Electronic Cigarettes in Germany: Patterns of Use and Perceived Health Improvement
Conclusions: E-cigarettes were primarily used as an alternative to smoking and a substitute for nicotine. More dual users than ex-smokers used e-cigarettes in places where smoking is forbidden. Positive health changes were more pronounced in ex-smokers than dual users.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:136-147 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 15, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Comparing Medical and Recreational Cannabis Users on Socio-Demographic, Substance and Medication Use, and Health and Disability Characteristics
Conclusions/Scientific Significance: Compared to RCUs, medical users appear to be mainly characterized by factors negatively influencing their overall health status. Future studies should investigate the actual impact and net benefits of medical cannabis use on these health problems.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:129-135 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 8, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Two-Year Effects of a Classroom-Based Smoking Prevention and Cessation Intervention Program
This study deals with the outcomes of a 2-year follow-up evaluation of Project EX.Methods: The intervention was tested using a clustered randomized controlled trial involving 1,546 Spanish students from 3 program schools and 3 control schools. At the end of the 2-year follow-up period, 722 subjects had completed the questionnaires (266 in the control condition and 456 in the program condition) administered to them.Results: Compared to the control condition, the program condition revealed a greater reduction in nicotine dependence (p = 0.04), smoking intention (p = 0.02), and in the number of cigarettes smoked during the pr...
Source: European Addiction Research - June 8, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Cannabis Use among People Entering Drug Treatment in Europe: A Growing Phenomenon
This paper explores European and national trends in specialised drug treatment entry for cannabis-related problems. The analysis is based on data for the years 2003-2014 from 22 European countries. Between 2003 and 2014, the overall number and proportion of primary cannabis-related first-time entrants increased significantly. A joinpoint regression analysis indicates that the overall increase of cannabis treatment entries is continuous, although country-related differences are observed. Possible explanations for the increase and different time trends are discussed including an increase in cannabis prevalence and cannabis-r...
Source: European Addiction Research - May 17, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Cannabis Use among People Entering Drug Treatment in Europe: A Growing Phenomenon?
This paper explores European and national trends in specialised drug treatment entry for cannabis-related problems. The analysis is based on data for the years 2003-2014 from 22 European countries. Between 2003 and 2014, the overall number and proportion of primary cannabis-related first-time entrants increased significantly. A joinpoint regression analysis indicates that the overall increase of cannabis treatment entries is continuous, although country-related differences are observed. Possible explanations for the increase and different time trends are discussed including an increase in cannabis prevalence and cannabis-r...
Source: European Addiction Research - May 16, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Telecommunications Network Measurements of Online Gambling Behavior in Switzerland: A Feasibility Study
Background: Methodological shortcomings of gambling studies relying on self-report or on data sets derived from gambling operators tend to result in biased conclusions. The aim of this study was to analyze online gambling behavior using a novel network database approach.Methods: From October 13 to October 26, 2014, telecommunications network data from a major telecommunications provider in Switzerland were analyzed. Netflows between mobile devices and a poker operator were quantified to measure the gambling duration and session number.Results: Time spent gambling during night and working hours was compared between devices ...
Source: European Addiction Research - April 12, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Six-Year Outcome of Opioid Maintenance Treatment in Heroin-Dependent Patients: Results from a Naturalistic Study in a Nationally Representative Sample
Conclusions: The study provides further evidence for the efficacy and safety of maintenance treatment with opioid agonists. In the long term, the number of opioid-free patients is low and most patients are more or less continuously under opioid maintenance therapy. Further implications are discussed.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:97-105 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - April 4, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Effect of Door-Locking Policy on Inpatient Treatment of Substance Use and Dual Disorders
Conclusions: Our results support findings from general psychiatric wards of reduced coercion after adopting a primarily open-door policy. However, coercive events were rare during all periods. The widespread practice of restricting the freedom of inpatients with substance use disorders by locking ward doors is highly questionable.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:87-96 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - March 28, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Cytopathological Changes Induced by the Crack Use in Oral Mucosa
Aims: To evaluate cytological alterations, inflammation, and microbial charge of the oral mucosa epithelium in crack users in in terms of the amount and duration of use.Methods: Two hundred thirty four crack users (case group) and 120 non-users (control group) participated in this study. Clinically healthy epithelial cells were collected from the posterior mouth floor, using the conventional exfoliative cytology. Some of the aspects evaluated were as follows: Papanicolaou classification, nuclear area (NA), cytoplasmic area (CA), nuclear/cytoplasmic area ratio (NA/CA), inflammation, microbial charge, keratinization, enuclea...
Source: European Addiction Research - March 28, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Cross-Cultural Validity in Self-Reported Alcohol Use
Background and Aim: Little evidence is available on whether respondents from divergent sociocultural populations report alcohol consumption in systematically similar ways. Therefore, this study examined whether the validity of self-reported alcohol use differed between Arab and Jewish Israeli pub patrons.Methods: The analytical sample consisted of 227 Arab and 900 Jewish Israeli pub patrons who were approached as they left pubs and asked to record their Breath Alcohol Content (BrAC) value and complete a questionnaire that probed into their alcohol use. Validity of self-reported alcohol use across the 2 groups was examined ...
Source: European Addiction Research - March 7, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Randomised Comparison of a Novel Buprenorphine Oral Lyophilisate versus Existing Buprenorphine Sublingual Tablets in Opioid-Dependent Patients: A First-in-Patient Phase II Randomised Open Label Safety Study
Conclusions: Orally disintegrating buprenorphine oral lyophilisate wafer disintegrated rapidly. No increased respiratory depression was found and clinically no difference between medications was observed. PK found substantially increased bioavailability of buprenorphine (but not of nor-buprenorphine) with “bup-lyo” relative to “bup-SL.” In supervised dosing contexts, rapidly disintegrating formulations may enable wider buprenorphine prescribing.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:61-70 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - March 7, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

German Guidelines on Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorders
Evidence-based strategies for screening, diagnosing and treating alcohol use disorders (AUD) are instrumental in the early and better management of individuals at risk for or suffering from AUD. However, existing guidelines vary and may be biased by conflicts of interests. Unbiased recommendations can be achieved only if sufficient detail is provided on the composition and representativeness of author groups, methodological rigor, handling of potential conflicts of interest and financing. This paper presents the first evidence-based guidelines for AUD from German-speaking countries. These guidelines are based on the work o...
Source: European Addiction Research - February 9, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Orbitofrontal Cortex Volume and Effortful Control as Prospective Risk Factors for Substance Use Disorder in Adolescence
Conclusions: Smaller volumes of the OFC and low effortful control during adolescence appear to be associated phenotypes that increase the risk of subsequent SUD. Further studies examining the temporal sequence of these risk factors are needed to fully understand this relationship.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:37-44 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - December 14, 2016 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Cocaine Withdrawal Reduces Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid-Ergic Transmission and Gephyrin Expression at Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Cocaine-Conditioned Place-Preference Rats, Which Shows Increased Cocaine Seeking
Conclusion: We found decreased GABAergic IPSCs and downregulated gephyrin in PSD at mPFC in 2-week cocaine-withdrawn rats that showed increased CPP, suggesting that an increased E/I ratio and neuron excitability in mPFC may associate with a cocaine-seeking tendency. Strategies aimed at GABAergic synapses in mPFC may therapeutically benefit to cocaine addiction treatment.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:28-36 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 29, 2016 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Contextual Factors and Mental Distress as Possible Predictors of Hazardous Drinking in Norwegian Medical Doctors: A 15-Year Longitudinal, Nationwide Study
Conclusions: Doctors' work-related stress was not linked to hazardous drinking, but life events, mental distress, and drinking to cope were. Prevention should target mental distress and drinking to cope with tension.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:19-27 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 10, 2016 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Budgetary Impact Analysis of Reimbursement Varenicline for the Smoking-Cessation Treatment in Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease or Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus: A National Health System Perspective
Conclusion: Reimbursement of varenicline in smoking cessation is a cost-effective health policy in the SNHS in COPD, t2-DM or CVD, and could produce cost savings starting in the third year of implementation.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:7-18 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 28, 2016 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Acknowledgement
Eur Addict Res 2016;22:339 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 11, 2016 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 22, 2016
Eur Addict Res 2016;22:I-IV (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 11, 2016 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Exploring the Relationship between Sexual Compulsivity and Attentional Bias to Sex-Related Words in a Cohort of Sexually Active Individuals
Conclusion: Attentional preference for concern-related stimuli varies as a function of the interaction between how long a person has been active sexually and how compulsive their sexual behaviour is.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:1-6 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - September 30, 2016 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Quality of Smartphone Apps Related to Alcohol Use Disorder
Conclusions: Of the 137 unique apps identified, 52 met the inclusion criteria. Overall, the content quality and self-help scores of these AUD apps were poor. The main quality indicators were not linked to payment status. Multiple linear regressions showed that the Brief DISCERN score significantly predicted content quality. Poor content quality and self-help scores of AUD smartphone apps underline the gap between their potential promises and the overall quality of available products in stores. The quality indicators used in the present study may be used for further app developments.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:329-338 (Source: E...
Source: European Addiction Research - September 6, 2016 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Erratum
Eur Addict Res 2016;22:286 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - August 11, 2016 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Misuse of Substitution Drugs in the Substitution-Based Therapy
Conclusion: Although the misuse of substitution medications is considered an important problem, our study showed that the current misuse was prevalent only among a minority of the patients. German regulations focused on the avoidance of misuse might be partially contributing to the problem.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:322-328 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - August 9, 2016 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Does Emotion Dysregulation Mediate the Relationship between Early Maltreatment and Later Substance Dependence? Findings of the CANSAS Study
Conclusions: Emotion dysregulation is a potential mechanism underlying the relationship between early emotional and physical maltreatment and the development of SUDs. In light of these findings, focusing on the early training of adaptive emotion regulation strategies after childhood maltreatment might be of considerable relevance to prevent the development of SUDs.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:292-300 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 20, 2016 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Marketing Status and Perceived Efficacy of Drugs for Supporting Abstinence and Reducing Alcohol Intake in Alcohol Use Disorders: A Survey among European Federation of Addiction Societies in Europe
Conclusion: The drugs were mentioned in guidelines in approximately half and were partially or fully reimbursed in half to two-thirds countries. DIS was perceived as the most efficacious drug. These results are discussed.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:318-321 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 20, 2016 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The RESCueH Programme: Testing New Non-Pharmacologic Interventions for Alcohol Use Disorders: Rationale and Methods
Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the most important lifestyle factors affecting the disease burden in the Western world. The results of treatment in daily practice are modest at best. The aim of the RESCueH programme is to develop and evaluate methods, which are as practice-near as possible, and therefore can be implemented quickly and easily in everyday clinical practice. It is the first clinical alcohol programme to be transatlantic in scope, with implementation in treatment centers located in Denmark, Germany and the US. The RESCueH programme comprises 5 randomized controlled trials, and the studies can be expect...
Source: European Addiction Research - July 19, 2016 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Interest in Extended Release Naltrexone among Opioid Users
Conclusion: We discovered a high user interest for naltrexone treatment, suggesting that the interest for such treatment was not a barrier to the implementation of extended release naltrexone treatment.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:301-305 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - July 19, 2016 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Transient Retinal Dysfunctions after Acute Cannabis Use
Although cannabis is very widespread worldwide, the impact of cannabis on visual function remains poorly understood. This is partly due to numerous difficulties met in developing clinical studies in cannabis users. Here, we report the first documented case of neuroretinal dysfunction after acute cannabis smoking. This observation was favored by the need of an annual ophthalmic evaluation in the context of a chloroquine intake for a systemic lupus erythematosus in a 47-year-old heavy cannabis user. A complete ophthalmic evaluation including visual acuity tests, intraocular pressure, fundoscopic examination, automated 10°...
Source: European Addiction Research - July 4, 2016 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Treatment Seeking for Alcohol Use Disorders: Treatment Gap or Adequate Self-Selection
Conclusion: Adequate treatment seeking often occurs in the general population: the most severe AUD subjects use AUDTx, and most NonTx users have a mild AUD and a favorable course. Current findings suggest a smaller treatment gap than previously reported, but still one-quarter of the people with AUD do not seek AUDTx but could benefit from this, as they have a persistent AUD.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:277-285 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 9, 2016 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Treatment Seeking for Alcohol Use Disorders: Treatment Gap or Adequate Self-Selection?
Conclusion: Adequate treatment seeking often occurs in the general population: the most severe AUD subjects use AUDTx, and most NonTx users have a mild AUD and a favorable course. Current findings suggest a smaller treatment gap than previously reported, but still one-quarter of the people with AUD do not seek AUDTx but could benefit from this, as they have a persistent AUD.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:277-285 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 8, 2016 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Smoking Cessation Program for Inpatients with Substance Use Disorder: A Quasi-Randomized Controlled Trial of Feasibility and Efficacy
Conclusion: A smoking cessation/reduction program is feasible for substance-dependent in-patients undergoing detoxification. Although the RSP appears to be effective in terms of harm reduction in in-patients with SUD, more cost- and time-efficient programs might also be suitable for this population.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:268-276 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 8, 2016 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Intravenous Use of Prescription Psychostimulants; A Comparison of the Pattern and Subjective Experience between Different Methylphenidate Preparations, Amphetamine and Cocaine
Conclusions: The pattern of i.v. MPH use is similar to other psychostimulants among treatment seeking patients. MPH OROS was the least preferred i.v. psychostimulant, despite having the largest market share in Iceland. The results indicate that MPH OROS has less abuse potential than other MPH preparations.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:259-267 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 8, 2016 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Methadone-Related Overdose Deaths in a Liberal Opioid Maintenance Treatment Programme
Conclusions: Liberal OMT access does not necessarily prevent overdose deaths overall. Prescription of higher doses of methadone combined with benzodiazepines may result in an increased risk of overdose for individuals in as well as outside OMT.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:249-258 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 1, 2016 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Urine Ethyl Glucuronide Unraveling the Reality of Abstinence Monitoring in a Routine Outpatient Setting: A Cross-Sectional Comparison with Ethanol, Self Report and Clinical Judgment
Conclusions: EtG performed largely better than ethanol for urine screening in alcohol outpatients, detecting an extra 20.4% (125 out of 613) of positives. It means that for each alcohol-positive sample, there were 15 EtG-positive samples. Although better than ethanol, clinician judgment was also not performed efficiently. If routinely implemented in the screening of alcohol outpatients, EtG might bring relevant changes that merit further research.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:243-248 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - May 25, 2016 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Digital Interventions for Problematic Cannabis Users in Non-Clinical Settings: Findings from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Conclusions: Digital interventions can help to successfully reduce problematic cannabis use outside clinical settings. They have some potential to overcome treatment barriers and increase accessibility for at-risk cannabis users.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:233-242 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - May 3, 2016 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Parental Smoking and Smoking Cognitions among Youth: A Systematic Review of the Literature
Conclusion: Empirical evidence does not confirm the commonly applied assertions of social learning theories that parental smoking increases the risk of youth smoking through the development of favourable smoking-related cognitions. Methodological and theoretical aspects that might explain the lack of consistent findings are discussed.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:215-232 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - May 3, 2016 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Impact of Enrolment in Methadone Maintenance Therapy on Initiation of Heavy Drinking among People Who Use Heroin
Background: There is equivocal evidence regarding whether people who use heroin substitute heroin for alcohol upon entry to methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). We aimed to examine the impact of MMT enrolment on the onset of heavy drinking among people who use heroin. Methods: We derived data from prospective, community-based cohorts of people who inject drugs in Vancouver, Canada, between December 1, 2005, and May 31, 2014. Multivariable extended Cox regression analysis examined the effect of MMT enrolment on the onset of heavy drinking among people who used heroin at baseline. Results: In total, 357 people who use heroin...
Source: European Addiction Research - April 5, 2016 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

TPH1 and 5-HTTLPR Genes Specifically Interact in Opiate Dependence but Not in Alcohol Dependence
Conclusions: Our data suggested that there may be a differential genetic vulnerability in serotonergic genes for alcohol and opiate addiction. However, replications of our findings are still needed.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:201-209 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - April 5, 2016 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Altered Functional Connectivity of the Insula and Nucleus Accumbens in Internet Gaming Disorder: A Resting State fMRI Study
Conclusion: The elevated inter-hemispheric insula FC is found to be associated with impulsivity and might explain why it is involved in IGD. The attenuated frontostriatal suggests that the emotion-driven gaming urge through nucleus accumbens could not be well regulated by the frontal lobe of subjects with IGD.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:192-200 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - February 11, 2016 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

European Addiction Research Becomes the Official Journal of the European Federation of Addiction Societies
Eur Addict Res 2016;22:I-II (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - January 12, 2016 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Rates of HIV and Hepatitis Infections in Clients Entering Heroin-Assisted Treatment between 2003 and 2013 and Risk Factors for Hepatitis C Infection
Conclusion: Our results highlight the fact that efforts to prevent and test for infections and to promote vaccination against HAV and HBV in heroin users need to be continued.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:181-191 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - December 11, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Increased S100B Levels in Cannabis Use Disorder
Background: It has been determined that cannabis has adverse effects on brain tissue, and that increased S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B) blood levels are markers of neuronal damage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the S100B levels in cannabis use disorder. Method: Thirty-two patients with cannabis use disorder and 31 matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Appropriate blood samples were taken from the enrolled subjects, and the serum S100B protein levels were measured with an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay for the quantification of the protein. Findings: We found significantly in...
Source: European Addiction Research - December 1, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Sexual Dysfunction in Men Receiving Methadone Maintenance Treatment: Clinical History and Psychobiological Correlates
Abstract: A variety of studies evidenced a relationship between drug use disorders and sexual dysfunction. In particular, heroin and opioid agonist medications to treat heroin dependence have been found to be associated with erectile dysfunction and reduced libido. Controversial findings also indicate the possibility of factors other than the pharmacological effects of opioid drugs concurring to sexual dysfunction. With the present study, we investigated the link between sexual dysfunction and long-term exposure to opioid receptor stimulation (heroin dependence, methadone maintenance treatment, methadone dosage), the poten...
Source: European Addiction Research - November 24, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Omega-3 Levels and Nicotine Dependence: A Cross-Sectional Study and Clinical Trial
Background: High oxidative stress, which is caused by smoking, can alter omega-3 fatty acid concentrations. Since omega-3 fatty acids play a role in dopaminergic neurotransmission related to dependence, it is important to understand their effects on nicotine dependence. Methods: This research comprised 2 studies. The first one consisted of a cross-sectional evaluation, in which the levels of the most important omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), were compared between smokers and non-smokers in a sample of 171 individuals; of them, 120 were smokers and 51 were non-smokers. The ot...
Source: European Addiction Research - November 17, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Short-Term Outcomes for Opiate and Crack Users Accessing Treatment: The Effects of Criminal Justice Referral and Crack Use
Conclusion: Despite changes in the English drug treatment population, equivalent short-term improvements in client behaviour were observed a decade earlier. Outcomes for CJS-referred clients were comparable to non-CJS. Crack use at treatment entry offered some scope for greater improvements in offending but may be a barrier to cessation of mortality-associated risky behaviour.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:145-152 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 17, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Psychosocial Determinants of Cannabis Dependence: A Systematic Review of the Literature
Conclusion: Numerous factors were shown to have an impact on transition to cannabis dependence. In particular, a wide range of mental disorders has been linked to an elevated risk of becoming dependent. The development of a dependence syndrome seems to be associated with diverse processes, in which social, biological and intra-individual factors interact in a complex manner. Nevertheless, the link between cannabis dependence and predisposing factors could not be resolved convincingly by most studies due to methodological weaknesses regarding dependence criteria.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:131-144 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 9, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Maternal Buprenorphine Dose at Delivery and Its Relationship to Neonatal Outcomes
Conclusions: This study failed to provide any evidence to support limiting or reducing maternal dose of buprenorphine during pregnancy in order to reduce possible adverse outcomes to the infant. Findings suggest that healthcare providers can focus medication decisions on maternal opioid cravings to reduce the risk of relapse to illicit opioid use rather than out of concern for adverse infant outcomes.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:127-130 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 23, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Patterns of Methylphenidate Use and Assessment of Its Abuse among the General Population and Individuals with Drug Dependence
Conclusion: Given the increase of MPH use, it is important to warn the scientific community about possible MPH abuse, especially in individuals with drug dependence. This study has facilitated public health intervention and dissemination of information related to MPH abuse among health care professionals at local and national levels.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:119-126 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 23, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 21, 2015
Eur Addict Res 2015;21:I-IV (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 9, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Acknowledgement
Eur Addict Res 2015;21:327 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 9, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Gateway Hypothesis, Common Liability to Addictions or the Route of Administration Model A Modelling Process Linking the Three Theories
Conclusion: If the gateway sequence appears as the most likely pattern, in line with GT, the effects of early onset and substance use propensities were also observed for some alternative sequences, which is more in line with CLM. RAM could explain reciprocal interactions observed between T and C. This suggests shared influences of individual (personality traits) and environmental (substance availability, peer influence) characteristics.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:107-117 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 5, 2015 Category: Addiction Source Type: research