Jaw and Dental Abnormalities
This article highlights a variety of developmental abnormalities that present with structural disharmony of the maxillomandibular complex and secondarily associated dental structures. (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - November 15, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Tibebu M. Tsegga, Cody J. Christensen Source Type: research

Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders
This article reviews the clinical appearance of OPMDs, associated risk factors, diagnosis and histologic appearance, and treatment. (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - November 15, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Stephanie L. Wetzel, Jessica Wollenberg Source Type: research

Oral Diseases for the General Dentist
DENTAL CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - November 15, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Arvind Babu Rajendra Santosh, Orrett E. Ogle Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - November 15, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Contributors
ARVIND BABU RAJENDRA SANTOSH, BDS, MDS (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - November 15, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Contents
Arvind Babu Rajendra Santosh and Orrett E. Ogle (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - November 15, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Surgical and Medical Management of Common Oral Problems (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - November 15, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Oral Manifestation of Systemic Diseases
The US Surgeon General ’s report Oral Health in America highlighted ways in which oral health and systemic conditions are associated with each other. An oral examination can reveal signs and symptoms associated with systemic diseases. In this article, multiple systemic diseases including but not limited to viral and imm une modulated conditions and associated oral symptoms are discussed. (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - October 22, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Natasha Bhalla, Yoav Nudell, Jaykrishna Thakkar, Harry Dym Source Type: research

Benign and Malignant Lesions of Jaw
Benign and malignant neoplasm of oral cavity is usually presented as swellings or ulcerations of affected tissue. The lesions are broadly categorized as potentially malignant disorders, benign and malignant neoplasm of epithelial and connective tissue origin for the convenience of learning. Neoplasm of oral cavity has a significantly lower incidence. Because of uncommon occurrence of oral neoplasm, retention of diagnostic skills is a challenging task. However, comprehensive understanding on clinical and pathologic details will help in correlating and presenting complaint and assisting in formulation of possible diagnosis. ...
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - October 21, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: B.V. Ramana Reddy, K. Kiran Kumar, Arvind Babu Rajendra Santosh Source Type: research

Mucocutaneous Diseases
Mucocutaneous diseases affecting the oral cavity are predominantly immune mediated or inflammatory. Three of the most common and clinically significant conditions are reviewed in this article: lichen planus, pemphigus vulgaris, and mucous membrane pemphigoid. Because oral manifestations may be the first or only manifestation of mucocutaneous diseases, oral health professionals play a critical role in the early diagnosis and multidisciplinary management of these conditions. (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - October 21, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Michal Kuten-Shorrer, Reshma S. Menon, Mark A. Lerman Source Type: research

Referral and Management Considerations for a Biopsy
Traditional oral and maxillofacial surgeon office practice spans the full scope of patient management. Most surgeons practicing in the United States dedicate their primary focus to the needs of patients referred by our dental colleagues. Dentoalveolar surgical practice remains the mainstay of office-based care. Oral cavity disease typically occurs from chronic bacterial infections of carious teeth, chronic periodontitis, fractured teeth. Recognition of oral disease patterns occurs by medical and dental clinicians. Oral and maxillofacial surgeon practice is uniquely designed to provide choice for the diagnosis and managemen...
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - October 21, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Keith H. Kaner Source Type: research

Atypical Facial Pain
Atypical facial pain (AFP), or persistent idiopathic facial pain, is a chronic and diffuse distribution of facial pain along the territory of the trigeminal nerve. This condition occurs in the absence of any neurologic deficit or any other obvious etiology. AFP is one of the most challenging conditions to diagnose due to lack of clear diagnostic criteria. Diagnosis of this condition is made by exclusion of other known etiologies. Specific disease modalities cannot be targeted, resulting in a deficiency of clear treatment protocol. Despite the limitations of evidence-based literature, tricyclic antidepressants have proved e...
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - October 21, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Earl Clarkson, Eunsu Jung Source Type: research

Neurologic Disorders of the Maxillofacial Region
This article summarizes the most common maxillofacial neurologic disorders that dentists might encounter in clinical practice. (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - October 21, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Mel Mupparapu, Eugene Ko, Temitope T. Omolehinwa, Avneesh Chhabra Source Type: research

Odontogenic Cysts
Odontogenic cysts are epithelial-lined pathologic cavities and surrounded by fibrous connective tissue that originate from odontogenic tissues that occur in tooth-bearing regions of maxilla and mandible. Cystic conditions of the jaw cause bony destruction and may cause resorption or displacement of adjacent teeth. Odontogenic cysts have developmental or inflammatory origins. More cases have been published in the adult age group than the pediatric population. Periapical cyst and dentigerous cysts are frequently reported conditions in dental practice. Histopathologic examination remains the gold standard investigation. Odont...
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - October 18, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Arvind Babu Rajendra Santosh Source Type: research

Odontogenic Tumors
This article reviews clinical concepts of several odontogenic tumors that occur in the proximity or in association with teeth and not merely focusing on relatively common conditions. (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - October 18, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Arvind Babu Rajendra Santosh, Orrett E. Ogle Source Type: research

Nonodontogenic Cysts
This article focuses on describing nonodontogenic cysts of the oral and maxillofacial region. The lesions described include nasopalatine duct canal cyst, nasolabial cyst, traumatic bone cyst, Stafne bone cyst, aneurysmal bone cyst, focal osteoporotic bone marrow defect, dermoid cyst, epidermoid cyst, pilar cyst, and sebaceous cyst. The intent of this article is to make general dentists aware and knowledgeable of the nonodontogenic cysts they may encounter in everyday practice, so they can adequately manage or make an appropriate referral to improve treatment outcomes and reduce patient morbidity. (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - October 17, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Rawle Fabian Philbert, Navraj Singh Sandhu Source Type: research

Differential Diagnosis of Periapical Radiopacities and Radiolucencies
This article discusses identification of radiopaque and radiolucent lesions noted on radiographs. The common opacities and lucencies are described. When required, advanced imaging is used to depict changes within the bone near the periapical regions of mandibular and maxillary teeth. (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - October 17, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Mel Mupparapu, Katherine Jie Shi, Eugene Ko Source Type: research

The Geriatric Syndrome and Oral Health
This article presents a roadmap approach to evaluate symptoms and apply therapeutic strategies for 5 common oral and maxillofacial dysfunctions seen in the elderly. (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - October 17, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Leslie R. Halpern Source Type: research

Oral Diseases for the General Dentist
This issue of Dental Clinics of North America is geared to the dental and medical community as a refresher and an update on oral diseases. We believe that early detection, recognition, and referral to an oral disease specialist, oral surgeon, oral medicine, or oral pathologist, will greatly reduce the negative effects of chronic disease and the cost of clinical care. A major challenge in the diagnosis of oral disease is the need for memorizing long lists of oral lesions from oral pathology literature. (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - October 17, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Arvind Babu Rajendra Santosh, Orrett Ogle Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Clinical Outline of Oral Diseases
Oral diseases are pathologic conditions that affect oral and maxillofacial tissues. Dental caries and periodontal diseases are the most common forms of oral diseases, but there are a wide variety of diseases that can occur in oral and maxillofacial tissues. These oral diseases range from metabolic, inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, autoimmune, developmental, to idiopathic origin. Numerous oral conditions have overlapping clinical signs and symptoms, which make the diagnosis and management challenging for the dentist. However, a comprehensive understanding of clinical behavior will help in differentiating the various or...
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - October 16, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Arvind Babu Rajendra Santosh, Doryck Boyd, Kumaraswamy Kikeri Laxminarayana Source Type: research

Pediatric Oral Diseases
This article provides an overview of common pediatric oral lesions that general dentists may encounter in everyda y practice. (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - October 14, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Sumitra S. Golikeri, Jessica Grenfell, David Kim, Christopher Pae Source Type: research

Salivary Gland Diseases
A variety of diseases ranging from obstructions, infections, to benign and malignant tumors occur in salivary glands. The most common problem is painful blockage of ducts by stones that prevents drainage of saliva. Sialadenitis can be due to either infectious or noninfectious factors. Bacterial or viral infections are the most common causes of acute sialadenitis. Staphylococcus is the usual bacterial cause, whereas paramyxovirus (mumps) is the common viral cause. Eighty percent of salivary tumors are benign, whereas about 20% are malignant. Most tumors occur in the parotid gland and on the hard palate. Classifications, ima...
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - October 10, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Orrett E. Ogle Source Type: research

Motivational Communication in Dental Practices
This article describes the motivational communication approach to changing behavior and applies it to a discussion of behavior change communication over the course of life. CONTENT considerations focus on on identifying high-priority behaviors for change; patient affect, behavior, and cognition related to these behaviors, and understanding in which stage of change the patient is. Process the four principles of the Motivational Interviewing approach by Miller& Rollnick to analyze oral health-related behavior change over the life course. (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - August 28, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Marita R. Inglehart Source Type: research

Caries Management Decision-Making
The purposes of this article are to (1) offer a critical thinking skill set in decision-making and synthesis for caries diagnosis, and risk-adjusted and personalized management based on emulating the intended activity of the expert, (2) offer patient/case scenarios for application of the critical thinking skill set, (3) compare and contrast the results of applying an algorithm and expert thought process approach to patient analyses, (4) offer characteristics of the person making decisions and synthesizing information, and (5) for patients with complex health and social histories, include perspectives from other health care...
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - August 28, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Sandra Guzm án-Armstrong, David C. Johnsen Source Type: research

Dental Caries: Evidence and Interdisciplinary Person-Centered Care Considerations for Management Over Time
According to the World Health Organization, dental caries remains a major oral health problem in most industrialized countries, affecting 60% to 90% of schoolchildren and the vast majority of adults. Caries is the most prevalent oral disease causing major public health problems. The impact on individuals, families, and communities, as a result of pain and suffering, impairment of function, and reduced quality of life, is substantial. Moreover, the traditional surgical treatment for caries is extremely costly; it is the fourth most expensive disease to treat in most industrialized countries. (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - August 28, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Sandra Guzm án-Armstrong, Margherita Fontana, Marcelle M. Nascimento, Andrea G. Ferreira Zandona Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Caries Management
DENTAL CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - August 28, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Sandra Guzm án-Armstrong, Margherita Fontana, Marcelle M. Nascimento, Andrea G. Ferreira Zandona Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - August 28, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Contributors
SANDRA GUZM ÁN-ARMSTRONG, DDS, MS (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - August 28, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Contents
Sandra Guzm án-Armstrong, Margherita Fontana, Marcelle M. Nascimento, and Andrea G. Ferreira Zandona (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - August 28, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Oral Diseases for the General Dentist (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - August 28, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Surgical Management of Caries Lesions
Traditionally, before placing a restoration, excavation of tissues affected by caries was recommended. The goal was to have all walls of the cavity on sound, hard dentin, even when at risk of pulpal exposure. Current understanding of the caries process indicates that preserving tooth structure can lead to better long-term outcomes. Selective caries excavation refers to preserving tooth structure by delineating excavation in the pulpal and axial wall according to lesion severity and depth as well as pulpal health while keeping all cavity margins on sound tooth structure. Compounding evidence indicates that when a good margi...
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - August 6, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Andr éa G. Ferreira Zandoná Source Type: research

Approaches to Modulate Biofilm Ecology
Dental caries is closely related to a dysbiosis of the microbial consortia of supragingival oral biofilms driven by a sugar-frequent and acidic-pH environment. The pH is a key factor affecting the homeostasis of supragingival biofilms seen in health. There is increasing interest on the ecological dynamics of the oral microbiome and how a dysbiotic microbiota can be successfully replaced by health-beneficial flora. The concept of preventing the microbial dysbiosis related to caries through modulation of sugar intake and pH has fully emerged. (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - August 6, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Marcelle M. Nascimento Source Type: research

Personalized Dental Caries Management in Children
This article reviews dental caries management in children. The goal is to help clinicians recognize common patterns of dental caries in primary dentition and make appropriate decisions regarding management of carious lesions in children, taking into account the best available evidence, clinician expertise and experience, and a child ’s treatment needs, age, medical history, and ability to tolerate treatment as well as caregiver preferences. It also is important to protect the developing psyche of the child, stabilize or restore the dentition to health and natural esthetics when possible, and maintain space for the er...
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - July 25, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Martha Ann Keels Source Type: research

Dietary Implications for Dental Caries
This article (1) defines a healthy diet and eating behaviors as a foundation for caries prevention, (2) identifies food choices and eating behaviors associated with caries, (3) identifies diet-related screening and assessment tools for caries risk, and (4) provides counseling strategies to manage dental caries. (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - July 25, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Teresa A. Marshall Source Type: research

Less Is More? The Long-Term Health and Cost Consequences Resulting from Minimal Invasive Caries  Management?
This article discusses the long-term health and costs consequences resulting from different caries management strategies. It is demonstrated why, and under which circumstances, minimal invasive caries management may be beneficial for patients, but also for health services, with regard to both health gained and costs generated. Moreover, possible factors influencing the cost-effectiveness of different caries management strategies will be discussed. (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - July 25, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Falk Schwendicke Source Type: research

The Interprofessional Role in Dental Caries Management
Medical providers are important allies in the prevention of dental caries. Through raising the issue by asking about risks and strengths, offering anticipatory guidance and counseling, encouraging and following up on referrals, and applying preventive fluoride, medical providers can have a direct, positive impact on oral health. Further, improving communication with referrals, bidirectionally, benefits patient care as well as provider satisfaction. By collaborating on advocacy efforts, medical and dental providers can broaden their impact while building relationships, with the end goal of improved health for patients throu...
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - July 24, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Susan A. Fisher-Owens Source Type: research

Nonrestorative Management of  Cavitated and Noncavitated Caries Lesions
The objective of this article is to review evidence-based strategies available for the nonrestorative management of caries lesions, both cavitated and noncavitated. The goal is to help clinicians make appropriate decisions regarding nonrestorative management of caries lesions. In addition, in the decision-making process, clinicians must consider thresholds for restorative and nonrestorative care and strategies for nonrestorative management that are supported by best available evidence. It is important that this information be considered taking into account a provider ’s clinical expertise and a patient’s treatm...
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - July 18, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Margherita Fontana Source Type: research

Personalized Dental Caries Management for Frail Older Adults and Persons with Special Needs
This article describes a succinct way to assess and categorize the risk of rapid oral health deterioration (ROHD) among this group. The procedures for assessing ROHD risk examine the ROHD risk categories, how risk factors impact treatment strategies, what techniques and materials exist for caries prevention and treatment, and how one effectively communicates caries management plans for this population. (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - July 16, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Leonardo Marchini, Ronald Ettinger, Jennifer Hartshorn Source Type: research

Performance of Adhesives and Restorative Materials After Selective Removal of Carious Lesions
Selective carious tissue-removal strategies require specific considerations in selection of restorative materials. A tight marginal seal placed over hard dentin and sound enamel is essential. For selective removal of carious tissue with permanent restoration, bioactive materials, such as high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement (HV-GIC) or calcium silicates, may be preferred over caries-affected firm or leathery dentin to improve remineralization. HV-GICs have the best clinical evidence of caries-arresting effect and demonstrate sufficient longevity as long-term provisional restorations that can later be used in open or closed ...
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - July 13, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Leo Tj äderhane, Arzu Tezvergil-Mutluay Source Type: research

Third-Party Perspective of Dental Caries Management
Caries management could provide a unique opportunity to model reform to the dental reimbursement system. To be successful we must first understand the scope and basis of many of the obstacles to reform. Reform must also provide value to all the players involved in benefit determination, provision of care, and payment for care. Value is viewed as outcomes achieved per dollar from the patient ’s perspective and over a complete cycle of care or management. Reimbursing for value requires measurement of value, and one hypothetical model for caries management is presented based on Michael Porter’s hierarchy of outcom...
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - July 13, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Frederick Eichmiller Source Type: research

The Interprofessional Role in Dental Caries Management
Early childhood caries is a major unmet population health care need that negatively affects the overall health of children, especially those from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds and disadvantaged socioeconomic groups. Nurses and midwives who work with pregnant women to nurses and nurse practitioners who work with young children and their families have an opportunity to positively influence the health of these populations. Primary care settings are ideal for integrating oral health into the overall health care of children and adolescents. The nursing profession is well positioned to have a positive impact on oral health a...
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - July 8, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Judith Haber, Erin Hartnett Source Type: research

The Interprofessional Role in Dental Caries Management
This article explores psychosocial barriers to dental care and implications for caries management. At-risk populations experience an increased potential for stressors and obstacles that interrupt oral health care and lessen the potential for these groups to pursue dental treatment. These impediments may include financial restrictions, lack of reliable transportation, or inappropriate informed consent. Involving a social worker in dental caries management can help patients to overcome the barriers that hinder oral health care. An increased awareness of these barriers, along with the resources that are available, may help de...
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - June 27, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Kristen Flick, Leonardo Marchini Source Type: research

Are There Alternatives to Invasive Site Development for Dental Implants? Part II
This article discusses noninvasive alternatives to bone grafting. Part I of this topic discussed the use of short and narrow diameter implants. Part II discusses three additional alternatives: the use of tilted implants, the use of four or fewer tilted and axially-loaded implants to support a full-arch fixed-dental-prosthesis (FAFDP), and the use of zygomatic implants to restore the severely-atrophic edentulous maxillae lacking adequate bone for conventional treatment. (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - May 14, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Vaughan J. Hoefler, Mohanad Al-Sabbagh Source Type: research

Zygoma Implants or Sinus Lift for the Atrophic Maxilla with a Dentate Mandible
This article focuses on algorithms to rehabilitate the atrophic maxilla with the purpose of providing immediate provisional prosthetic teeth regardless of the mandibular dentition. (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - May 14, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Enif A. Dominguez, Cesar Guerrero, Ehab Shehata, Joseph E. Van Sickels Source Type: research

Unanswered Questions in Implant Dentistry
DENTAL CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - May 14, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Mohanad Al-Sabbagh Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - May 14, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Contributors
MOHANAD AL-SABBAGH, DDS, MS (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - May 14, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Contents
Mohanad Al-Sabbagh (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - May 14, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Caries Management (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - May 14, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: research

Can Osseointegration Be Achieved Without Primary Stability?
This article aims to evaluate the success of osseointegration in the absence of primary stability and to propose recommendations to manage implants that lack primary stability. (Source: Dental Clinics of North America)
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - April 15, 2019 Category: Dentistry Authors: Mohanad Al-Sabbagh, Walied Eldomiaty, Yasser Khabbaz Source Type: research