Exposure of client-owned cats to zoonotic vector-borne pathogens: Clinic-pathological alterations and infection risk analysis.
Abstract Zoonotic Vector-Borne Diseases (VBDs) represent a relevant health issue for pets and humans. Italy is a major epidemiological hub for feline VBDs, because of suitable conditions for vector biology and disease transmission patterns. The present study investigated the exposure to major zoonotic arthropod-borne pathogens of cats in Italy, along with the evaluation of clinic-pathological features and a risk factor analysis. Out of 167 examined cats, 52 (31.1%) were seropositive for at least one vector-borne pathogen, being positivity for Bartonella henselae the most recorded (18%). Also, various cats seroreac...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - August 9, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Morelli S, Crisi PE, Di Cesare A, De Santis F, Barlaam A, Santoprete G, Parrinello C, Palermo S, Mancini P, Traversa D Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Biological and proteomic studies of Schistosoma mansoni with decreased sensitivity to praziquantel.
This study can point to the increase incidence of the neuroschistosomiasis due to the small size eggs of Schistosoma mansoni with reduced PZQ sensitivity. These worms can also impact the epidemiology in the field. The study can also provide help to elucidate underlying potential molecular mechanisms of resistance that could lead to possible strategies to reverse drug resistance. PMID: 31437686 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases.)
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - August 2, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Abou-El-Naga IF, Amer EI, Boulos LM, El-Faham MH, Abou Seada NM, Younis SS Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Orf virus circulation in cattle in Turkey.
Abstract Orf virus (ORFV) causes contagious skin disease that mainly affects sheep and goats with zoonotic potential. However, there is not enough information about the association between ORFV and occurrence of skin disease in cattle. The present study describes outbreaks of ORFV infection in cattle in different provinces that are located in the Aegean, Central Anatolian and Mediterranean regions of Turkey. During the months of June and August 2017, vesicular fluid and scab samples were collected from cattle which had proliferative skin lesions. First, presence of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) and bovine herpes...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Şevik M Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Molecular evidence of bacteria in Melophagus ovinus sheep keds and Hippobosca equina forest flies collected from sheep and horses in northeastern Algeria.
Abstract The sheep ked, Melophagus ovinus, and the forest fly, Hippobosca equina, are parasitic dipteran insects of veterinary importance. As hematophagous insects, they might be considered as potential vectors of diseases which may be transmissible to humans and animals. The purpose of this study was to present initial primary data about these two species in Algeria. To do so, we conducted a molecular survey to detect the presence of bacterial DNA in flies collected in Algeria. A total of 712 flies including, 683 Melophagus ovinus and 29 Hippobosca equina were collected from two regions in northeastern Algeria. M...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Boucheikhchoukh M, Mechouk N, Benakhla A, Raoult D, Parola P Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Genotyping of avian infectious bronchitis virus in Iran: Detection of D274 and changing in the genotypes rate.
Abstract The coronavirus avian Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) poses economic threats to poultry farms worldwide, affecting the performance of both meat-type and egg-laying birds. To define the evolution of recent IBVs in Iran, a genetic analysis based on hypervariable nucleotide sequences of S1 gene was carried out. Tracheal swab samples were collected from 170 Broiler flocks during 2017. Ten tracheal swabs from each flock pooled. From a total number of 170 flocks tested, 84.71% found to be positive. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed the presence of D274 as a first time in Iran. IS/1494/06 was showed to be do...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ghalyanchilangeroudi A, Hosseini H, Fallah Mehrabadi MH, Ghafouri SA, Modiri Hamdan A, Ziafati Z, Esmaeelzadeh Dizaji R, Mohammadi P Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Prevalence of fasciolosis in livestock and humans: A systematic review and meta-analysis in Iran.
Abstract Fasciolosis is a re-emerging disease of livestock and rarely human, being endemic in Iran. Herein, we aimed to quantitatively assess the human seropositivity and prevalence of animal fasciolosis in our country. English and Persian databases were searched for online literature. In total, 10 human seroprevalence studies and 49 animal investigations were obtained from January 1999 to March 2019. Only animal studies were included in meta-analysis. The highest human seroprevalence was detected in Guilan province (326/452; 50%). The pooled prevalence of the animal infections was calculated as 6.2% (95% CI&thins...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Khademvatan S, Majidiani H, Khalkhali H, Taghipour A, Asadi N, Yousefi E Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Spatial seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in India-A large random sampling survey.
This study conclusively highlighted the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis at state level which might be useful for prioritizing regions for vaccination, designing control strategies and improvisation of clinical surveillance system. PMID: 31300100 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases.)
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Shome R, Triveni K, Swati S, Ranjitha S, Krithiga N, Shome BR, Nagalingam M, Rahman H, Barbuddhe SB Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Understanding the epidemiology of sheep-pox outbreaks among vaccinated Algerian sheep and post vaccination evaluation of the antibodies kinetics of the commercially used vaccine.
Abstract Sheep pox is a disease of veterinary concern to small ruminant producers and veterinary diagnosticians, because of the associated tangible economic losses. The epidemiological analysis of sheep pox, among vaccinated sheep flock in Algeria from 2007 to 2016, showed that the disease outbreaks occurred every year and across all Algeria region with an average of 44.9 outbreaks per year, these outbreaks correlate with the region climate, the flocks' density and the transhumance practices. The one-year post vaccination antibody kinetics evaluation study of the commercially used vaccine in Algeria demonstrated a...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kali K, Kardjadj M, Touaghit N, Yahiaoui F, Ben-Mahdi MH Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Genetic diversity of Theileria orientalis from cattle in Turkey.
This study was carried out to determine T. orientalis genotypes in cattle. T. orientalis positive 63 sample were analyzed by amplifying the MPSP gene region by PCR. As a result of the SSCP analysis, samples with different band profiles were sent to the sequence analysis and genotypes were determined. T. orientalis genotype-specific PCR was performed to determine the mix genotypes. Type 1 (chitose), type 3 and type 1-type 3 mix were found positive 11.1%, 46%, and 17.5% respectively. In addition, phylogenetic analysis was performed to separate the chitose genotypes, and two samples were found in chitose A, one sample was fou...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Özübek S, Aktaş M Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Strength and medium-term impact of HisAK70 immunization in dogs: Vaccine safety and biomarkers of effectiveness for ex vivo Leishmania infantum infection.
J, Domínguez-Bernal G Abstract HisAK70 candidates have successfully been tested in cutaneous (CL) and visceral leishmaniosis (VL) mouse models. Here, we analyse different biomarkers in dog trials after a heterologous immunization strategy with a HisAK70 candidate (plasmid DNA plus adoptive transfer of peripheral blood-derived dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with the same pathoantigen and CpG ODN as an adjuvant) to explore the antileishmanial activity in an ex vivo canine co-culture system in the presence of Leishmania infantum parasites. In the canine model, the heterologous HisAK70 vaccine could decrease the...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Martínez-Rodrigo A, Mas A, Fernández-Cotrina J, Belinchón-Lorenzo S, Orden JA, Arias P, de la Fuente R, Carrión J, Domínguez-Bernal G Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Epidemiology of leptospirosis in North-Central Italy: Fifteen years of serological data (2002-2016).
In conclusion, the results of this investigation reported an increase of leptospirosis in North-Central Italy. Furthermore, several animals resulted infected as accidental hosts by unusual Leptospira serovars. These data could suggest a change in host range for some serovars, that may promote the adaptation to new hosts. PMID: 31300104 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases.)
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Bertelloni F, Cilia G, Turchi B, Pinzauti P, Cerri D, Fratini F Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Clostridioides difficile in bat guano.
Abstract Bats are associated with the emergence of several mammalian diseases. Their sessional migration, and tendency to form large colonies in close proximity to human habitats enables effective intra- and inter-species transmission of pathogens. Clostridioides difficile is an important enteric pathogen in humans and animals; however, the source of its dissemination in the population is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. difficile in bats, and to characterize C. difficile isolates. Feces (n = 93) was sampled from bats during their migration across Europe. Eight...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Bandelj P, Knapič T, Rousseau J, Podgorelec M, Presetnik P, Vengust M, Scott Weese J Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Serogroup distribution, diversity of exotoxin gene profiles, and phylogenetic grouping of CTX-M-1- producing uropathogenic Escherichia coli.
Abstract The emergence of CTX-M-1 producing Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) has become a serious challenge. In addition to antimicrobial resistance, a number of virulence factors have been shown. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of O- serogroups, phylogenetic groups, exotoxin genes, and antimicrobial resistance properties of CTX-M-1- producing UPEC. A total of 248 UPEC isolates were collected. The antibiotic resistance was performed, and PCR was used to detect the blaCTX-M1, exotoxins, serogroups and phylogroups of UPEC. Of 248 isolates, 95 (38.3%) harbored blaCTX-M-1. Of them, ...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Shokouhi Mostafavi SK, Najar-Peerayeh S, Mohabbati Mobarez A, Kardoust Parizi M Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Complex bacterial flora of imported pet tortoises deceased during quarantine: Another zoonotic threat?
syl D Abstract Turtoises are a great puzzle when it comes to their bacterial flora, the composition and structure of which are still unknown in details. Its component which has been best described so far is Salmonella spp., presumably due to the threat of reptile-associated salmonellosis in humans. This investigation tried to assess and characterize intestinal bacterial flora of imported tortoises found dead during quarantine. Most of the animals carried various serovars of Salmonella showing no antimicrobial resistance. Presence of multiresistant Escherichia coli was possibly a result of industrial breeding and h...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Goławska O, Zając M, Maluta A, Pristas P, Hamarová Ľ, Wasyl D Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Higher prevalence of Blastocystis hominis in healthy individuals than patients with gastrointestinal symptoms from Ahvaz, southwestern Iran.
CONCLUSION: This study has found that Blastocystis was more common in healthy individuals than GI patients. Another finding was that no correlation was found between clinical symptoms and Blastocystis STs. PMID: 31300108 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases.)
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Mardani Kataki M, Tavalla M, Beiromvand M Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Comparative immune response and pathogenicity of the H9N2 avian influenza virus after administration of Immulant ®, based on Echinacea and Nigella sativa, in stressed chickens.
In conclusion, oral administration of 1% IMU for six weeks can enhance the immune response after AI-H9N2 vaccination and reduce the pathogenicity of infection in stressed chickens. PMID: 31300109 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases.)
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Eladl AH, Arafat N, El-Shafei RA, Farag VM, Saleh RM, Awadin WF Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Assessment of the immunogenicity of the leptospiral LipL32, LigAni, and LigBrep recombinant proteins in the sheep model.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and potential adverse effects of the recombinant proteins LigAni, LigBrep, and LipL32 in the ovine model. For this, 16 Santa Inês sheep were allocated into three groups: two experimental (Groups A and B) and one control group (Group C). Group A was inoculated with a formulation containing the recombinant proteins in combination with the aluminum hydroxide adjuvant; Group B was inoculated with a formulation containing the recombinant proteins in combination with the Montanide adjuvant; and Group C was inoculated with adjuvants only. The results revealed th...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: da Rosa MC, Martins G, Rocha BR, Correia L, Ferronato G, Lilenbaum W, Dellagostin OA Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Construction of recombinant capripoxviruses as vaccine vectors for delivering foreign antigens: Methodology and application.
Abstract Goatpox (GTP), sheeppox (SPP) and lumpy skin disease (LSD) are three severe diseases of goat, sheep and cattle. Their typical clinical symptoms are characterized by vesicles, papules, nodules, pustules and scabs on animal skins. The GTP, SPP and LSD are caused by goatpox virus (GTPV), sheeppox virus (SPPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), respectively, all of which belong to the genus Capripoxvirus in the family Poxviridae. Several capripoxvirus (CaPV) isolates have been virulently attenuated through serial passaging in vitro for production of live vaccines. CaPV-based vector systems have been broadly...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Liu F, Zhang H, Liu W Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Description of the first Schmallenberg disease outbreak in Spain and subsequent virus spreading in domestic ruminants.
A, García-Bocanegra I Abstract Schmallenberg disease (SBD) is an emerging disease transmitted mainly among ruminant species by biting midges of the genus Culicoides. Since the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was first identified in Germany in late 2011, it rapidly spread to other European countries. The aims of the present study were to describe the first SBD outbreak in Spain and to assess the spread and risk factors associated with SBV infection in domestic ruminants from nearby farms during the following year. In March 2012, one malformed stillborn lamb from a sheep farm located in Cordoba province (Southern ...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jiménez-Ruiz S, Paniagua J, Isla J, Martínez-Padilla AB, de Los Ángeles Risalde M, Caballero-Gómez J, Cano-Terriza D, Pujols J, Arenas A, García-Bocanegra I Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Antimicrobial resistances, and molecular typing of Campylobacter jejuni isolates, separated from food-producing animals and diarrhea patients in Iran.
Abstract The aims of this study were to regain new epidemiology information about frequency, drug resistance rates, and typing of Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) isolates, obtained from some poultry and cattle farms, slaughterhouses, and people with diarrhea. In this regard, Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of several antibiotics and the associated antibiotic resistance genes, including tetO, tetA, cmeB, and blaOXA-61 were evaluated. The isolates were also typed, using the Fla-RFLP method. Generally, between 233 food animal samples, 80 (34.33%) C. jejuni were isolated. Moreover, 20 out of 74 (27%) human spe...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Divsalar G, Kaboosi H, Khoshbakht R, Shirzad-Aski H, Ghadikolaii FP Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Blastocystis subtype 1 (allele 4); Predominant subtype among tuberculosis patients in Iran.
CONCLUSION: Blastocystis ST1 was the most prevalent subtype in TB patients and there was no difference between Blastocystis isolates from TB and non-TB human subjects. PMID: 31300114 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases.)
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Taghipour A, Javanmard E, Mirjalali H, Haghighi A, Tabarsi P, Sohrabi MR, Zali MR Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Cloning and expression of immunogenic Clostridium botulinum C2I mutant proteins designed from their evolutionary imprints.
Abstract C2 toxin produced from Clostridium botulinum serotypes C and D has a potential role in many pathophysiological mechanisms in birds and animals. It has encompassed an ADP ribosyltransferase subunit (C2I) and a translocation/binding subunit (C2II). In the present study, we intended to produce C2I mutant proteins as recombinant subunit vaccines by using glutathione-S-transferase-gene fusion system. The mutants of this study were previously evaluated from their evolutionary imprints and suggested as suitable candidates for subunit vaccines. A synthetic C2 gene was inserted in a pGEX-2T vector, cloned and expr...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Prisilla A, Chellapandi P Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Human respiratory syncytial virus infection in the pre-clinical calf model.
In this study, we aim to describe viral kinetics and (clinical) disease characteristics in calves inoculated with hRSV. Our results show that hRSV infects the upper and, to a lesser extent, the lower respiratory tract of calves. Infection causes upper airway clinical disease symptoms and neutrophilic infiltration of the lower airways. We conclude that a hRSV model in calves may aid future research involving distinct scientific questions related to hRSV disease in children. PMID: 31300116 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases.)
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Cortjens B, de Jong R, Bonsing JG, van Woensel JBM, Bem RA, Antonis AFG Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Viral interference between H9N2-low pathogenic avian influenza virus and avian infectious bronchitis virus vaccine strain H120 in vivo.
In conclusion, co-infection of chicks with AIV and IBV, simultaneously or sequentially, affected the clinical signs, the virus replication dynamics as well as the internal organ integrity. The results proposed that infection with heterologous virus may result in temporary competition for cell receptors or competent cells for replication, most likely interferon-mediated. PMID: 31300117 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases.)
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Rim A, Nacira L, Jihene N, Said S, Khaled M, Ahmed R, Abdeljelil G Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Control of bacterial and fungal biofilms by natural products of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. (Rhamnaceae).
Abstract The aim of this study is to verify the action of the aqueous leaf extract Ziziphus joazeiro in the eradication of bacterial and fungal biofilms, and to compare these effects with the stem bark extracts, as well as with conventional standard drugs. The presence of secondary metabolites was observed through phytochemical prospection assays. The effect of the aqueous extract on microbial biofilm formation was observed by OD600 nm absorbance and the crystal violet assay. For bacterial and fungal biofilms, chlorhexidine gluconate and fluconazole, respectively, were used as positive controls. Phytochemic...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Cosmo Andrade J, da Silva ARP, Audilene Freitas M, de Azevedo Ramos B, Sampaio Freitas T, de Assis G Dos Santos F, Leite-Andrade MC, Nunes M, Relison Tintino S, da Silva MV, Dos Santos Correia MT, de Lima-Neto RG, Neves RP, Melo Coutinho HD Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Genotypic identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from patients with urinary tract infection.
CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that the majority of patients hospitalized in different wards of hospitals have experienced the urinary tract infection caused by P. aeruginosa. According to the genotyping results, a high diversity of the P. aeruginosa population was observed in the patients with UTI. Our results can provide a better understanding of the P. aeruginosa genotype distribution and epidemiology of infection, which can be applied as basic data for future antibiotic therapies. PMID: 31300119 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases.)
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Estaji M, Tabasi M, Sadeghpour Heravi F, Kheirvari Khezerloo J, Radmanesh A, Raheb J, Ghadirzadeh MR, Tabatabaei A Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Eucalyptus camaldulensis properties for use in the eradication of infections.
In this study the effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacterbaumannii, Streptococcus pyogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, Shigella spp., Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, A. aegypti, A. albopictus, Culex pipiens, Trypanosoma brucei, Leishmania major, Trichomonas. Vaginalis, poliovirus type 1, coxsackie virus B, echovirus 6, West Nile Virus, herpes virus type 1, HSV-1 virus, Fusarium spp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, C. albicans, Alternaria alternata, Setosphaeria turcica and Magnaporthe grisea was revealed. ...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ghasemian A, Eslami M, Hasanvand F, Bozorgi H, Al-Abodi HR Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

A common conserved peptide harboring predicted T and B cell epitopes in domain III of envelope protein of Japanese Encephalitis Virus and West Nile Virus for potential use in epitope based vaccines.
Abstract Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are two major mosquito borne flaviviruses belonging to same serocomplex. JEV is transmitted by Culex mosquitoes and the reservoir host for the virus is pigs and/or water birds. WNV is also transmitted by Culex mosquitoes and reservoir host in this case is birds. It can also be transmitted through contact with other infected animals, their blood, or other tissues. The envelope protein of these viruses is the major source of epitopes and provides protective immunity. Bioinformatics tools were used to identify conserved epitopes in the envelope prot...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Slathia PS, Sharma P Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Immunogenic and protective antigens of Brucella as vaccine candidates.
Abstract Brucella is an intracellular pathogen that causes abortion in domestic animals and undulant fever in humans. Due to the lack of a human vaccine against brucellosis, animal vaccines play an important role in the management of animal and human brucellosis for decades. Strain 19, RB51 and Rev1 are the approved Brucella spp. vaccine strains that are most commonly used to protect livestock against infection and abortion. However, due to some disadvantages of these vaccines, numerous studies have been conducted for the development of effective vaccines that could also be used in other susceptible animals. In th...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Masjedian Jezi F, Razavi S, Mirnejad R, Zamani K Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

First insight into Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in laboratory and pet rabbits in Iran.
Abstract Encephalitozoon cuniculi infects a wide variety of domestic and wild mammalian species including humans. Although the infection status has been studied in laboratory and pet rabbits worldwide, there is shortage of information regarding the disease in Iran. In the present study, the occurrence of infection in brains of 117 asymptomatic rabbits from six breeding and experimental units with highest population of rabbit colonies in the country (n = 60) as well as pet rabbits of pet stores in two cities (n = 57) were examined by nested-PCR. Histological sections of brains and kidney...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Sadeghi-Dehkordi Z, Norouzi E, Rezaeian H, Nourian A, Noaman V, Sazmand A Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Differences in immune responses of pigs vaccinated with Salmonella Typhimurium and S. Choleraesuis strains and challenged with S. Choleraesuis.
Abstract S. Choleraesuis (Choleraesuis) and S. Typhimurium (Typhimurium) cause salmonellosis in pigs and humans. The effects of vaccine strains pSV-less Typhimurium OU5048 and Choleraesuis OU7266 and SPI-2-mutant Choleraesuis SC2284 on the immune responses of pigs against Typhimurium, Choleraesuis, and S. Enteritidis (Enteritidis) with or without the virulence plasmid (pSV) were determined. After oral vaccination of three vaccine groups and challenge with Choleraesuis CN36, the level of Salmonella-specific IgG in sera and the bactericidal effects and superoxide generation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Chang YF, Hou JN, Lin HH, Wu CP, Chu C Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Vector-borne bacteria in blood of camels in Iran: New data and literature review.
Abstract Despite close association between camels and humans, molecular based studies on vector-borne pathogens infecting camels are scarce compared to other animals in Iran. The current study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of vector-borne bacteria in the blood of dromedaries by molecular tools. A total of 200 peripheral blood samples were collected from apparently healthy animals. Microscopic examination was performed on Giemsa-stained blood smears, and drops of blood were spotted on Whatman FTA® cards for molecular analyses. Genomic DNA was extracted from the cards, and PCR amplification follo...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Sazmand A, Harl J, Eigner B, Hodžić A, Beck R, Hekmatimoghaddam S, Mirzaei M, Fuehrer HP, Joachim A Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in captive nonhuman primates in zoos in Spain.
JP, García-Bocanegra I Abstract Toxoplasma gondii is a widely distributed zoonotic protozoan parasite, which can affect most warm-blooded species. Some species of non-human primates (NHPs) are highly susceptible to T. gondii infection. The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in NHPs housed in zoos in Spain. Sera from 189 NHPs belonging to 33 species were collected in eight zoos. Additionally, 10 of the 189 animals were longitudinally sampled. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were detected in 48 NHPs (25.4%; confidence interval of 95% (CI95%): 19...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Cano-Terriza D, Almería S, Caballero-Gómez J, Díaz-Cao JM, Jiménez-Ruiz S, Dubey JP, García-Bocanegra I Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Chemical composition, antimicrobial, modulator and antioxidant activity of essential oil of Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants.
Chemical composition, antimicrobial, modulator and antioxidant activity of essential oil of Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2019 Aug;65:58-64 Authors: Almeida Bezerra JW, Rodrigues Costa A, de Freitas MA, Rodrigues FC, de Souza MA, da Silva ARP, Dos Santos ATL, Vieiralves Linhares K, Melo Coutinho HD, de Lima Silva JR, Bezerra Morais-Braga MF Abstract The oil presented the α-Terpinene as the major compound with 54.09% presence. Antibacterial activity demonstrated significant MIC against Staphylococcus aureus (256 μg/mL) and modera...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Almeida Bezerra JW, Rodrigues Costa A, de Freitas MA, Rodrigues FC, de Souza MA, da Silva ARP, Dos Santos ATL, Vieiralves Linhares K, Melo Coutinho HD, de Lima Silva JR, Bezerra Morais-Braga MF Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

A defective release of host defense peptides is present in canine atopic skin.
Abstract The use of dogs as animal model for human atopic dermatitis (AD) is well known. Striking similarities in the pathogenesis of AD have been demonstrated. Similar alteration of host defense peptides (HDP) have been identified in both species. However, the ultrastructural/molecular alterations associated with HDPs secretion in AD have not been elucidated. We were able to use a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the secretion of HDP in canine skin. The contemporary use of indirect immunofluorescence, ELISA and scanning immune-electron microscopy gave fundamental insights in the pathomechanism of HDP alt...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Santoro D, Archer L, Kelley K Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Genetic diversity of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolated from horses.
In this study, genetic intraspecies variability of SEZ obtained mainly from respiratory and genital samples of horses was investigated by analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (ISR) and of the 16S rRNA gene. 16S-23S ISR rRNA type A1 was predominant, although a high rate of multiple products (30.5%) was obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene detected three genogroups (I, II and III). 16S rRNA variable regions V1 and V2 are the most important regions for evaluating SEZ intraspecies variability, but at least V1-V5 regions should be considered to avoid mistakes. Analysis of all 16S rRNA sequences ...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Preziuso S, Moriconi M, Cuteri V Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

A simplified roller bottle platform for the production of a new generation VLPs rabies vaccine for veterinary applications.
Abstract Rabies is a neglected disease with an estimated annual mortality of 55,000 human deaths, affecting mainly low-income countries. Over 95% of these cases result from virus transmission through the bite of infected dogs and for this reason there is a real need for a cheap and effective rabies veterinary vaccine to be used in mass vaccination campaigns. In this work, we describe the establishment of a simple platform for the production of a virus-like particles based rabies vaccine using mammalian cells and roller bottles as culture system. Adherent cells were cultured during more than 15 days and VLPs were c...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Fontana D, Marsili F, Garay E, Battagliotti J, Etcheverrigaray M, Kratje R, Prieto C Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Immunological properties of the SLLTEVET epitope of Influenza A virus in multiple display on filamentous M13 phage.
Abstract Small peptides require large carriers to stimulate the humoral immune system. The filamentous phages, such as M13, have been proposed as vectors for expressing and carrying these peptides on their capsid surface. M2e 2-9 (SLLTEVET) residues of the transmembrane protein M2 of Influenza A virus are conserved and considered as a suitable target for immunization against a wide range of Influenza A virus strains. Here, M2e (2-9) sequence of Influenza A virus was fused to the N-terminus of the major coat protein gpVIII of M13 phage and was used to immunize broiler chickens. The results showed that the SLLTEVET ...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lotfi Z, Golchin M, Khalili-Yazdi A, Khalili M Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Retrospective study of canine infectious haemolytic anaemia cases reveals the importance of molecular investigation in accurate postmortal diagnostic protocols.
Abstract Infectious haemolytic anaemia (IHA) in dogs share similar clinical signs including fever, lethargy, icterus, paleness of mucous membranes and splenomegaly. Postmortal findings are similar and, without additional diagnostic methods, an accurate aetiological diagnosis is difficult to achieve. In order to investigate causes of lethal IHA in Croatian dogs, we performed a retrospective study on archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks (FFPEB) from dogs that died due to haemolytic crisis, using microscopic and molecular diagnostic tools to determine the aetiological cause of disease. Molecular a...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Beck A, Huber D, Antolić M, Anzulović Ž, Reil I, Polkinghorne A, Baneth G, Beck R Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Molecular phylodiagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and Taenia hydatigena determined by mitochondrial Cox1 and SSU-rDNA markers in Iranian dogs: Indicating the first record of pig strain (G7) in definitive host in the Middle East.
Abstract Unawareness of canine parasitic diseases among at-risk hosts and an uncontrolled program of stray dog population have caused that zoonotic parasites received great attention in endemic regions of the Middle East. A total of 552 faecal samples were collected between December 2016 to January 2018 from stray (n = 408) and domestic (n = 144) dogs of Iran. All specimens were coproscopically observed following concentration and flotation techniques. Subsequently, the DNAs of taeniid eggs were extracted, amplified, and sequenced by targeting of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Mirbadie SR, Najafi Nasab A, Mohaghegh MA, Norouzi P, Mirzaii M, Spotin A Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

A comparably high virulence strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolated in Taiwan.
This study aimed to present a highly virulent PRRSV in Taiwan based on farm data collection and both in vitro and in vivo evaluations in virus challenge studies. This virulent PRRSV strain was first noticed on Farm TSYM due to continuously high nursery mortality rate and severe PRRSV-associated pneumonia. In phylogenetic surveillance, the PRRSV TSYM-strain remained in the predominant position for years, even with several other PRRSV strain invasions. In laboratory challenge trials, the TSYM-strain led to prolonged pyrexia, growth retardation, high mortality rates and high viremia titer that similar to the highly pathogenic...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - July 15, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hou FH, Chia MY, Lee YH, Liao JW, Lee WC Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Comparative molecular characterization of Forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3) gene of swamp-type (Bubalus carabanensis) and riverine-type (Bubalus bubalis) water buffaloes.
This study is the first report that describes the genetic characteristic of FoxP3 gene in water buffalo. PMID: 31174683 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases.)
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - June 1, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Gamboa JC, Padiernos RBC, Uy MRD, Celestino EF, Mingala CN Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

A survey on Toxocara cati eggs on the hair of stray cats: A potential risk factor for human toxocariasis in Northeastern Iran.
This study showed that cat hair contaminated by T. cati eggs in different developmental stages represents of potential source for human toxocariasis. PMID: 31174684 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases.)
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - June 1, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Bakhshani A, Maleki M, Haghparast A, Parande Shirvan S, Borji H Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Occurrence and risk factors of Coxiella burnetii in domestic ruminants in Lebanon.
Abstract Coxiella burnetii causes diseases in humans (Q fever) and animals, domestic ruminants playing a major role in the epidemiology of the infection. Information on C. burnetii infection in Lebanon is scanty. In order to assess the prevalence of C. burnetii infection in ruminants, a cross-sectional study was undertaken in 2014. A total of 1633 sera from ruminants (865 cattle, 384 sheep and 384 goats) from 429 farms (173 cattle, 128 sheep and 128 goats), in seven provinces of Lebanon were randomly selected and assayed for the presence of antibodies. 39.86% of farms (95% CI: 35.23-44.56) resulted positive. The s...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - June 1, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Dabaja MF, Greco G, Villari S, Vesco G, Bayan A, Bazzal BE, Ibrahim E, Gargano V, Sciacca C, Lelli R, Ezzedine M, Mortada H, Tempesta M, Mortada M Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Methicillin resistance genes and in vitro biofilm formation among Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis in India.
CONCLUSION: A significant correlation was observed between in vitro biofilm formation and presence of methicillin resistance gene in S aureus isolates recovered from acute and subacute mastitis. The Staphylococcus aureus isolates positive for methicillin resistance gene (mecA) were either strong or moderate biofilm formers. PMID: 31174686 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases.)
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - June 1, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Shah MS, Qureshi S, Kashoo Z, Farooq S, Wani SA, Hussain MI, Banday MS, Khan AA, Gull B, Habib A, Khan SM, Dar BA Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Detection of Bartonella spp. in Cimex lectularius by MALDI-TOF MS.
Abstract Bed bugs are small hematophagous insects. They are found in temperate and tropical climates around the world. Their vectorial capacity for several pathogens, including Bartonella spp., has been suspected. An experimental study of artificial infection of Cimex lectularius with Bartonella quintana and Bartonella henselae bacteria was developed to evaluate the ability of MALDI-TOF MS to simultaneously identify bed bugs and their infectious status. This experimental study confirmed the ability of MALDI-TOF MS to identify bed bugs. In addition, it was able to differentiate between control bed bugs, bed bugs in...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - June 1, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: El Hamzaoui B, Laroche M, Parola P Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Comprehensive investigations on anti-leishmanial potentials of Euphorbia wallichii root extract and its effects on membrane permeability and apoptosis.
Abstract Clinically available synthetic chemotherapeutics to treat the vector-borne protozoan infection, leishmaniasis, are associated with serious complications such as toxicity and emergence of resistance. Natural products from plants consist of interesting biomolecules that may interfere with DNA or membrane integrity of the parasite and can possibly minimise the associated side effects. In the present study, various fractions of Euphorbia wallichii (EW) root extracts including n-hexane (EWNX), ethyl acetate (EWEA), chloroform (EWCH) and aqueous (EWAQ), were evaluated for their antileishmanial potential against...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - June 1, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ahmad B, Islam A, Khan A, Khan MA, Ul Haq I, Jafri L, Ahmad M, Mehwish S, Khan A, Ullah N Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Chemical composition and anti-Candida potencial of the extracts of Tarenaya spinosa (Jacq.) Raf. (Cleomaceae).
Abstract Phytochemical prospecting was performed by HPLC-DAD. The Inhibitory Concentration of 50% of mortality the microorganisms (IC50) was determined and a cell viability curve was obtained. Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) was determined by subculture in Sabourad Dextrose Agar. The effect of the combination extract/fluconazole was verified by microdilution, with the extracts in subinhibitory concentrations (MFC/16). Caffeic acid was the major compound of both extracts, representing 6.08% in the aqueous extract and 7.62% in the ethanolic extract. The extracts showed a fungistatic effect (MFC ≥&th...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - June 1, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Rodrigues FC, Dos Santos ATL, Machado AJT, Bezerra CF, de Freitas TS, Coutinho HDM, Morais-Braga MFB, Bezerra JWA, Duarte AE, Kamdem JP, Boligon AA, de Campos MMA, Barros LM Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Potential use of hematological and acute phase protein parameters in the diagnosis of acute Schmallenberg virus infection in experimentally infected calves.
J, Larska M Abstract The initial viraemic phase of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) infection in bovine animals is characterized by the non-specific and inconspicuous clinical signs of pyrexia (>40 °C), drop in milk yield and sometimes diarrhea. As a result, the early detection of SBV epizootics can difficult, and typically only become apparent when the congenital form of the disease is observed. The aim of the study was to describe the course of the acute phase response and haematological findings in bovine calves following experimental SBV infection. No clinical signs except for increase in rectal tempera...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - June 1, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kęsik-Maliszewska J, Pomorska-Mól M, Collins ÁB, Rola J, Larska M Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research

Etiology and characteristics of community-acquired pneumonia in an influenza epidemic period.
CONCLUSIONS: Non-influenza respiratory microorganisms frequently co-circulated during the epidemic peaks of influenza, which easily being ignored in CAP therapy. In patients with bacterial and viral co-infections, identifying the etiologic agent is crucial for patient's therapy. PMID: 31174691 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases.)
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - June 1, 2019 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lin C, Chen H, He P, Li Y, Ke C, Jiao X Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research