The Impact of Misuse and Diversion of Opioid Substitution Treatment Medicines: Evidence Review and Expert Consensus
Conclusion: While treatment for opioid dependence is essential and must be supported, it is vital to reduce misuse and diversion while ensuring the best possible care. Understanding the impact of OST misuse and diversion is key to defining strategies to address these issues.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:99-106 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 3, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Gateway Hypothesis, Common Liability to Addictions or the Route of Administration Model? A Modelling Process Linking the Three Theories
Conclusion: If the gateway sequence appears as the most likely pattern, in line with GT, the effects of early onset and substance use propensities were also observed for some alternative sequences, which is more in line with CLM. RAM could explain reciprocal interactions observed between T and C. This suggests shared influences of individual (personality traits) and environmental (substance availability, peer influence) characteristics.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:107-117 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 3, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Problem Gambling in the UK: Implications for Health, Psychosocial Adjustment and Health Care Utilization
Conclusions: Findings support recognition of problem gambling as a public health concern in the UK, and initiatives for intervening in health-care services where conditions are over-represented.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:90-98 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - September 7, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Longitudinal Mapping of Gyral and Sulcal Patterns of Cortical Thickness and Brain Volume Regain during Early Alcohol Abstinence
We explored brain volume recovery in terms of cortical thickness (CTh; gyral, sulcal pattern) and surface area (SA), as well as subcortical volume recovery in the first 2 weeks of abstinence in 49 alcohol-dependent patients (ADPs). A widespread reduction of CTh in ADPs at day 1 of abstinence compared to healthy controls, with more pronounced differences in sulci relative to gyri was found. After 2 weeks of abstinence, partial recovery to varying degrees of CTh loss in ADPs was observed for several regions. The longitudinal CTh changes were greater in sulci than in gyri of affected regions. No longitudinal change in SAs and...
Source: European Addiction Research - September 7, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of As-Needed Naltrexone in the Treatment of Pathological Gambling
Conclusion: Overall, the as-needed naltrexone may not provide substantial additional benefit for PG patients receiving psychosocial support. Replication by larger scale studies is warranted to further evaluate naltrexone administration schedules for the treatment of PG and the role of OPRM1.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:70-79 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - September 5, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Impaired Regulation of ALDH2 Protein Expression Revealing a Yet Unknown Epigenetic Impact of rs886205 on Specific Methylation of a Negative Regulatory Promoter Region in Alcohol-Dependent Patients
Acetaldehyde, the carcinogenic metabolite of ethanol known to provoke aversive symptoms of alcohol consumption, is predominantly eliminated by aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2). Reduced ALDH2 activity correlates with low alcohol tolerance and low risk for alcohol dependence. The ALDH2 promoter polymorphism rs886205 (A>G) is associated with decreased promoter activity, but a molecular mechanism and allele-dependent ALDH2 protein expression has not been described yet. On the basis of allele-dependent epigenetic effects, we analyzed the rs886205 genotype, methylation rates of cytosine-phosphatidyl-guanine (CpG)-sites within...
Source: European Addiction Research - September 5, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Country Differences and Changes in Focus of Scientific Tobacco Control Publications between 2000 and 2012 in Europe
Conclusion: Research output had almost doubled, in line with global trends, but is still unevenly distributed across Europe. Although we observed a shift in European publications away from the harm of tobacco towards protecting smokers and changing the environment, the field is still dominated by publications on smoking and health.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:52-58 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - August 29, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Opioid Maintenance Treatment - A Call for a Joint European Quality Care Approach
Conclusion: Increasing awareness of potential shortcomings of OMT delivery systems is crucial to optimally match treatment approaches to patient needs and also to reduce the considerable economic burden of addiction to society.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:36-51 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - August 29, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Brief in Person Interventions for Adolescents and Young Adults Following Alcohol-Related Events in Emergency Care: A Systematic Review and European Evidence Synthesis
Conclusion: Heterogeneity of study designs and effects limit conclusions on effectiveness of BIs for young ED patients following an alcohol-related event. However, the number of practice projects in Europe indicates a need perceived by practitioners to address this population.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:17-35 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - August 29, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Efficacy of Medications Approved for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence and Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Female Patients: A Descriptive Review
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the number of women recruited for studies to establish the efficacy of medications approved for treatment of alcohol dependence (AD) and of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is sufficient to reveal possible gender differences in the response to these medications and in suggesting the use of different doses in female patients. Our results show that the rates of women recruited for studies evaluating the efficacy of disulfiram (1%), benzodiazepines (3%), and anticonvulsants (13%) were too low to establish possible gender differences. The rates of women recruited for studies evalu...
Source: European Addiction Research - August 29, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Anti-Social Behaviors Associated with Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use among Male Adolescents
We examined 3 waves (2004, 2008, and 2012) of self-reported cross-sectional data from a secondary school survey conducted in Stockholm, Sweden (total n = 19,773; response percentage, 79.6%). Across all survey years, the risk ratios for virtually all measured anti-social behaviors were significantly higher among AAS users compared to non-AAS illicit drug users and to drug non-users.Eur Addict Res 2015;21:321-326 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 20, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Three-Year Course of Cannabis Dependence and Prediction of Persistence
Conclusions: Persistence of cannabis dependence in the community is low, difficult to predict, and associated with a negative outcome. The substantial proportion of stable non-persisters suggests that screening and monitoring or low-threshold brief interventions may suffice for many non-treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent people. However, those with many lifetime abuse/dependence symptoms may benefit from more intensive interventions.Eur Addict Res 2015;21:279-290 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - May 30, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Is Drinking with Parents Associated with High-Risk Drinking among Adolescents
Conclusions: DWP was related to adolescent high-risk drinking, yet the association was in part attributable to parents' drinking and parenting style. The risk of involvement in high-risk drinking was about the same for adolescents reporting no DWP and infrequent DWP, while it was significantly elevated among those reporting frequent DWP. This study thus demonstrated that the frequency of DWP matters and that parents who drink with their adolescent children differ from other parents in important ways.Eur Addict Res 2015;21:291-299 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - May 30, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Altered Neural Activity in the Anterior and Posterior Insula in Individuals with Problematic Internet Use
Conclusions: Given the roles of the posterior insula in the cortical representation of somatosensory arousal, our results suggest that individuals with PIU may experience more elaborate somatosensory arousal during the anticipation of monetary reward and yet experience less elaborate somatosensory arousal during the anticipation of loss avoidance compared with typical controls.Eur Addict Res 2015;21:307-314 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - May 28, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Lethality of Opioid Overdose in a Community Cohort of Young Heroin Users
Conclusions: Four out of 100 opioid overdoses are fatal. These are preventable deaths that could be avoided before or after the overdose takes place. Resources are urgently needed to prevent fatal opioid overdose.Eur Addict Res 2015;21:300-306 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - May 28, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Is Drinking with Parents Associated with High-Risk Drinking among Adolescents?
Conclusions: DWP was related to adolescent high-risk drinking, yet the association was in part attributable to parents' drinking and parenting style. The risk of involvement in high-risk drinking was about the same for adolescents reporting no DWP and infrequent DWP, while it was significantly elevated among those reporting frequent DWP. This study thus demonstrated that the frequency of DWP matters and that parents who drink with their adolescent children differ from other parents in important ways.Eur Addict Res 2015;21:291-299 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - May 28, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Thalamic and Cerebellar Gray Matter Volume Reduction in Synthetic Cannabinoids Users
This study is aimed at investigating the morphological differences among synthetic cannabinoids users and healthy controls. Methods: Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate the differences in brain tissue composition in 20 patients with synthetic cannabinoids use and 20 healthy controls. All participants were male. Results: Compared to healthy controls, voxel of interest analyses showed that regional grey matter volume in both left and right thalamus and left cerebellum was significantly reduced in synthetic cannabinoids users (p
Source: European Addiction Research - May 28, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Delayed Verbal Recall in Crack/Cocaine Dependents
Conclusion: Despite higher plasma BDNF levels, crack users exhibited memory impairments when compared to healthy women. Specifically, peripheral BDNF levels predicted better cognitive performance only within individuals who already had cognitive impairment.Eur Addict Res 2015;21:273-278 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - May 28, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Comparison of WEB and Interactive Voice Response (IVR) Methods for Delivering Brief Alcohol Interventions to Hazardous-Drinking University Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial
This study evaluated automated techniques including personalized normative feedback and protective behavioral strategies, for brief interventions intended to reduce peak alcohol concentrations in university students. After completing baseline assessment, a total of 1,678 hazardous-drinking consumers were randomized to a single or a repeated Internet (WEB) or Interactive Voice Response (IVR) intervention, or to a control group (Single WEB: 323; Single IVR: 329; Repeated WEB: 318; Repeated IVR: 334; Control group: 374). At follow-up, six weeks after baseline, questionnaires were returned by 1,422 participants (Single WEB: 27...
Source: European Addiction Research - May 5, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Temporal Changes in Alcohol-Related Morbidity and Mortality in Germany
Conclusions: The increasing trend in mortality due to alcohol until the mid-1990s has reversed. The constant proportion of all hospitalizations that were attributable to alcohol indicates that factors such as improved treatment and easier health care access may have influenced the general increase in all-cause morbidity. To further reduce alcohol-related mortality, efforts in reducing consumption and increasing treatment utilization are needed.Eur Addict Res 2015;21:262-272 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - May 5, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Tapering from Methadone or Buprenorphine during Pregnancy: Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Norway 1996-2009
Conclusion: Pregnant women in OMT who taper their OMT-medication dose should be monitored closely. We need studies that document the maternal well-being and fetal safety of maternal tapering of the OMT-medication during pregnancy.Eur Addict Res 2015;21:253-261 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - May 5, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Effectiveness and Organization of Addiction Medicine Training Across the Globe
Conclusions: Several key competences in addiction medicine were identified. Efficacy studies show that even short addiction medicine training programs can be effective in improving knowledge, skills and attitudes related to addiction medicine. A more uniform approach to addiction medicine training in terms of content and accreditation is discussed.Eur Addict Res 2015;21:223-239 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - May 5, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Effectiveness of Rapid Intake into Methadone Treatment: A Natural Experiment in Israel
The effect of intake procedures on treatment entry and retention was examined in a natural experiment, in which a methadone maintenance clinic in Israel admitted 127 clients by employing a rapid intake procedure (maximum of 3 days before the initiation of treatment was offered). Using information gathered from patient files, these clients were retrospectively compared to a control group (n = 121) who underwent the clinic's regular intake procedure (between 3 weeks and 3 months). Outcome measures included entry into treatment and subsequent retention in treatment (at 3, 6 and 12 months). Results show that 81% of clients fro...
Source: European Addiction Research - April 20, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Evaluation of Femoral Ultrasonography as a Tool for Promoting Cessation of Groin-Injecting Behaviour
Aim: To assess the impact of femoral ultrasonography accompanied by explanation of the findings (UFV) on groin-injecting behaviour. Methods: 348 heroin-addicted groin injectors (GIs) on opioid substitution treatment (OST) were included in the study: 174 received UFV (cases), 174 did not (controls). Injecting behaviour among cases and matched controls were compared for both ‘persistent GIs' (patients who had injected via the femoral vein in the 28-day period preceding the baseline) and ‘former GIs' (patients with a history of previous groin injecting). Findings: There were no significant between-group difference...
Source: European Addiction Research - April 20, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Changes on the Modulation of the Startle Reflex in Alcohol-Dependent Patients after 12 Weeks of a Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention
Conclusions: These results may indicate that the startle reflex is referred to enduring and permanent processes of cue reactivity, and that the emotional processing of alcohol-associated cues assessed with the affect-modulated startle reflex is less altered by interventions attempting to influence explicit cognitions. Furthermore, lower values of the baseline startle reflex elicited by alcohol-associated stimuli were associated with higher probability of relapse on alcohol use.Eur Addict Res 2015;21:195-203 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - April 20, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Has Previous Abuse of Flunitrazepam Been Replaced by Clonazepam
Conclusions: For the last 10 years, a significant increase in the illegal use of clonazepam has been seen, now replacing flunitrazepam as the most used illegal benzodiazepine in Norway.Eur Addict Res 2015;21:217-221 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - April 20, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Risk Factors for Borderline Personality Disorder in Treatment Seeking Patients with a Substance Use Disorder: An International Multicenter Study
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) often co-occur, partly because they share risk factors. In this international multicenter study, risk factors for BPD were examined for SUD patients. In total, 1,205 patients were comprehensively examined by standardized interviews and questionnaires on psychiatric diagnosis and risk factors, and it was found that 1,033 (85.7%) had SUDs without BPD (SUD) and 172 (14.3%) had SUD with BPD (SUD + BPD). SUD + BPD patients were significantly younger, more often females and more often diagnosed with comorbid adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. S...
Source: European Addiction Research - March 31, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Efficacy of Heroin-Assisted Treatment in Belgium: A Randomised Controlled Trial
Background/Aims: Heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) can improve the condition of heroin addicts still using street heroin after a methadone treatment. In Belgium, a new trial compared the efficacy of a HAT to existing methadone maintenance treatment. Methods: In this randomised controlled trial, HAT was limited to 12 months. Participants were assessed every 3 months. They were responders if they showed improvement on the level of street heroin use, health or criminal involvement. Results: 74 participants were randomised in the trial. The experimental group (n = 36) counted 30% of responders more than the control group (n = 38...
Source: European Addiction Research - March 31, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Predictors of Outcome among Pathological Gamblers Receiving Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy
Conclusion: Many patients with GD can be treated with strategies to improve self-control and emotional regulation, but other techniques should be incorporated to address the individual characteristics of each patient. This is particularly important in group therapy, in which the same treatment is applied to several patients simultaneously. The involvement of a family member needs to be carefully considered since it may have a negative effect on the response to treatment if not adequately managed.Eur Addict Res 2015;21:169-178 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - March 31, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Psychological, Social and Familial Factors Associated with Tobacco Cessation among Young Adults
Conclusions: This study highlights the importance of young adults' cannabis use, family situation and socioeconomic context with regard to their smoking behavior. Physicians and public health decision makers aiming to decrease the burden of tobacco smoking should take into consideration these social and behavioral factors.Eur Addict Res 2015;21:153-159 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - March 30, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Clinical Relevance of As-Needed Treatment with Nalmefene in Alcohol-Dependent Patients
In conclusion, this study supports the clinical relevance of nalmefene treatment in patients with alcohol dependence. Nalmefene may help to reduce the alcohol-related burden and the large treatment gap, with currently less than 10% of alcohol-dependent patients in Europe receiving treatment.Eur Addict Res 2015;21:160-168 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - March 30, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Latent Class Analysis of DSM-5 Criteria for Opioid Use Disorders: Results from the Iranian National Survey on Mental Health
Conclusions: Results support the grouping based on severity of symptoms, combining abuse and dependence into a single diagnosis, omitting legal problems, and addition of craving as a new criterion.Eur Addict Res 2015;21:144-152 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - February 10, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Impulsivity in Cocaine-Dependent Individuals with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Conclusion: CDI score higher on several indices of impulsivity relative to HC, regardless of whether they have concomitant ADHD or not. CDI+ADHD are specifically characterized by a lack of future orientation compared to CDI without ADHD.Eur Addict Res 2015;21:131-143 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - February 10, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Electronic Cigarettes and Cannabis: An Exploratory Study
Conclusions: Cannabis vaping via e-cigarettes or e-vaporizers is an infrequent behavior that was previously almost undocumented. E-cigarettes do not appear to be a very appealing way to use cannabis.Eur Addict Res 2015;21:124-130 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - January 21, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Unemployment and Substance Use in Young Adults: Does Educational Attainment Modify the Association
We studied whether patterns of substance use in relation to unemployment vary depending on educational level. Data come from 1,126 community-based young adults in France (18-35 years of age in 2011) and their parents (TEMPO and GAZEL studies). Tobacco use (≥1 cigarette/day, 22.5% prevalence), nicotine dependence (Fagerström test ≥2, 7.1% prevalence), alcohol use (≥2 units/week, 25.3% prevalence), alcohol abuse (WHO AUDIT ≥7 in women and ≥8 in men, 10.8% prevalence), cannabis use (≥1 time, 16.5% prevalence), and cannabis abuse (CAST ≥2, 5.0% prevalence) were assessed by interview. We conducted logi...
Source: European Addiction Research - December 2, 2014 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Unemployment and Substance Use in Young Adults: Does Educational Attainment Modify the Association?
We studied whether patterns of substance use in relation to unemployment vary depending on educational level. Data come from 1,126 community-based young adults in France (18-35 years of age in 2011) and their parents (TEMPO and GAZEL studies). Tobacco use (≥1 cigarette/day, 22.5% prevalence), nicotine dependence (Fagerström test ≥2, 7.1% prevalence), alcohol use (≥2 units/week, 25.3% prevalence), alcohol abuse (WHO AUDIT ≥7 in women and ≥8 in men, 10.8% prevalence), cannabis use (≥1 time, 16.5% prevalence), and cannabis abuse (CAST ≥2, 5.0% prevalence) were assessed by interview. We conducted logi...
Source: European Addiction Research - November 28, 2014 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Is Binge Drinking in Young Adults Associated with an Alcohol-Specific Impairment of Response Inhibition?
Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that when young adults have established binge drinking as a common drinking pattern, impairment of inhibition in response to alcoholic stimuli is the only significant predictor of binge drinking, but not general impulsive behavior.Eur Addict Res 2015;21:105-113 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 22, 2014 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Mental Symptoms and Drug Use in Maintenance Treatment with Slow-Release Oral Morphine Compared to Methadone: Results of a Randomized Crossover Study
Conclusions: This study supports positive effects of slow-release oral morphine compared to methadone on patient-reported outcomes such as mental symptoms and treatment satisfaction with comparable effects on concomitant drug use. Slow-release oral morphine represents a meaningful alternative to methadone for treatment of opioid dependence.Eur Addict Res 2015;21:97-104 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 22, 2014 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Prevalence of Alcohol Consumption and Pattern of Use among the Elderly in the WHO European Region
Conclusions: There are marked differences in consumption of alcohol in the elderly between the different countries, and male gender, as well as a higher SES, were associated with higher alcohol consumption.Eur Addict Res 2015;21:88-96 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 21, 2014 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Alcohol Use Disorders in Opioid Maintenance Therapy: Prevalence, Clinical Correlates and Treatment
Maintenance therapy with methadone or buprenorphine is an established and first-line treatment for opioid dependence. Clinical studies indicate that about a third of patients in opioid maintenance therapy show increased alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders. Comorbid alcohol use disorders have been identified as a risk factor for clinical outcome and can cause poor physical and mental health, including liver disorders, noncompliance, social deterioration and increased mortality risk. The effects of opioid maintenance therapy on alcohol consumption are controversial and no clear pattern has emerged. Most studies hav...
Source: European Addiction Research - November 19, 2014 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Screening of Current Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Patients with Substance Use Disorder Using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21): A Reliable and Convenient Measure
Conclusion: The DASS is therefore a reliable and convenient measure to use as a screen for PTSD in SUD patients.Eur Addict Res 2015;21:71-77 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 19, 2014 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Visual Selective Attention Is Impaired in Children Prenatally Exposed to Opioid Agonist Medication
Conclusion: Although exposed children did not appear to have attention deficits in daily life, lower performance on the SNP task indicates subtle alteration in the attention system.Eur Addict Res 2015;21:63-70 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 14, 2014 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Criminal Involvement and Crime Specialization Among Crack Users in the Netherlands
Conclusion: Reducing drug use among criminally involved crack users and addressing their housing conditions could have a significant impact on reducing drug-related crime. Welfare benefits might act as protective factor against committing property crimes but not against the selling of drugs.Eur Addict Res 2015;21:53-62 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 14, 2014 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Effectiveness of Text versus Pictorial Health Warning Labels and Predictors of Support for Plain Packaging of Tobacco Products within the European Union
Conclusions: These findings indicate that the implementation of pictorial warnings at an EU level may have a positive behavioral impact among smokers and pave the way for population support for plain packaging in the EU.Eur Addict Res 2015;21:47-52 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 11, 2014 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Death of an Alcohol-Dependent Patient following Intentional Drug Intoxication: Implication of Baclofen?
Used in the treatment of spasticity at low doses, baclofen is also prescribed off-label at high doses for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Several cases of baclofen intoxication have been reported, but only 1 case deals with the treatment of alcohol dependence. Thus, we report the first death in the context of baclofen off-label use of an alcohol-dependent patient with a high blood baclofen concentration after intentional drug intoxication. The safety profile of baclofen in the treatment of alcohol dependence is reviewed and discussed, underlining the obligatory caution that may support any prescription of high doses o...
Source: European Addiction Research - November 6, 2014 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Attitudes towards Alcohol Dependence and Affected Individuals: Persistence of Negative Stereotypes and Illness Beliefs between 1990 and 2011
Conclusions: It is apparent that promoting an illness concept of alcohol dependence has not been an easy solution to the problem of stigma. We discuss how the normative functions of alcohol dependence stigma might have prevented a reduction of negative stereotypes.Eur Addict Res 2014;20:293-299 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 6, 2014 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Differences in Alcohol-Related Research Publication Output between Countries: A Manifestation of Societal Concern?
In a recent bibliometric analysis of alcohol- and other drug-related research publications in 11 countries, differences were found in research output across countries. In this paper we use additional secondary data to explore possible socio-historical factors that may contribute to differences in alcohol-related peer-reviewed publications across countries. Aside from general scientific productivity, we propose a possible link between the degree to which societies are concerned with alcohol and alcohol-related research outputs.Eur Addict Res 2014;20:319-323 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 6, 2014 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

An Internet-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment Study Relying on Participants' Own Mobile Phones: Insights from a Study with Young Adult Smokers
Conclusions: This study adds to the limited experiences made with ICAT in substance use research. Similar to the few prior ICAT studies, compliance was low compared to traditional EMA studies. While using ICAT is technically feasible, specific improvements should be implemented to tap ICAT's full potential in future studies.Eur Addict Res 2015;21:1-5 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 6, 2014 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Prevalence of and Potential Influencing Factors for Alcohol Dependence in Europe
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and alcohol dependence (AD) in particular, are prevalent and associated with a large burden of disability and mortality. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of AD in the European Union (EU), Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland for the year 2010, and to investigate potential influencing factors. The 1-year prevalence of AD in the EU was estimated at 3.4% among people 18-64 years of age in Europe (women 1.7%, men 5.2%), resulting in close to 11 million affected people. Taking into account all people of all ages, AD, abuse and harmful use resulted in an estimate of 23 million affected p...
Source: European Addiction Research - November 6, 2014 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Predictors of Posttreatment Drinking Outcomes in Patients with Alcohol Dependence
Conclusions: The findings highlight the positive impact of pharmacotherapy during the first 6 months after treatment initiation and of relapse prevention during the first year after treatment and how posttreatment predictors are more important than pretreatment predictors.Eur Addict Res 2015;21:19-30 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 6, 2014 Category: Addiction Source Type: research