mathematical back-calculation to estimate the annual Campylobacter seroincidence in the Danish population. The estimated Campylobacter seroincidence did not differ significantly between the 1991, 1999 and 2006 studies although the...
Source: Eurosurveillance - October 15, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Isolation of an NDM-5-producing ST16 Klebsiella pneumoniae from a Dutch patient without travel history abroad, August 2015
A New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase-5 (NDM-5)-producing ST16 Klebsiella pneumoniae strain was isolated from a Dutch patient in a long-term care facility without recent travel history abroad. Core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) revealed that the Dutch isolate was clonally related to isolates detected in four patients in Denmark in 2014. Public health experts and clinicians need to be informed; repetitive screening may be needed in patients without known risk factors for carbapenemases-producing Enterobacteriaceae who have undergone antibiotic treatment. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - October 15, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Genotypic anomaly in Ebola virus strains circulating in Magazine Wharf area, Freetown, Sierra Leone, 2015
The Magazine Wharf area, Freetown, Sierra Leone was a focus of ongoing Ebola virus transmission from late June 2015. Viral genomes linked to this area contain a series of 13 T to C substitutions in a 150 base pair intergenic region downstream of viral protein 40 open reading frame, similar to the Ebolavirus/H.sapiens-wt/SLE/2014/Makona-J0169 strain (J0169) detected in the same town in November 2014. This suggests that recently circulating viruses from Freetown descend from a J0169-like virus. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - October 8, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Injection of new psychoactive substance snow blow associated with recently acquired HIV infections among homeless people who inject drugs in Dublin, Ireland, 2015
In February 2015, an outbreak of recently acquired HIV infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) was identified in Dublin, following similar outbreaks in Greece and Romania in 2011. We compared drug and risk behaviours among 15 HIV cases and 39 controls. Injecting a synthetic cathinone, snow blow, was associated with recent HIV infection (AOR: 49; p?=?0.003). Prevention and control efforts are underway among PWID in Dublin, but may also be needed elsewhere in Europe. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - October 8, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Spatial methods for infectious disease outbreak investigations: systematic literature review
Investigations of infectious disease outbreaks are conventionally framed in terms of person, time and place. Although geographic information systems have increased the range of tools available, spatial analyses are used relatively infrequently. We conducted a systematic review of published reports of outbreak investigations worldwide to estimate the prevalence of spatial methods, describe the techniques applied and explore their utility. We identified 80 reports using spatial methods published between 1979 and 2013, ca 0.4% of the total number of published outbreaks. Environmental or waterborne infections were the most com...
Source: Eurosurveillance - October 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A new outbreak of brucellosis in Bulgaria detected in July 2015 - preliminary report
During July 2015 a brucellosis outbreak was detected in Kyustendil district, west Bulgaria. As of 15 August, 31 patients have been diagnosed all with an epidemiological connection to Rila town. Patients have not travelled/worked abroad. Breeding family-owned goats and/or improper use of their milk appear to be the main risk factors for transmission of the infection. This second autochthonous brucellosis outbreak in Bulgaria since 2006, affects the western part of the country. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - October 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Job vacancies at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Hospital-based Clostridium difficile infection surveillance reveals high proportions of PCR ribotypes 027 and 176 in different areas of Poland, 2011 to 2013
As part of the European Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net), which aims to build capacity for CDI surveillance in Europe, we constructed a new network of hospital-based laboratories in Poland. We performed a survey in 13 randomly selected hospital-laboratories in different sites of the country to determine their annual CDI incidence rates from 2011 to 2013. Information on C. difficile laboratory diagnostic testing and indications for testing was also collected. Moreover, for 2012 and 2013 respectively, participating hospital-laboratories sent all consecutive isolates from CDI patients be...
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning Middle East respiratory syndrome among Umrah and Hajj pilgrims in Samsun, Turkey, 2015
We performed a questionnaire study to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) among people intending to participate in the Hajj or Umrah Muslim pilgrimages. Of the 381 respondents aged between 17 and 85 years, 55% had never heard of MERS, while only one in three knew that it is a respiratory disease. Approximately half were insufficiently informed about protective measures. Prospective pilgrims do not seem prepared to take such precautions. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - September 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research