International Consensus Statement on Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment of Substance Use Disorder Patients with Comorbid Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occurs with substance use disorders (SUD) and is associated with early onset and more severe development of SUD and with reduced treatment effectiveness. Screening tools allow for a good recognition of possible ADHD in adults with SUD and should be used routinely, followed by an ADHD diagnostic process initiated as soon as possible. Simultaneous and integrated treatment of ADHD and SUD, using a combination of pharmaco- and psychotherapy, is recommended. Long-acting methylphenidate, extended-release amphetamines, and atomoxetine with up-titration to higher dosag...
Source: European Addiction Research - March 6, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Age Invariance of the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test in a Probabilistic Sample of Cannabis Users
The Cannabis abuse screening test (CAST) is a short test used for screening those with problematic cannabis use. Recently, its invariance toward age was tested in an Israeli sample of cannabis users, but this study had some sample and methodological limitations: it was conducted in a volunteer sample aged 18 –40 and considered the CAST items as continuous variables, although they are based on 5-point Likert scales. We thus tested the CAST invariance toward age (15–24, 25–34, and 35–64 years old) using a French probabilistic sample of 1,351 past-year cannabis users aged 15–64 and using appropri...
Source: European Addiction Research - March 1, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Impact of Health Authority Control Measures Aimed at Reducing the Illicit Use of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids
Conclusion: The health actions were very effective, in that they brought about a sharp reduction in the illicit use of AAS. These interventions could be applied to other drugs in which abuse were detected.Eur Addict Res 2018;24:28 –36 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - February 15, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Acknowledgement
Eur Addict Res 2017;23:314 –314 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - February 9, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 23, 2017
Eur Addict Res 2017;23:I-IV (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - February 8, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Intellectual Functioning in In-Patients with Substance Use Disorders: Preliminary Results from a Clinical Mediation Study of Factors Contributing to IQ Variance
Conclusion: IQ variance in in-treatment individuals with SUD was related to childhood functioning alone or through the mediator of education. Substance-related factors did not contribute to IQ variance. The results fit a normal theory of IQ development with commonly known risk factors and no disturbing effect of substance use.Eur Addict Res 2018;24:19 –27 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - February 2, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Methadone Dose Adjustments, Plasma R-Methadone Levels and Therapeutic Outcome of Heroin Users: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Conclusion: Although the primary endpoint of this study was not demonstrated, a post hoc and a per protocol analysis suggested that patients in MMT with plasma R-methadone concentrations in the target range have a better therapeutic outcome than controls.Eur Addict Res 2018;24:9 –18 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - February 1, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Mentalization-Based Treatment for Concurrent Borderline Personality Disorder and Substance Use Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study
Conclusion: MBT for patients with concurrent BPD and SD does not appear to be harmful; on the other hand, it is possibly helpful in reducing the risk involved in suicide attempts.Eur Addict Res 2018;24:1 –8 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - January 19, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Smoking and Promoter-Specific Deoxyribonucleic Acid Methylation of the Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Gene: Methylation of Smokers and Non-Smokers Differs Significantly during Withdrawal
Conclusion: Compared to non-smokers, promoter-related deoxyribonucleic acid methylation of the ANP promoter was significantly elevated on days 7 and 14 of withdrawal in tobacco-dependent patients. Baseline methylation status of the ANP promoter was not significantly different from controls, arguing for an impaired regulation during withdrawal. Eur Addict Res 2017;23:306 –311 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - January 16, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

New: The European Addiction Research Award
Eur Addict Res 2017;23:312 –313 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - January 16, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms are Common in Patients in Opioid Maintenance Treatment
Conclusions: ADHD symptoms were common in these OMT patients. High ADHD symptom burden was associated with higher mental distress and use of stimulants. This underlines a need of more systematic focus on ADHD in OMT to plan treatment accordingly.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:298 –305 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - January 10, 2018 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Family-Related Stress versus External Stressors: Differential Impacts on Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use in Young Men
This study aimed to determine whether family-related stress factors (FSF) influenced SU in a different way than external stress factors (ESF). Data was drawn from a Swiss cohort study on SU risk factors (C-SURF), involving 5,308 young adult men. Twelve month use of alcohol and of illicit substances was assessed. FSF and ESF for the time period preceding SU were measured. FSF and ESF were both significantly associated with SU. FSF had a greater impact on the use of most substances than did ESF. The FSF with the strongest association with SU was lack of parental monitoring. Regarding ESF, the cumulative number of stressful e...
Source: European Addiction Research - December 22, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Cognitive Functioning in Formerly Opioid-Dependent Adults after At Least 1 Year of Abstinence: A Naturalistic Study
This study is an evaluation of cognitive functioning in formerly opioid-dependent adults after at least 1 year of abstinence. Participants (45 formerly opioid-dependent patients, referred to as abstainers, and 45 matched healthy controls) completed a structured screening and subsequent cognitive test battery covering intelligence, learning and memory, attention, and executive functions. Many cognitive functions were comparable between long-term abstainers and healthy controls, and we found few relevant differences. Long-term abstainers seem to have subtle deficits in recognition performance. Based on our and earlier findin...
Source: European Addiction Research - December 21, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Fatal Overdoses of Opioids in Israel 2005 –2014
Conclusions: Rates of opioid-related deaths in Israel were low compared to those reported in the United States and United Kingdom. In addition, the decline in opioid-related deaths in Israel is contrary to trends observed in the United States and United Kingdom. Factors that may contribute to these differences are discussed.Eur Addict Res (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - December 21, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Reduced Drinking in Alcohol Dependence Treatment, What Is the Evidence?
In conclusion, while abstinence remains the safest treatment goal for individuals with AD, evidence supports that reduced drinking approaches may be an important extension in the treatment of AD.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:219-230 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - December 19, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Epigenetic Regulation of the Promotor Region of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A and Nerve Growth Factor in Opioid-Maintained Patients
Conclusions: The results are of importance, as they indicate that long-term changes in stress regulation regulated by neurotrophines are a crucial part of the symptomatology of opioid dependence, thus influencing drug consumption and the different forms of opioid-maintenance therapies.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:249 –259 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - December 8, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) as a Screener for Depression in Substance Use Disorder Inpatients: A Pilot Study
In this study, the predictive validity of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) for the presence of a depressive disorder was investigated in SUD inpatients. Furthermore, differences between DASS-21 scores at intake and those recorded one week after inpatient detoxification were assessed in order to determine the measurement point of the assessment of the DASS-21 leading to the best predictive validity. The DASS-21 was administered to 47 patients at intake and shortly after inpatient detoxification. The results of the DASS-21 were compared to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), which serv...
Source: European Addiction Research - December 8, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Development of OSTQOL: A Measure of Quality of Life for Patients in Opioid Substitution Treatment
Conclusion: The Opioid Substitution Treatment Quality of Life scale (OSTQOL) is a multidimensional instrument with low respondent and administrator burden. A thorough validation is needed to assess its validity.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:238 –248 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - November 21, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Measuring Concurrent Polydrug Use in General Populations: A Critical Assessment
Background/Aims: Polydrug use is a complicated phenomenon that is measured in a wide variety of different ways. Using Finland as an example, we aimed to demonstrate how the prevalence and prevalence trends of concurrent polydrug use (CPU) varied in the general population based on the different measurements used.Methods: Population-based Drug Surveys conducted every 4 years during 1998-2014 were used. CPU was measured with different measurements: strict, medial and loose definition of CPU, which were based on different combinations of alcohol, illicit drugs, pharmaceutical drugs and cigarettes used during the last 12 months...
Source: European Addiction Research - October 25, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Factor Analysis and Psychometric Properties of the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale and the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale-Revised: Italian Version
Conclusions: MNWS showed 1 factor; MNWS-R showed 2 relatively dependent factors. The results need to be replicated in smokers in withdrawal.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:157-162 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 25, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Is Medicine Use for Nervousness Associated with Adolescent At-Risk or Problem Gambling?
Conclusions: Medicine use to treat nervousness is associated with increased risk of gambling-related harm.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:171-176 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 25, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Brief Outline of the Use of New Technologies for Treating Substance Use Disorders in the European Union
Conclusions: The application of various forms of technology in SUD treatment is an interesting development for the European Union. Technical and non-technical barriers exist and impede their full exploitation.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:177-181 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 25, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Synthetic Cannabinoid Use in a Psychiatric Patient Population: A Pilot Study
Conclusions: NC and SCs may cause different symptom clusters. These relationships should be further evaluated.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:182-193 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 25, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Smoking Trajectories during the Perinatal Period and Their Risk Factors: The Nationally Representative French ELFE (Etude Longitudinale Fran çaise Depuis l'Enfance) Birth Cohort Study
Conclusion: Women's long-term smoking trajectories vary in terms of initial tobacco consumption level but also in relation to socio-demographic, psychological, behavioral and partner characteristics. Health professionals in contact with pregnant smokers should address perceived risks and benefits of smoking, including partner's smoking and weight-gain concerns.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:194-203 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 25, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Naltrexone in the Treatment of Broadly Defined Behavioral Addictions: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Conclusion: The results of our meta-analysis suggest a beneficial effect of naltrexone in the treatment of broadly defined behavioral addictions.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:204-210 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 25, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Comparison of Clomethiazole and Diazepam in the Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Clinical Practice
Conclusion: Both clomethiazole and diazepam were effective and equally safe in the treatment of AWS. Clomethiazole provided a faster withdrawal and required less concomitant antipsychotic medication and therefore might be the more favorable option for patients and physicians. Taken into account the methodological limitations of the study (retrospective design, secondary matching, missing randomization, use of clomethiazole as drug of first choice), further studies are needed to confirm this result.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:211-218 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 25, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Reduced Drinking in Alcohol Dependence Treatment, What Is the Evidence
In conclusion, while abstinence remains the safest treatment goal for individuals with AD, evidence supports that reduced drinking approaches may be an important extension in the treatment of AD.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:219-230 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 25, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Predictors of Persistence of Risky Drinking in Adults: An 11-Year Follow-Up Study
Conclusions: Health behaviour predicts the persistence of risky drinking in a study population of adults aged 30 and over. These factors should be taken into account when assessing the long-term prognosis on risky drinking.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:231-237 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - October 25, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Reduced Drinking in Alcohol Dependence Treatment, What Is the Evidence
In conclusion, while abstinence remains the safest treatment goal for individuals with AD, evidence supports that reduced drinking approaches may be an important extension in the treatment of AD.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:219-230 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - September 22, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Reduced Drinking in Alcohol Dependence Treatment, What Is the Evidence?
In conclusion, while abstinence remains the safest treatment goal for individuals with AD, evidence supports that reduced drinking approaches may be an important extension in the treatment of AD.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:219-230 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - September 21, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Comparison of Clomethiazole and Diazepam in the Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Clinical Practice
Conclusion: Both clomethiazole and diazepam were effective and equally safe in the treatment of AWS. Clomethiazole provided a faster withdrawal and required less concomitant antipsychotic medication and therefore might be the more favorable option for patients and physicians. Taken into account the methodological limitations of the study (retrospective design, secondary matching, missing randomization, use of clomethiazole as drug of first choice), further studies are needed to confirm this result.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:211-218 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - September 12, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Naltrexone in the Treatment of Broadly Defined Behavioral Addictions: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Conclusion: The results of our meta-analysis suggest a beneficial effect of naltrexone in the treatment of broadly defined behavioral addictions.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:204-210 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - September 6, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Smoking Trajectories during the Perinatal Period and Their Risk Factors: The Nationally Representative French ELFE (Etude Longitudinale Fran çaise Depuis l'Enfance) Birth Cohort Study
Conclusion: Women's long-term smoking trajectories vary in terms of initial tobacco consumption level but also in relation to socio-demographic, psychological, behavioral and partner characteristics. Health professionals in contact with pregnant smokers should address perceived risks and benefits of smoking, including partner's smoking and weight-gain concerns.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:194-203 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - September 1, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Synthetic Cannabinoid Use in a Psychiatric Patient Population: A Pilot Study
Conclusions: NC and SCs may cause different symptom clusters. These relationships should be further evaluated.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:182-193 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - August 24, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Is Medicine Use for Nervousness Associated with Adolescent At-Risk or Problem Gambling
Conclusions: Medicine use to treat nervousness is associated with increased risk of gambling-related harm.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:171-176 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - August 11, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

A Brief Outline of the Use of New Technologies for Treating Substance Use Disorders in the European Union
Conclusions: The application of various forms of technology in SUD treatment is an interesting development for the European Union. Technical and non-technical barriers exist and impede their full exploitation.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:177-181 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - August 11, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Is Medicine Use for Nervousness Associated with Adolescent At-Risk or Problem Gambling?
Conclusions: Medicine use to treat nervousness is associated with increased risk of gambling-related harm.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:171-176 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - August 10, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Measuring Concurrent Polydrug Use in General Populations: A Critical Assessment
Background/Aims: Polydrug use is a complicated phenomenon that is measured in a wide variety of different ways. Using Finland as an example, we aimed to demonstrate how the prevalence and prevalence trends of concurrent polydrug use (CPU) varied in the general population based on the different measurements used.Methods: Population-based Drug Surveys conducted every 4 years during 1998-2014 were used. CPU was measured with different measurements: strict, medial and loose definition of CPU, which were based on different combinations of alcohol, illicit drugs, pharmaceutical drugs and cigarettes used during the last 12 months...
Source: European Addiction Research - June 22, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Factor Analysis and Psychometric Properties of the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale and the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale-Revised: Italian Version
Conclusions: MNWS showed 1 factor; MNWS-R showed 2 relatively dependent factors. The results need to be replicated in smokers in withdrawal.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:157-162 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 22, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Addictive Potential of Internet Applications and Differential Correlates of Problematic Use in Internet Gamers versus Generalized Internet Users in a Representative Sample of Adolescents
Conclusion: The results extend previous findings on the addictive potential of Internet applications and validate the proposed distinction between specific and generalized problematic Internet use. In addition to Internet gaming disorder, future studies should also focus on other highly addictive Internet applications, that is, chatting or social networking, regarding differential correlates of problematic use.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:148-156 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 15, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Electronic Cigarettes in Germany: Patterns of Use and Perceived Health Improvement
Conclusions: E-cigarettes were primarily used as an alternative to smoking and a substitute for nicotine. More dual users than ex-smokers used e-cigarettes in places where smoking is forbidden. Positive health changes were more pronounced in ex-smokers than dual users.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:136-147 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 15, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Comparing Medical and Recreational Cannabis Users on Socio-Demographic, Substance and Medication Use, and Health and Disability Characteristics
Conclusions/Scientific Significance: Compared to RCUs, medical users appear to be mainly characterized by factors negatively influencing their overall health status. Future studies should investigate the actual impact and net benefits of medical cannabis use on these health problems.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:129-135 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - June 8, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Two-Year Effects of a Classroom-Based Smoking Prevention and Cessation Intervention Program
This study deals with the outcomes of a 2-year follow-up evaluation of Project EX.Methods: The intervention was tested using a clustered randomized controlled trial involving 1,546 Spanish students from 3 program schools and 3 control schools. At the end of the 2-year follow-up period, 722 subjects had completed the questionnaires (266 in the control condition and 456 in the program condition) administered to them.Results: Compared to the control condition, the program condition revealed a greater reduction in nicotine dependence (p = 0.04), smoking intention (p = 0.02), and in the number of cigarettes smoked during the pr...
Source: European Addiction Research - June 8, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Cannabis Use among People Entering Drug Treatment in Europe: A Growing Phenomenon
This paper explores European and national trends in specialised drug treatment entry for cannabis-related problems. The analysis is based on data for the years 2003-2014 from 22 European countries. Between 2003 and 2014, the overall number and proportion of primary cannabis-related first-time entrants increased significantly. A joinpoint regression analysis indicates that the overall increase of cannabis treatment entries is continuous, although country-related differences are observed. Possible explanations for the increase and different time trends are discussed including an increase in cannabis prevalence and cannabis-r...
Source: European Addiction Research - May 17, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Cannabis Use among People Entering Drug Treatment in Europe: A Growing Phenomenon?
This paper explores European and national trends in specialised drug treatment entry for cannabis-related problems. The analysis is based on data for the years 2003-2014 from 22 European countries. Between 2003 and 2014, the overall number and proportion of primary cannabis-related first-time entrants increased significantly. A joinpoint regression analysis indicates that the overall increase of cannabis treatment entries is continuous, although country-related differences are observed. Possible explanations for the increase and different time trends are discussed including an increase in cannabis prevalence and cannabis-r...
Source: European Addiction Research - May 16, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Telecommunications Network Measurements of Online Gambling Behavior in Switzerland: A Feasibility Study
Background: Methodological shortcomings of gambling studies relying on self-report or on data sets derived from gambling operators tend to result in biased conclusions. The aim of this study was to analyze online gambling behavior using a novel network database approach.Methods: From October 13 to October 26, 2014, telecommunications network data from a major telecommunications provider in Switzerland were analyzed. Netflows between mobile devices and a poker operator were quantified to measure the gambling duration and session number.Results: Time spent gambling during night and working hours was compared between devices ...
Source: European Addiction Research - April 12, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Six-Year Outcome of Opioid Maintenance Treatment in Heroin-Dependent Patients: Results from a Naturalistic Study in a Nationally Representative Sample
Conclusions: The study provides further evidence for the efficacy and safety of maintenance treatment with opioid agonists. In the long term, the number of opioid-free patients is low and most patients are more or less continuously under opioid maintenance therapy. Further implications are discussed.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:97-105 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - April 4, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Effect of Door-Locking Policy on Inpatient Treatment of Substance Use and Dual Disorders
Conclusions: Our results support findings from general psychiatric wards of reduced coercion after adopting a primarily open-door policy. However, coercive events were rare during all periods. The widespread practice of restricting the freedom of inpatients with substance use disorders by locking ward doors is highly questionable.Eur Addict Res 2017;23:87-96 (Source: European Addiction Research)
Source: European Addiction Research - March 28, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research

Cytopathological Changes Induced by the Crack Use in Oral Mucosa
Aims: To evaluate cytological alterations, inflammation, and microbial charge of the oral mucosa epithelium in crack users in in terms of the amount and duration of use.Methods: Two hundred thirty four crack users (case group) and 120 non-users (control group) participated in this study. Clinically healthy epithelial cells were collected from the posterior mouth floor, using the conventional exfoliative cytology. Some of the aspects evaluated were as follows: Papanicolaou classification, nuclear area (NA), cytoplasmic area (CA), nuclear/cytoplasmic area ratio (NA/CA), inflammation, microbial charge, keratinization, enuclea...
Source: European Addiction Research - March 28, 2017 Category: Addiction Source Type: research