Evolution of Evidence-Based Medicine in Stroke
The introduction and evolution of evidence-based stroke medicine has realized major advances in our knowledge about stroke, methods of medical research, and patient outcomes that continue to complement traditional individual patient care. It is humbling to recall the state of knowledge and scientific endeavour of our forebears who were unaware of what we know now and yet pursued the highest standards for evaluating and delivering effective stroke care. The science of stroke medicine has evolved from pathophysiological theory to empirical testing. Progress has been steady, despite inevitable disappointments and cul-de-sacs,...
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - July 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Trends in Literature on Cerebral Bypass Surgery: A Systematic Review
Conclusion: Clinical studies on cerebral bypass surgery have become increasingly popular in the past decades. Since the introduction of moyamoya as a distinct pathologic entity, Asian countries in particular have a very active community regarding this disease, with an increasing number of articles published every year. Studies on bypass for chronic steno-occlusive disease peaked in the 1980s but have remained the main focus of bypass research, particularly in many European departments. The number of reports published on these bypass operations significantly decreased after the FDA approval of flow diverters for aneurysm tr...
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association of Admission NIHSS Score with Infarct Core Volume and Target Mismatch of Infarct Core/Penumbra Volume on CT Perfusion in Acute Ischaemic Stroke
Conclusion: aNIHSS may be a useful tool to predict an ICV #x3c; 70 mL and TMM on CTP in AIS patients.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - July 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Beyond Functional Impairment: Redefining Favorable Outcome in Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Conclusion: Established stroke scores mainly focusing on functional outcomes do poorly reflect the high rate of subjective impairments reported in SAH survivors, specifically in those achieving good functional outcome. Further studies are needed to investigate whether psychoeducational approaches aiming at improving coping mechanisms and perceived self-efficacy may result in higher subjective health in these patients.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - July 20, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Hyperintense Ischemic Stroke Predicts Less Favorable 90-Day Outcome after Intravenous Thrombolysis
Conclusions: Early development of stroke lesion on FLAIR within 4.5 h of onset is associated with reduced likelihood of favorable 90-day outcome after IV thrombolysis.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - July 20, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Gender Equity in Leadership and Conferences of the Stroke Society of Australasia
Conclusions: Representation of women varied from 2014 to 2019 in the SSA organization and its conferences, although men are more often elected president in the organization and women are less often keynote speakers. When more women were included in the program committee, the representation of women as speakers increased.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - July 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Long-Term Risk of Ischemic Stroke among Elderly Survivors of Non-Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Conclusions: In a large, heterogeneous national cohort of elderly patients, survivors of SAH had double the long-term risk of ischemic stroke. SAH survivors should be closely monitored and risk stratified for ischemic stroke.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - July 15, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Delayed Stroke Treatment during COVID-19 Pandemic in China
Conclusions: COVID-19 pandemic has remarkable impacts on the management of AIS. Both pre- and posthospital delays were prolonged significantly, and proportion of patients arrived within the 4.5-h time window for intravenous thrombolysis treatment was decreased. Given that anti-COVID-19 measures are becoming medical routines, efforts are warranted to shorten the delay so that the outcomes of stroke could be improved.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - July 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cerebral Microvascular Erdheim-Chester Disease: A Perivascular Hematopoietic Vasculopathy
Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare and elusive hematopoietic malignancy that may involve the nervous system in various ways. Cerebrovascular ECD involves the perivascular infiltration and compromise of any cervicocranial vessel by transformed proliferating histiocytes. Presented is the novel case of a patient with pathologically proven perivascular microangiopathy, manifesting in multifaceted fashion with ischemia, hemorrhage, mass lesions, and edema.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - July 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

High Triglyceride Glucose Index Is Associated with Poor Outcomes in Ischemic Stroke Patients after Reperfusion Therapy
Conclusions: IR, represented by a high TyG index, may predict poor 3-month functional outcomes in patients with AIS who undergo reperfusion therapy.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - July 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Medical Adjuvants in the Treatment of Surgically Refractory Arteriovenous Malformations of the Head and Face: Case Report and Review of Literature
Background: Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the brain and face present unique challenges for clinicians. Cerebral AVMs may induce hemorrhage or form aneurysms, while facial AVMs can cause significant disfigurement and pain. Moreover, facial AVMs often draw blood supply from arteries providing critical blood flow to other important structures of the head which may make them impossible to treat curatively. Medical adjuvants may be an important consideration in the management of these patients.Summary: We conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify other instances of molecular target of rapamycin (mTOR) ...
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - July 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Renal Dysfunction Is Associated with Middle Cerebral Artery Pulsatility Index and Total Burden of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease
Conclusions: Renal dysfunction is independently associated with a high PI of MCA. Renal dysfunction leads to systemic arterial stiffness including stiffness in cerebral arteries, thus increasing the burden of cSVD. Therefore, noninvasive screening for high PI by TCD in kidney failure patients might be helpful.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - July 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

COVID-19 Impact on Acute Ischemic Stroke Treatment at 9 Comprehensive Stroke Centers across Los Angeles
Conclusion: LAC saw a decrease in overall stroke code activations in 2020 compared to 2019. Reperfusion treatment times remained comparable to prepandemic metrics. There has been an increase in severe stroke incidence and higher volume of thrombectomy treatments in Latinx communities within LAC during the pandemic of 2020. More patients were discharged home, less patients discharged to skilled nursing facilities, and more patients expired in 2020, compared to the same time frame in 2019.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - June 25, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Application of Mobile Stroke Unit in Prehospital Thrombolysis of Acute Stroke: Experience from China
Conclusion: Despite the small sample size, our preliminary experience of the application of MSU in the prehospital thrombosis therapy seems to indicate a significant reduction in time from call to needle, the efficacy of MSU in the treatment of acute stroke needs further experiment and larger sample size to confirm.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - June 25, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Disparities between Asian and Non-Asian Thrombolyzed Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients in the Enhanced Control of Hypertension and Thrombolysis Stroke Trial
Conclusions: Within the context of an international clinical trial of thrombolyzed AIS patients, demography, risk factors, management, and odds of early neurological deterioration and ICH, all differ between Asian and non-Asian participants. However, patterns of functional recovery are similar between these major regional groups.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - June 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Lipid Core Burden Index Assessed by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Symptomatic Carotid Plaques: Association with Magnetic Resonance T1-Weighted Imaging
Conclusions: A high LCP assessed by NIRS correlates with the signal intensity ratio of MR imaging in symptomatic patients with unstable carotid plaques.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - June 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Using Electronic Medical Records of Nursing Care to Characterize Constipation in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Conclusions: Our findings suggested that risk factors influence the absence of constipation after ICH with the synergy of different weights. The occurrence of constipation likely affects a longer length of stay, but not in-hospital mortality. Future prospective investigations are warranted to validate our findings and identify the optimal management of constipation that may improve the quality of life in patients with ICH.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - June 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Brain Infarction MRI Pattern in Stroke Patients with Intracardiac Thrombus
Conclusions: ICT-related stroke is associated with acute SCCI presence on MRI.Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT04456309.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - June 17, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Mortality in Patients with Brainstem Cavernous Malformations
Conclusion: The BSCM-associated mortality rate in patients managed conservatively is almost as low as in patients treated surgically and much lower than in frequently cited reports, most probably due to the good selection nowadays in regard to surgery.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - June 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Deriving Place of Residence, Modified Rankin Scale, and EuroQol-5D Scores from the Medical Record for Stroke Survivors
Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - June 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Erratum
Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - June 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Clinical Significance of Hyperdense Area after Endovascular Therapy in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Conclusions: Our results indicated that the presence of hyperdense area on CT after thrombectomy was associated with high risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, poor functional outcome, as well as mortality in patients with AIS. However, further studies were needed to confirm these results. The meta-analysis was conducted in adherence with the PRISMA Statement and was registered at the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42020164165). To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first meta-analysis investigating the effect of hyperdense area after endovascular therapy in patients with AIS...
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - May 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Stroke Prevention: Little-Known and Neglected Aspects
Combining available therapies has the potential to reduce the risk of stroke by 80% or more. A comprehensive review of all aspects of stroke prevention would be very lengthy; in this narrative review, we focus on some aspects of stroke prevention that are little-known and/or neglected. These include the following: (1) implementation of a Mediterranean diet; (2) B vitamins to lower homocysteine; (3) coordinated approaches to smoking cessation; (4) intensive lipid-lowering therapy; (5) lipid lowering in the elderly; (6) physiologically individualized therapy for hypertension based on renin/aldosterone phenotyping; (7) avoidi...
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - May 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Progress-Defining Risk Factors for Stroke Prevention
Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - May 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Efficacy and Safety of Divaza for the Correction of Oxidative Disturbances in Patients with Cerebral Atherosclerosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Conclusions: Divaza is a safe and effective therapeutic option for attenuating OS and recovery of cognitive impairment in patients with cerebral atherosclerosis.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - May 27, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Bottlenecks in the Acute Stroke Care System during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Catalonia
Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic, Catalonia ’s stroke system’s weakest points were the delay to EMS alert and a decline of stroke code activations, reperfusion treatments, and interhospital transfers, mostly at local centers. Patients suffering an acute stroke during the pandemic period had higher odds of poor functional outcome and death . The complete stroke care system’s analysis is crucial to allocate resources appropriately.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - May 21, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Real-World Field Performance of the Los Angeles Motor Scale as a Large Vessel Occlusion Screen: A Prospective Muticentre Study
Conclusions: This real-world field study validates the LAMS as an effective tool for prehospital assessment of suspected strokes in determining transport decisions, with predictive validity for interventions performed.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - May 18, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Early Experience with Comaneci, a Newly FDA-Approved Controllable Assist Device for Wide-Necked Intracranial Aneurysm Coiling
Conclusions: Our initial experience shows that the Comaneci device is a promising and reliable tool that can safely support coil remodeling of WNAs.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - May 10, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Reply to the Letter by Chun et al: Response to Differential Risk Factors of Ischemic Stroke
Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - May 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Advances in Understanding the Pathogenesis of Lacunar Stroke: From Pathology and Pathophysiology to Neuroimaging
Lacunar stroke (LS) accounts for about one-quarter of all acute ischemic strokes, represents an important marker of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD), and has prognostic significance in terms of recurrent vascular events and vascular cognitive impairment. Our understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of LS is largely based on the meticulous postmortem work of C. Miller Fisher in the late 1960s, with scarce subsequent pathological analysis of the “lacunar hypothesis” and no reliable approaches for direct in vivo imaging of the small intracranial vessels. The recent development of high-resolution MRI, whi...
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - May 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Plaque Longitudinal Heterogeneity in Morphology, Property, and Mechanobiology
Conclusions: Correlations between the morphology and stresses suggest that arterial remodeling is a dynamic interaction between mechanical environment and plaque progression resulting in plaque heterogeneity. Our finding indicates that plaque heterogeneity is associated with plaque progression and can be combined with mechanical stresses for identifying high-risk plaques.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Impact of Procedure Time on Clinical Outcomes of Patients Who Underwent Endovascular Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke
Conclusions: Increasing procedure time was associated with less favorable outcomes, but not with the rate of mortality, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, or complications in our cohort.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - May 4, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Influence of the COVID-19 Pandemic in an Emergency Department for Cardio-Cerebrovascular Disease Visits in Taiwan
Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - May 3, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Secondary Prevention of Stroke: Study Protocol for a Telehealth-Delivered Physical Activity and Diet Pilot Randomized Trial (ENAbLE-Pilot)
Conclusion: This trial will produce evidence for the feasibility, safety, and potential effect of telehealth-delivered PA and DIET interventions for people with stroke. Results will inform development of an appropriately powered trial to test effectiveness to reduce major risk factors for recurrent stroke.Trial registration: ACTRN12620000189921.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - April 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Effect of Aging and Small-Vessel Disease Burden on Hematoma Location in Patients with Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Conclusion: Putaminal, thalamic, and lobar hemorrhages are prone to occur in specific ages and SVD states: putaminal in young patients, thalamic in old and high SVD burden patients, and lobar hemorrhages in old and low SVD burden patients. Susceptibility to bleeding with aging or severe SVD accumulation seems to differ considerably among brain locations.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - April 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Real-World Experience with Artificial Intelligence-Based Triage in Transferred Large Vessel Occlusion Stroke Patients
Conclusions: Preliminary results have shown that Viz LVO implementation is associated with earlier, more consistent NT notification times. This application can serve as an early warning system and a failsafe to ensure that no LVO is left behind.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - April 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The “Flying Intervention Team”: A Novel Stroke Care Concept for Rural Areas
Background: Endovascular treatment of large vessel occlusion in acute ischemic stroke patients is difficult to establish in remote areas, and time dependency of treatment effect increases the urge to develop health care concepts for this population.Summary: Current strategies include direct transportation of patients to a comprehensive stroke center (CSC) ( “mothership model”) or transportation to the nearest primary stroke center (PSC) and secondary transfer to the CSC (“drip-and-ship model”). Both have disadvantages. We propose the model “flying intervention team.” Patients will be tra...
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - April 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Defining Minor Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Conclusions: The definition of mICH using the NIHSS cutoff point of 6 for supratentorial ICH and 4 for infratentorial ICH is useful to identify good outcome in ICH patients.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - April 8, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Severity of Small Vessel Disease Biomarkers Reduces the Magnitude of Cognitive Recovery after Ischemic Stroke
Conclusion: The severity of SVD biomarkers, encompassing WMH and cSS, seems to reduce the magnitude of cognitive recovery after an IS. The detection of such SVD biomarkers early after stroke might help to identify patients with a cognitive vulnerability and a higher risk of poststroke cognitive impairment.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - April 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Appraising the Accuracy of Ischaemia-Modified Albumin in Diagnosing Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Conclusion: IMA is a helpful marker for consideration in the early diagnosis of stroke.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - March 31, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Left Atrial Appendage Flow Velocity and Multiple Infarcts in Cryptogenic Stroke
Conclusions: Reduced LAA-FV on TEE was associated with multiple infarcts in patients with cryptogenic stroke. The present findings indicate that cryptogenic stroke with multiple infarcts includes embolic stroke due to LAA dysfunction.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - March 30, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Clinical Outcome of Acute Ischemic Strokes in Patients with COVID-19
Conclusion: In this study, patients with AIS infected by SARS-CoV-2 showed a poorer early outcome than COVID − ones. However, when compared to other factors, COVID-19 was not a significant predictor of poor outcome. Vascular morbidity and mortality rates were significantly higher in the COVID+ group compared with the COVID− group.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - March 30, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Response to Differential Risk Factors of Ischemic Stroke
Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - March 29, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Stroke Angel: Effect of Telemedical Prenotification on In-Hospital Delays and Systemic Thrombolysis in Acute Stroke Patients
Conclusion: Although the positive effects of Stroke Angel in AIS provided a rationale for implementation in routine care, larger studies of practice implementation will be needed. Using Stroke Angel in the prehospital management of AIS impacts on important process measures of IVT delivery.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - March 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Clinical Significance of Cytotoxic Lesions of the Corpus Callosum in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patients: A Retrospective Analysis
Conclusions: The development of cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum may be related to the extent of hematomas in SAH patients. Although they are usually reversible lesions, the development of cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum may be a predictor of poor outcomes in SAH patients.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - March 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Risk Factors, and Clinical and Etiological Characteristics of Ischemic Strokes in COVID-19-Infected Patients: A Systematic Review of Literature
Conclusions: Ischemic strokes in COVID-19-infected patients were clinically severe, affecting younger patients mainly with Cry and cardioembolic etiologies. Further multicenter prospective registries are needed to better describe the causal association and the effect of COVID-19 infection on stroke.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - March 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Higher Mortality of Ischaemic Stroke Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19 Compared to Historical Controls
Conclusions: Ischaemic stroke patients with COVID-19 had significantly higher 60-day all-cause mortality compared to propensity score-matched historical controls (ischaemic stroke patients without COVID-19).Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - March 26, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association of Carotid Artery Endothelial Signal Intensity Gradient with Unilateral Large Artery Ischemic Stroke
Conclusion: Although CCA and ICA are located with continuity, the hemodynamics and their roles in large artery ischemic stroke should be considered separately. Further studies are needed to delineate the pathophysiologic roles of ESS in CCA and ICA for large artery ischemic stroke.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - March 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Differences in Acute Ischemic Stroke Management and Prognosis between Multiple Large-Vessel Occlusion and Single Large-Vessel Occlusion: Subanalysis of the RESCUE-Japan Registry 2
Conclusion: The prognosis of MLVO was significantly worse than that of SLVO. In different territories, we might be able to consider more aggressive EVT interventions.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - March 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Stroke Care during the COVID-19 Pandemic: International Expert Panel Review
This study, prepared by a large international panel of stroke experts, assesses the rapidly growing research and personal experience with COVID-19 stroke and offers recommendations for stroke management in this challenging new setting: modifications needed for prehospital emergency rescue and hyperacute care; inpatient intensive or stroke units; posthospitalization rehabilitation; follow-up including at-risk family and community; and multispecialty departmental developments in the allied professions.Summary: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 uses spike proteins binding to tissue angiotensin-converting enz...
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - March 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Source Type: research