Differential Risk Factors and Outcomes of Ischemic Stroke due to Cervical Artery Dissection in Young Adults
Conclusions: While history of migraine and neck manipulation are significantly associated with CeAD, most of the traditional vascular risk factors for stroke are less prevalent in this group when compared to strokes due to other etiologies. For CeAD-related strokes, higher initial stroke severity and history of tobacco use may be associated with higher stroke-related disability, but overall, patients with CeAD have similar outcomes as compared to strokes due to other etiologies.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - September 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Advanced Liver Fibrosis Predicts Unfavorable Long-Term Prognosis in First-Ever Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack
Conclusions: The burden of liver fibrosis is associated with unfavorable long-term prognosis, including recurrent IS, in first-ever IS or TIA.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - September 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Apolipoprotein B Level and the Apolipoprotein B/Apolipoprotein A-I Ratio as a Harbinger of Ischemic Stroke: A Prospective Observation in Taiwan
Conclusions: This cohort study demonstrates that apo B and the apo B/apo A-I ratio were a significant risk predictor of stroke. Furthermore, the predictive ability of apo B and the apo B/apo A-I ratio in stroke risk was better than routine clinical lipid measurements. Thus, measurements of apolipoproteins have superior clinical utility over traditional lipid measurements in identifying subjects at risk for ischemic stroke.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - September 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Dexamethasone in Patients with Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: An Updated Meta-Analysis
Conclusion: Clear evidence of a beneficial or negative effect of dexamethasone is still lacking. Modern RCTs or observational studies with propensity design are necessary to evaluate the efficacy and safety of treatment with dexamethasone in patients with ICH.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - September 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Statins Use and Outcome of Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients after Systemic Thrombolysis
Conclusion: Our study does not show any significant association between risk of sICH and poor outcome after IVT for patients on prior statin therapy. We also did not find significant association between the risk of sICH and poor outcome after IVT and the intensity of the stain used.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - September 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Silencing microRNA-210 in Hypoxia-Induced HUVEC-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Inhibits Hemangioma
Conclusion: Silencing miR-210 in HUVEC-derived EVs could suppress Hem by targeting HOXA9. This investigation may provide novel insights for Hem treatment.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - September 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Editorial
Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - August 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Publisher's Note
Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - August 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Mobile Stroke Unit in the UK Healthcare System: Avoidance of Unnecessary Accident and Emergency Admissions
Conclusion: This first deployment of an MSU in the UK NHS demonstrated improved triage decision-making for or against hospital admission and admission to the appropriate target ward, thereby reducing pressure on strained Aamp;E departments.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - August 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Index Admission Characteristics and All-Cause Readmissions Analysis in Younger and Older Adults with Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Conclusions: Adults #x3c;45 years with ICH had similar total comorbidities as older adults but more procedures, longer hospital stay, and more behavioral risk factors. Readmission rates were similar though reasons differed; younger patients were more for neurological reasons than for other systemic causes.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - August 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Prediction of Cerebral Hyperperfusion after Superficial Temporal Artery-Middle Cerebral Artery Anastomosis by Three-Dimensional-Time-of-Flight Magnetic Resonance Angiography in Adult Patients with Moyamoya Disease
Conclusion: The signal intensity of the intracranial major arteries, including the ACA, MCA, and PCA, on preoperative 3D-TOF MRA may identify adult MMD patients at higher risk for CHP after direct revascularization surgery.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - August 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Short-Term Air Pollution as a Risk for Stroke Admission: A Time-Series Analysis
We examined the impact of different air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NO2, ozone, and SO2) on admission for all strokes in two Irish urban centres from 2013 to 2017.Methods: Using an ecological time series design with Poisson regression models, we analysed daily hospitalisation for all strokes and is ­chaemic stroke by residence in Dublin or Cork, with air pollution level monitoring data with a lag of 0–2 days from exposure. Splines of temperature, relative humidity, day of the week, and time were included as confounders. Analysis was also performed across all four seasons. Data are presented as relative risks (RRs) a...
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - August 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Irisin Protects Brain against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury through Suppressing TLR4/MyD88 Pathway
Conclusion: Irisin plays a beneficial effect in I/R injury through regulating the TLR4/MyD88 pathway.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - August 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Modification of In-Hospital Recommendation and Prescription of Anticoagulants for Secondary Prevention of Stroke after Launch of Direct Oral Anticoagulants and Change of National Guidelines
Conclusions: Changing national guidelines with discard of contraindications for anticoagulation and the introduction of DOACs led to a broader recommendation of oral anticoagulation. However, both, new guidelines and DOACs, were not found to be associated with an increasing percentage of patients discharged from our hospital already on recommended anticoagulant prevention. This might be explained by the decreasing length of hospital stay during the study period and a missing evidence of early bleeding risk of DOACs in patients with acute brain infarction. Evidence-based data to close this therapeutic gap are needed.Cerebro...
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - August 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Three-Month Outcome of Carotid Artery Stenting in Patients with/without Coexistent Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms
Conclusions: In our large cohort of CAS patients, coexistent UIAs are not uncommon. Stenting of a carotid artery in the presence of coexistent UIAs could be conducted safely. Together with 3-month dual antiplatelet therapy, CAS did not increase the rupture risk of the coexistent UIAs within 3 months.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - August 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Early Anticoagulation or Antiplatelet Therapy Is Critical in Craniocervical Artery Dissection: Results from the COMPASS Registry
Conclusions: We report diagnostic characteristics, as well as short- and long-term outcomes of CeAD. A high MACE rate was observed within the first 2 weeks of CeAD diagnosis, notably in patients not initiated on anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - July 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Safety and Efficacy of Tirofiban in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Receiving Endovascular Treatment: A Meta-Analysis
Conclusions: Tirofiban is safe in AIS patients with ET and can significantly reduce mortality; preoperative tirofiban may be effective, but further studies are needed to confirm the efficacy.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - July 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Thin Slices and Maximum Intensity Projection Reconstructions Increase Sensitivity to Hyperdense Middle Cerebral Artery Sign in Acute Ischemic Stroke
Conclusion: MIP and thin slice reconstructions increased the sensitivity to HAS (73%), whereas thick slab reconstructions seemed to be less appropriate (45%).Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - July 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Brain Imaging Signs and Health-Related Quality of Life after Acute Ischemic Stroke: Analysis of ENCHANTED Alteplase Dose Arm
Conclusions: In thrombolysed AIS patients, right-sided and deep ischemia within the MCA territory predict poor overall HRQoL, whilst features of old cerebral ischemia are associated with reduced physical HRQoL.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - July 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effects of White Matter Hyperintensities on 90-Day Functional Outcome after Large Vessel and Non-Large Vessel Stroke
Conclusion: The burden of WMH has effects on 90-day functional outcome after LVO and non-LVO strokes. Particularly, increases from no measurable WMH to 4 mL of WMH correlate strongly with the outcome. Whether this relationship of increasing WMH to worse outcome is more pronounced in non-LVO than LVO strokes deserves additional investigation.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - July 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Stroke in COVID-19
Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - July 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Matching Selection of Donor-Recipient Vessels in Revascularization Surgery Effectively Reduce the Incidence of Postoperative Hyperperfusion Syndrome in Adult Moyamoya Disease: A Retrospective Comparison Study
Conclusions: The matching selection of donor-recipient vessels during revascularization surgery effectively reduces the incidence of postoperative CHS in adult patients with MMD.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - July 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Carotid Intraplaque Hemorrhage Is Associated with Cardiovascular Risk Factors
Conclusions: IPH is associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, in particular advanced age, male sex, presence of carotid stenosis, and HLD. Such risk factors likely play a role in the development of IPH and may provide insight into the pathophysiology of unstable carotid plaques.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - July 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

COVID-19 and Stroke: Casual or Causal Role?
We present a case of stroke in a 62-year-old COVID-19-positive patient, with multiple vascular risk factors. The patient arrived 1 h after onset of symptoms, was treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) with improvement of neurologic deficits, and later developed right foot arterial ischemia (recanalized by balloon catheter angioplasty) and left arm superficial venous thrombosis. A control computed tomography (CT) scan 7 days after onset showed hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic lesion without mass effect. However, respiratory and neurologic conditions improved so that the patient was discharged to ...
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - July 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Relationship between Presence of Visceral Infarction and Functional Outcome among Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke
Conclusions: We found that the presence of visceral infarction was associated with poor functional outcomes at the time of hospital discharge. These findings suggest that such findings are not necessarily benign and are at the least a marker of poor outcomes.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - July 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Intramural Hematoma Shape and Acute Cerebral Infarction in Intracranial Artery Dissection: A High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study
Conclusion: In patients with cerebral artery dissections, the shape of IMHs was independently associated with cerebral infarction. PIMHs may be more closely associated with cerebral infarctions than DIMHs.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - July 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Long-Term Complications and Influence on Outcome in Patients Surviving Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Conclusions: Long-term complications occur frequently after SAH and are associated with an impairment of functional and social outcomes. Further studies are warranted to investigate if treatment strategies specifically targeting these complications, including preventive aspects, may improve the outcomes after SAH.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - July 3, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Intravenous Thrombolysis Is Not Associated with Increased Time to Endovascular Treatment
Conclusion: Prior IVT did not delay door to groin times and was associated with higher rates of early recanalization, without increasing the risk of ICH. Our results do not warrant withholding IVT prior to EVT.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - July 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Intravenous Thrombolysis Guided by Perfusion CT with Alteplase in & #x3e;4.5 Hours from Stroke Onset
Conclusions: IVT in patients with WUS, SUKO, or stroke beyond #x3e;4.5 h from LSN, with salvageable brain tissue on CTP, seems to be safe and has similar functional outcomes at 90 days to the standard therapeutic window, even when combined with MT.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - July 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Intensive Blood Pressure Lowering in Patients with Moderate to Severe Grade Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage: Post Hoc Analysis of Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage (ATACH)-2 Trial
Conclusions: Intensive SBP lowering reduced thefrequency of hematoma expansion but did not reduce the rate of death or disability in patients with moderate to severe grade ICH.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - June 25, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Aeromedical Retrieval for Stroke in Australia
Conclusion: Stroke patients living in rural areas were younger than those living in major cities (75 years, Stroke Audit Data), with aeromedically retrieved Indigenous patients being a decade younger than non-Indigenous patients. The current transfer times are largely outside the time windows for reperfusion methods. Future research should aim to facilitate more timely diagnosis and treatment of stroke.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - June 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Frequency of Screening and Prevalence of Neurosyphilis in Stroke Population
Conclusion: Positive syphilis serology is frequent in patients with acute stroke/TIA in our region. Acute post-stroke CSF abnormalities make the diagnosis of NS difficult in the context of CSF VDRL negative.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - June 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Left Atrial Volume Index Predicts New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation and Stroke Recurrence in Patients with Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source
Conclusions: LAVi is associated with new-onset AF and stroke recurrence in ESUS patients and may be a better surrogate of atrial cardiopathy.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - June 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

New Insights in Neuroprotective Acute Stroke Treatment
Cerebrovasc Dis 2019;47:103 –104 (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - June 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Liver Fibrosis, Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Events in Stroke Patients
Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - June 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Collateral Automation for Triage in Stroke: Evaluating Automated Scoring of Collaterals in Acute Stroke on Computed Tomography Scans
In conclusion, ­e-CTA provides a real-time and fully automated approach to collateral scoring with the potential to improve consistency of image interpretation and to independently quantify collateral scores even without expert rater input.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - June 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Outcomes after Thrombectomy in Belfast: Mothership and Drip-and-Ship in the Real World
Conclusions: Our analysis showed similar outcomes after thrombectomy in the MS and DS groups. For patients potentially eligible for thrombectomy, rapid access to the endovascular centre is essential to optimise both the number of patients treated and the outcomes achieved.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - June 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Ivy Sign Predicts Ischemic Stroke Recurrence in Adult Moyamoya Patients without Revascularization Surgery
Conclusions: The ivy sign is associated with ischemic recurrence in adult MMD patients in a dose-response manner. It would be helpful for selecting high-risk patients who need revascularization surgery.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - June 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Influence of the Extent of Intraventricular Hemorrhage on Functional Outcome and Mortality in Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Conclusions: Small amounts of intraventricular blood (Graeb score ≤2) not leading to obstructive hydrocephalus are not associated with unfavorable outcome or death after ICH. Thus, IVH per se should not be considered a binary variable in outcome prediction for ICH patients.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - June 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Distal versus Proximal Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion: Different Mechanisms
Conclusion: Proximal MCAO is more frequently associated with atherosclerosis, whereas distal MCAO is more frequently associated with cardioembolism. In proximal MCAO, the status of collateral flow presented by hyperintense vessel sign may affect the involvement of BG. In distal MCAO, distal migration of the embolus, which first impacted at the proximal MCA causing BG ischemia, may explain the high rate of HT by reperfusion injury. Hyperintense vessel sign and distal MCAO were independently associated with neurological improvement during admission.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - June 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Relevance of Collaterals for the Success of Neuroprotective Therapies in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Insights from the Randomized URICO-ICTUS Trial
Conclusions: Collectively, the study found that collaterals were associated with the neuroprotective effect of uric acid therapy highlighting the importance of assessing collateral status in neuroprotection trials.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - June 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Incidence and Risk Factors of the Watershed Shift Phenomenon after Superficial Temporal Artery-Middle Cerebral Artery Anastomosis for Adult Moyamoya Disease
Conclusions: The incidence of the WS phenomenon was as high as 10.9% after STA-MCA anastomosis for adult MMD. The clinical outcome of the WS phenomenon is generally favorable, but there is a potential risk for perioperative cerebral infarction. Thus, we recommend routine CBF measurement in the acute stage after revascularization surgery for adult MMD to avoid surgical complications, such as local CHP and cerebral ischemia, caused by the WS phenomenon. Concomitant detection of the WS phenomenon with local CHP is clinically important because blood pressure reduction to counteract local CHP may have to be avoided in the prese...
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - May 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Sex-Related Differences in Management and Outcome of Acute Ischemic Stroke in Eligible Patients to Thrombolysis
Conclusions: We provided an exhaustive overview and real-life professional practices conditions in thrombolyzed AIS. Despite a later prehospital management in neurovascular units and more severe strokes at admission, women and men had both similar outcomes at hospital discharge and in 3-month survival, but women were associated to worst functional outcome at 3 months.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - May 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion for Secondary Stroke Prevention in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: Long-Term Results
Conclusion: Patients with prior stroke may be the preferred group for LAAC regardless of the presence or absence of contraindications for anticoagulant therapy. (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - May 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cerebral Vasospasm Due to Arteriovenous Malformation-Associated Hemorrhage: Impact of Bleeding Source and Pattern
Conclusion: SAH component and infratentorial location of ruptured AVMs may harbor a higher risk for CVS. Follow-up with angiographic imaging should be considered in patients with infratentorial AVM hemorrhage and delayed neurologic deterioration to rule out CVS.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - May 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Direct Admission versus Secondary Transfer for Acute Stroke Patients Treated with Intravenous Thrombolysis and Thrombectomy: Insights from the Endovascular Treatment in Ischemic Stroke Registry
Conclusions: Our study suggests that LVO stroke patients directly admitted to a comprehensive stroke center present a higher chance of functional independence, especially when the distance between the primary stroke center and comprehensive stroke center is #x3e;12.5 miles or when the time between cerebral imaging and groin puncture is ≥140 min.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - May 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Finger-Like Projections in Lobar Haemorrhage on Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging Is Associated with Probable Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy
Conclusions: In acute LH patients, FLP and SAHE on acute/early subacute phase MRI are associated with probable CAA diagnosis. Larger LH volumes are associated with FLP and SAHE on MRI, and early performed MRI with FLP.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - May 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Daily Habit of Water Intake in Patients with Cerebral Infarction before its Onset; Comparison with a Healthy Population: A Cross-Sectional Study
Conclusion: This study showed that daily NAD intake before CI onset in CI patients was less than that in healthy persons, indicating that sufficient intake of NAD may be protective for CI.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - May 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Age- and Sex-Specific Risk Profiles and In-Hospital Mortality in 13,932 Spanish Stroke Patients
Conclusion: Although most of our findings were consistent with previous studies, it is important to take into account and highlight differences in in-hospital mortality between the sex and age group. Not to account for age-related differences between the sexes can give false results that may mislead management decisions. As most deaths in women were related to stroke, it is important to improve their early management, stroke code activation, access to stroke units and/or revascularisation therapies, especially in the older age groups.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - May 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Genotype-Phenotype Correlation in Long-Term Cohort of Japanese Patients with Moyamoya Disease
Conclusions: The p.R4810K founder variant ofRNF213 affects the phenotype at disease onset. However, the optimal revascularization may be effective, regardless of the genotype, even for the homozygous variant, which has been thought to be the most pathogenic. This genotype may not strongly influence the long-term clinical manifestations or poor prognosis in MMD.Cerebrovasc Dis (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases)
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - April 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research